The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (August 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Produced by Marvel Studios since 2008, under the ownership of the Walt Disney Company since 2009, the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is a media franchise, with over 29 films and 19 television series already produced. Operating with shared universe storytelling, the media franchise has had significant commercial success has largely received positive critical reviews.[1][2] However, the MCU has received criticism, including from a number of high-profile filmmakers, particularly centered around its impact on filmmaking, its representation of women and LGBT+ characters, whitewashing, as well as its relationship with the American military.[3][4][5]

Revenue

See also: List of highest-grossing media franchises

As of June 2022, the MCU is the highest-grossing film franchise in history, having made over 26 billion dollars in box-office revenue across all its films, more than twice the amount made by the second largest franchise, Star Wars.[6] In 2021, the MCU comprised around 30% of the total box office revenue in North America, up from 18% in 2018.[7] The lowest-grossing MCU film is The Incredible Hulk (2008), which made $264.7 million, whereas the highest-grossing film is Avengers: Endgame (2019), which grossed $2.8 billion.[8]

Accolades

Main article: List of accolades received by Marvel Cinematic Universe films

Films and series within the franchise have received a number of awards and other accolades. They have been nominated for 135 Saturn Awards, winning 36, as well as 12 Hugo Awards, winning two. In 2019, Black Panther became the first superhero film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, winning three at the 91st Academy Awards.

Impact on filmmaking

The MCU has been credited with the popularisation of the shared universe in film. In 2012, Tom Russo of Boston.com stated in response to the release of The Avengers that "you don’t hear 'universe' much in the film industry."[9] In 2014, Tuna Amobi of Standard & Poor's Equity Research Services stated that there had been a shift in the last five years towards the creation of megafranchises, due largely to the success of the MCU, as "Disney has proved that this can be a gold mine."[10] According to the Business Review at University of California, Berkeley, the franchise has helped create a new wave in Hollywood, where filmmaking is domianted by "franchises/sequels that rely on the overall brand, rather than star-power in standalone films."[11]

A number of critics have proposed that the franchise has had a deleterious effect on filmmaking, particularly in leading towards a film industry that places less emphasis on creating original stories and more emphasis on creating blockbuster franchises based around selling content related to an intellectual property.[12][13][14][15][16] Film journalist Ian Leslie has stated that Hollywood increasingly "thinks about films in the same way" as the MCU, which is to say as "the primary building blocks of multi-story, multimedia universes," adding that "everyone would like to emulate the Marvel model but nobody has done so on the same scale."[17] Colin Yeo of the University of Western Australia has said that the franchise "represents the apex of big budget filmmaking," arguing that "shared universe franchises represent an ultimate form of commercialization" due to their ability to exploit brand loyalty beyond just the films themselves.[18]

In a 2019 interview, filmmaker Martin Scorsese criticized the MCU as "not cinema," later elaborating in an article in The New York Times that he felt there was no risk in the franchise as "everything in them is officially sanctioned... market-researched, audience-tested, vetted, modified, revetted and remodified until they're ready for consumption."[19] A number of other high profile filmmakers have leveled similar criticism against the franchise, including Denis Villeneuve, who stated that there were "too many Marvel movies that are nothing more than a 'cut and paste' of others," Ken Loach, who called the franchise a "cynical exercise" designed to make "a commodity which will make a profit for a big corporation," and Francis Ford Coppola, who argued that "I don't know that anyone gets anything out of seeing the same movie over and over again."[20]

However, Scorsese's comments provoked significant debate, with the Russo brothers stating that "we define cinema as a film that can bring people together to have a shared, emotional experience," and with James Gunn arguing that "many of our grandfathers thought all gangster movies were the same... Superheroes are simply today's gangsters/cowboys/outer space adventurers."[21][22] Alex Abad-Santos of Vox argued that there was a risk of conflating the impact of the MCU as a whole on the filmmaking industry with the quality of the individual films within the MCU, adding that "the emotional connections that Marvel fans forged with its characters are earnest and telling."[23] Raul Velasquez of GameRant has argued that "Disney's corporate consolidation has not changed blockbuster movies as much as it has centralized them."[24] J.D. Connor of the University of Southern California has argued that "mega-conglomeration" of Hollywood franchises is a trend that started before the MCU, with the Telecommunications Act of 1996 in particular.[25][26]

Criticism

Business practices

Damon Young of the University of Melbourne has argued that "the vast Marvel Cinematic Universe was built by low-waged, precarious labour."[27] The franchise has criticism from visual effects artists for poor working conditions, including understaffing, low pay, and bad management.[28] Writing in Vulture.com, one artist who had worked on MCU productions stated that they had worked "seven days a week, averaging 64 hours a week on a good week," and that the demanded "regular changes way in excess of what any other client does," elaborating that "maybe a month or two before a movie comes out, Marvel will have us change the entire third act."[29]

In 2021, actor Scarlett Johansson, who played Black Widow in the MCU, filed a lawsuit against Disney over the simultaneous release of the titular Black Widow film in both theaters and on streaming service Disney+. The lawsuit alleged that this had breached her contract and had blocked her from receiving a bonus from box-office profits.[30][31] The lawsuit was settled later in 2021.[32]

The franchise has also faced criticism for its business practices regarding comic book creators.[33][34] Joe Casey, one of the creators of character America Chavez, has stated that there were "systemic flaws in the way that creators are neither respected nor rewarded," pointing in particular to the use of Chavez in Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness (2022), for which he had received no compensation.[35]

Style

The MCU has faced criticism for the similarity in style between its movies, with some critics saying that it is overly homogenous.[36] Dais Johnston of Inverse has states that "the 'Marvel movie' has become its own genre, an archetype for polished, epic, action-packed, films filled with one-liners. Despite some aesthetic differences, each MCU movie slots into this style with little to no resistance."[37] However, others have defended the style of the franchise as valuable for its own cultural niche.[38] Omer M. Mozaffar of Loyola University Chicago has argued that "sometimes, after a long week, I need a giant crowd-pleasing spectacle that entertains me," saying that even if the franchise was not challenging, "there is an optimism that permeates all the films."[39]

The franchise has further faced criticism for the size of the shared universe, with some critics contending that it has become confusing and that the increasing level of interconnectivity makes the franchise less easily accessible for new viewers.[40][41][42][43][44] However, Dais Johnston of Inverse has argued that the concept of "Marvel homework" is a myth, saying that "there's no need to get so caught up in the interconnection between them that we can't enjoy them as fully formed stories in their own right."[45]

The franchise had also faced criticism for the large amount of releases, with some critics arguing that its has put itself at risk of oversaturation or of "Marvel fatigue."[46][47][48][49] Phase One of the MCU, which lasted from 2008 to 2012, saw the release of six films, whereas Phase Four saw the release of four films and five television series in 2021 alone.[50] However, Peter Suderman of Vox has stated that the MCU has showcased a high "level of both consistency and quality," and Julia Alexander of The Verge has argued that the risk faced by the MCU is not fatigue, but trust, saying that Marvel's "greatest asset" was being able to ensure "quantity without losing the overarching story thread."[51][52]

Several critics have also argued that the MCU is "sexless" or as lacking in their portrayal of realistic romantic relationships, including Paul Verhoeven and Steven Soderbergh.[53][54][55][56][57] Joshua Rivera of Polygon described romances in the MCU as "conservative" and having a tendency to avoid "even the tamest signs of affection."[58] In an essay titled Everyone Is Beautiful and No One Is Horny, science fiction writer RS Benedict argued that the MCU was among films that did not portray bodies as "a home to live in and be happy" but as "investments, which must always be optimized," comparing it to McMansions.[59]

Representation of women

The MCU has faced some criticism for its portrayal of women, particularly the lack of female characters in the first three phases of the franchise.[60][61][62][63][64][65] Captain Marvel (2019) was the first female-led film in the franchise and the 21st film to be released in the franchise.[66]

Rebecca Wright of Cardiff University has argued that the films are "occasionally marred with a sense of humour that tends toward displays of toxic masculinity and casual misogyny" and that the "female Avengers are still constrained by emotional or romantic responsibility to their colleagues."[67] Gita Jackson of Vice has argued that most female characters in the franchise tend to be arcs centered on "their roles as daughters or as people who can't bear daughters."[68]

However, the franchise has also received positive reviews for an increasingly better portrayal of women. Ben Child of The Guardian has stated that watching the MCU catalog "is an experience in which we can almost see the base point of gender politics shifting before our very eyes."[69]

LGBT+ representation

The franchise has been criticised by some as having poor representation of the LGBT+ community, including for a lack of queer characters.[70][71][72][73] Avengers: Endgame (2019) the penultimate film of Phase 3, was the first film of the MCU in which a character was portrayed as queer on-screen with an unnamed character portrayed as a grieving gay man in a single scene.[74] The 2021 Loki series became the first in which the lead character was portrayed as queer on-screen.[75]

The franchise has also been criticized for queerbaiting, in particular for hinting at characters being queer and promoting the franchise to the LGBT+ community without depicting those characters being queer on-screen and for heavily promoting the small scenes where characters are confirmed queer instead of dedicating substantial time on-screen to depicting those characters as queer.[76][77][78] In a Swansea University panel, writer Russell T Davies argued that "Loki makes one reference to being bisexual once, and everyone's like, 'Oh my god, it's like a pansexual show.' It's like one word... and we're meant to go, 'Thank you, Disney!"[79][80] At the Thor: Love and Thunder London premiere Q&A, in response to the question "How gay will the film be?" director Taika Waititi exclaimed that it would be "super gay"; some critics and moviegoers who saw the film expressed disappointment that the film, in their view, did not reflect this statement.[81][82][83][84]

Whitewashing

The franchise has faced accusations of whitewashing, particularly for the characters of Wanda Maximoff, Pietro Maximoff, and the Ancient One.[85][86][87][88][89]

The franchise has also faced criticism for a lack of diversity, both in terms of characters and in terms of production staff.[90][91][92][93] Of the first 23 MCU films, only two were directed by people of color and only one by a woman.[94] In 2020, Sam Wilson actor Anthony Mackie stated that "it really bothered me that I've done seven Marvel movies where every producer, every director, every stunt person, every costume designer, every PA, every single person has been white."[95]

Relationship with the military

See also: Military-entertainment complex

A number of MCU films have been produced in collaboration with the American military, including access to military equipment and technical advice, in promotional campaigns, as well as in editing some script sequences.[96][97] Steve Rose of The Guardian has written that the relationship between the MCU was strong throughout Phase One, until The Avengers (2012), which depicted a nuclear missile strike on New York, but that the relationship was mended by the release of Captain Marvel (2019).[98][99] The role of the military in the MCU's production has raised concerns, with Akin Olla of The Guardian arguing that the MCU risked effectively being "propaganda that aims to sugarcoat the crimes of [the American] military and intelligence apparatuses."[100][101][102][103][104][105] Roger Stahl of the University of Georgia described the American military's role in Captain Marvel as "recruiting, they're rehabilitating the image of the Air Force, and they're appealing to an elusive but desirable demographic."[106][107] In a 2019 paper in Studies in Popular Culture, Brett Pardy of McGill University argued that, even as the MCU downplayed explicit militarization:

S.H.I.E.L.D. and the Avengers, along with most of Hollywood's militainment, present a liberal fantasy of the military. They are effective and disciplined but not to the point of being dehumanized, interchangeable soldiers. They can be lethal but only to those who "deserve it." Their technology is advanced, functional, and accurate. In very exceptional circumstances, torture may be necessary, but it is always effective and reveals information, unlike in reality. These traits foster the perception of a "clean war," framing it in a way that makes it easier to obtain public support.[108]

However, Guardians of the Galaxy (2014) director James Gunn has rejected claims that the Marvel needs formal approval from the American military for scripts, stating that "when a film uses military assets for free those specific scripts have to get military approval to make sure the military isn't disparaged," and adding that "the military is pretty loose about it."[109] A 2020 paper from the Pontifical University of Salamanca found that "the representation of defense agencies and their institutions throughout the MCU films has an uneven nature," saying that portrayals of institutional corruption have risen in the MCU since Phase 1, but that portrayals of real military and law enforcement institutional has mostly disappeared in favor of fictional institutions such as S.H.I.E.L.D..[110] Dais Johnston of Inverse has argued that "as long as Captain America remains in canon, American patriotism in the MCU will be tied to the Avengers," but that the portrayal of systemic issues facing military veterans in The Falcon and the Winter Soldier (2021) was "hopefully the first step in a long process of undoing the decade of Marvel mythology surrounding military life."[111]

References

  1. ^ "How Marvel took over cinema and TV". The Economist. September 17, 2021. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  2. ^ Harrison, Spencer; Carlsen, Arne; Škerlavaj, Miha (July 2019). "Marvel's Blockbuster Machine". Harvard Business Review.
  3. ^ O'Regan, Jack (January 28, 2017). "Marvel: 15 Huge Problems No One Wants to Admit About the MCU". Screen Rant. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  4. ^ Sandwell, Ian (September 11, 2019). "7 of Marvel's biggest ever controversies in the MCU". Digital Spy. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  5. ^ Ward, Nisha (August 14, 2020). "Bad Politics of Marvel Movies from a Non-U.S. Perspective". The Mary Sue. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  6. ^ "World's highest-grossing movie franchises as of 2022". Statistia. Retrieved July 31, 2022.
  7. ^ Plant, Logan (January 4, 2022). "Marvel Movies Accounted for 30% of the Domestic Box Office for 2021". IGN. Retrieved July 27, 2022.
  8. ^ Clark, Travis (May 16, 2022). "All 28 Marvel Cinematic Universe movies, ranked by how much money they made at the global box office". Business Insider. Retrieved July 27, 2022.
  9. ^ Russo, Tom (April 25, 2012). "Super Group". Boston.com. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014.
  10. ^ Vilkomerson, Sara (April 8, 2014). "Inside 'The Amazing Spider-Man 2' – And Sony's strategy to supersize its franchise". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on April 10, 2014. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
  11. ^ "The Economics behind the Marvel Cinematic Universe - Business Review at Berkeley". Business Review at Berkeley - Uc Berkeley's Leading Undergraduate Business Journal. November 15, 2019.
  12. ^ Marlborough, Patrick (June 3, 2022). "The Marvel Cinematic Universe Isn't Art". Vice. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  13. ^ Jericho, Greg (November 22, 2021). "No dramas: Superhero movies and their opening weekend cash cows crowd out realistic films". The Guardian. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  14. ^ Alexander, David (September 15, 2021). "Disney+ is killing the blockbuster movie with its identikit mega-hits". The Guardian. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  15. ^ Marx, Paris (October 22, 2021). "Don't Give in to the Culture Industry's Appeals to Nostalgia". Jacobin. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  16. ^ Rose, Steve (April 5, 2021). "Are promising female auteurs getting trapped in the franchise machine?". The Guardian. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  17. ^ Leslie, Ian (July 28, 2021). "How Marvel conquered culture". New Statesman. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  18. ^ Yeo, Colin (June 14, 2017). "Will the superhero films ever end? The business of blockbuster movie franchises". The Conversation. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  19. ^ Scorsese, Martin (November 5, 2019). "Opinion | Martin Scorsese: I Said Marvel Movies Aren't Cinema. Let Me Explain". The New York Times.
  20. ^ Nolan, Emma (September 17, 2021). "9 film directors who have spoken out against Marvel movies". Newsweek. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  21. ^ Cordero, Rosy (November 17, 2017). "Here's what Marvel directors and stars are saying about Martin Scorsese's MCU criticism". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  22. ^ Sandwell, Ian (November 5, 2019). "The "anti-Marvel" debate is having an ironic, opposite effect". Digital Spy. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  23. ^ Abad-Santos, Alex (November 8, 2019). "Martin Scorsese's fight against Marvel isn't really about Marvel movies". Vox. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  24. ^ Velasquez, Raul (December 6, 2021). "Criticisms of Marvel Actually Apply to All Blockbuster Filmmaking". Gamerant. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  25. ^ Lynch, David (November 12, 2021). "What if the Marvel Cinematic Universe didn't exist?". Inverse. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  26. ^ Makalintal, Bettina (October 21, 2021). "Old Dudes in Hollywood Really Hate the Marvel Universe". Vice. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  27. ^ Young, Damon (February 6, 2020). "Friday essay: Hail Hydra – on comics, ethics and politics". The Conversation. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  28. ^ "VFX Community Slams Marvel Studios over Working Conditions". Collider. July 11, 2022.
  29. ^ "I'm a VFX Artist, and I'm Tired of Getting 'Pixel-F–ked' by Marvel". July 26, 2022.
  30. ^ Flint, Joe; Schwartzel, Erich (July 29, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson Sues Disney Over 'Black Widow' Streaming Release". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on July 29, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  31. ^ Vlessing, Etan (July 30, 2021). "CAA Co-Chair: Disney "Shamelessly" Attacked Scarlett Johansson Over Lawsuit". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
  32. ^ Pulver, Andrew (October 2021). "Scarlett Johansson settles Black Widow lawsuit with Disney". The Guardian. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  33. ^ Robertson, Adi (September 24, 2021). "Disney sues to keep its Avengers copyrights assembled". The Verge. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  34. ^ Thielman, Sam (August 9, 2021). "Marvel and DC face backlash over pay: 'They sent a thank you note and $5,000 – the movie made $1bn'". The Guardian. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  35. ^ Steiner, Chelsea (April 9, 2022). "Marvel Continues to Bilk Comics Creators Out of MCU Profits". The Mary Sue. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  36. ^ Doyle, Sady (May 12, 2015). "Age of Ultron is Proof Marvel is Killing the Popcorn Movie". Wired. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  37. ^ Johnston, Dais (July 15, 2020). "20 years later, 'X-Men' exposes the biggest flaw of Marvel movies". Inverse. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  38. ^ Cheung, Kylie (May 9, 2022). "Like Elizabeth Olsen, I Also Get 'Feisty' Defending Marvel". Jezebel. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  39. ^ Mozaffar, Omer M. (November 11, 2019). "Not defending the Marvel Cinematic Universe". rogerebert.com. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  40. ^ Edwards, Phil (October 15, 2018). "Why the Marvel Cinematic Universe feels empty". Vox. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  41. ^ Jasper, Gavin (April 30, 2022). "The Marvel Cinematic Multiverse is Deeply Flawed". Den of Geek. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  42. ^ Walpole, Luke (November 4, 2021). "Is the Marvel Cinematic Universe lost in space?". The Guardian. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  43. ^ Delbel, Julia (October 12, 2021). "Forget "Superhero Fatigue." What About Interconnected Universe Fatigue?". The Mary Sue. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  44. ^ Jurgensen, John (May 12, 2022). "'Doctor Strange' Sequel Has Moviegoers Doing Homework. Is That Marvel's Problem or its Superpower?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  45. ^ Johnston, Dais (May 9, 2022). "'Doctor Strange 2' finally disproves the MCU fandom's most annoying myth". Inverse. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  46. ^ Steven Zeitchik (July 21, 2021) [2021-07-20]. "With 'Black Widow' ticket buying suddenly drying up, growing questions for Disney's Marvel about what did it in". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. ISSN 0190-8286. OCLC 1330888409.
  47. ^ McFarland, Melanie (May 6, 2022). "Why am I not over the moon to see "Doctor Strange"? Because I'm drowning in Marvel". Salon. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  48. ^ Heritage, Stuart (August 14, 2019). "'Drabness incarnate!' Are we finally suffering from Marvel fatigue?". The Guardian. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  49. ^ Carter, Justin (June 30, 2022). "Is the Marvel Cinematic Universe Trying Too Hard to Play Catch Up?". Gizmodo. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  50. ^ Chaney, Jen (November 24, 2021). "Hawkeye Closes Out an Exhausting Year in Marvel TV". Vulture. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  51. ^ Suderman, Peter (May 9, 2016). "How Marvel built such an impressive movie universe". Vox. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  52. ^ Alexander, Julia (January 14, 2021). "As WandaVision arrives, Marvel Studios is about to enter a never-ending cycle". The Verge. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  53. ^ Arvedon, Jon (April 12, 2022). "Paul Verhoeven Slams Marvel, Modern Bond Films as 'Sexless'". CBR. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  54. ^ Sharf, Zack (February 7, 2022). "Steven Soderbergh Calls Out Superhero Movies' Lack of Sex: 'Nobody's F—ing!'". Variety. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  55. ^ Rittenberg, Julia (December 1, 2021). "Why Are MCU Superhero Movies Sexless?". Bookriot. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  56. ^ Newland, Christina (November 5, 2021). "Why Hollywood is shunning sex". BBC. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  57. ^ Damore, Megan (February 6, 2015). "'Scriptnotes' and sex columnist Dan Savage discuss the problem with Marvel's sexless superheroes". CBR. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  58. ^ Rivera, Joshua (April 22, 2021). "An investigation into Marvel movies' noticeable lack of kissing". Polygon. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  59. ^ Benedict, RS (February 14, 2021). "Everyone is Beautiful and No One is Horny". Blood Knife. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  60. ^ Stahler, Kelsea (July 12, 2021). "Never Forget, Marvel Owed Black Widow Her Solo Movie". Refinery29. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  61. ^ Komonibo, Ineye (June 21, 2021). "Looking Back, Scarlett Johansson Definitely Thinks Black Widow Was Overly Sexualized in the MCU". Refinery29. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  62. ^ Chambers, Amy C. (August 13, 2018). "There's a reason Siri, Alexa and AI are imagined as female – sexism". The Conversation. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  63. ^ Darom, Naomi (August 13, 2019). "Commentary: The sexist demand on female superheroes: Save the world and look hot". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  64. ^ Baker-Whitelaw, Gavia (May 10, 2022). "How 'Doctor Strange 2' failed Scarlet Witch by telling yet another sexist Marvel story". The Daily Dot. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  65. ^ Yamato, Jen (April 28, 2015). "The Avengers' Black Widow Problem: How Marvel Slut-Shamed Their Most Badass Superheroine". The Daily Beast.
  66. ^ Pallota, Frank (September 18, 2018). "'Captain Marvel' debuts first trailer". CNN. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  67. ^ Wright, Rebecca (May 23, 2018). "Simply putting women on screen won't be enough to sustain Marvel post-Avengers". The Conversation. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  68. ^ Jackson, Gita (May 18, 2022). "It's Hard to be a Woman in the MCU". Vice. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  69. ^ Child, Ben (June 17, 2021). "Scarlett Johansson and a decade of gender politics in the Marvel universe". The Guardian. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  70. ^ Yehl, Joshua (June 26, 2019). "Marvel's Kevin Feige Responds to Gay Controversy in Avengers: Endgame". IGN. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  71. ^ Pollard, Alexandra (May 3, 2019). "Marvel doesn't deserve a pat on the back for Avengers: Endgame – it ignored queer people for too long". The Independent. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  72. ^ Zane, Zachary (November 6, 2017). "Analysis | 'Thor's' Valkyrie is Marvel's first LGBT character. But you wouldn't know it from the film". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
  73. ^ Whitbrook, James (June 18, 2021). "Falcon and Winter Soldier's Lack of Queer Rep Isn't on Anthony Mackie". Gizmodo. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  74. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (April 25, 2019). "'Avengers: Endgame' Directors Joe & Anthony Russo Address Inclusion Of First Openly Gay Character In Marvel Superhero Film". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 26, 2019. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  75. ^ Vary, Adam B. (June 23, 2021). "On 'Loki,' the Marvel Cinematic Universe Finally Gets Its First Major Queer Character – But Should We Be Celebrating?". Variety. Archived from the original on June 23, 2021.
  76. ^ Monteil, Abby (July 8, 2021). "It's Time for Marvel to Put up or Shut up on LGBTQ+ Representation". Them. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  77. ^ Opie, David (March 26, 2021). "Is Falcon and the Winter Soldier queer or queer-baiting?". Digital Spy. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  78. ^ Jay, Shelly (June 30, 2021). "What Should Queer Representation in the MCU Even Look Like?". The Nerdist. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  79. ^ Kumar, Naveen (August 11, 2021). "Russell T. Davies Blasts "Loki" Bisexual Reveal as "Pathetic"". Them. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  80. ^ Rooke, Chris (July 1, 2021). "Loki may be bisexual but is Marvel still guilty of queerbaiting?". GCN. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  81. ^ Murphy, Chris (July 8, 2022). "So, How Gay Is 'Thor: Love and Thunder,' Really?". Vanity Fair. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  82. ^ Bevan, Rhiannon (July 8, 2022). "Thor: Love And Thunder Comes Under Fire For Queerbaiting". TheGamer. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  83. ^ Cheung, Kylie (July 8, 2022). "'Thor: Love and Thunder' Could Have Been Gayer, Honestly". Jezebel. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  84. ^ Jaworski, Michelle (July 8, 2022). "Taika Waititi and Natalie Portman called out for over-hyping the queerness in 'Thor: Love and Thunder'". The Daily Dot. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  85. ^ Abad-Santos, Alexander (October 3, 2013). "The Problem With 'The Avengers' Casting Scarlet Witch as a Blonde". The Atlantic.
  86. ^ "Marvel Cinematic Universe Needs to Deal With Whitewashing Problem". September 25, 2018.
  87. ^ Baker-Whitelaw, Gavia (February 12, 2021). "The complicated history of Marvel whitewashing Scarlet Witch". The Daily Dot. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  88. ^ Bricken, Rob (April 26, 2016). "Marvel's Attempts to Justify Dr. Strange's Whitewashing Are Getting Insulting". Gizmodo. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
  89. ^ Yee, Lawrence (November 4, 2016). "Asian Actors in Comic Book Films Respond to 'Doctor Strange' Whitewashing Controversy". Variety. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
  90. ^ Abdulbaki, Mae (June 12, 2020). "Marvel Studios has a major diversity problem. That needs to change". Inverse. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  91. ^ Kapoor, Tarunika (June 14, 2021). "Marvel in Color: The Evolution of Racial Diversity within the MCU". Berkeley Fiction Review. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  92. ^ Small, Gretchen (March 15, 2019). "White hero, sidekick of color: Why Marvel needs to break the cycle". The Guardian. Retrieved July 20, 2022.
  93. ^ Rodriguez, Desiree (May 11, 2016). "How Diverse is the Marvel Cinematic Universe? The Movies: Phase One". The Nerds of Color. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  94. ^ Lee, Christina (May 31, 2021). "'I didn't have a superhero that looked like me': Marvel's new female, culturally diverse and queer protagonists mirror our times". The Conversation. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  95. ^ Sharf, Zack (June 29, 2020). "Anthony Mackie: 'It's Racist' for 'Black Panther' to be the Only MCU Film with Black Crew". IndieWire. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  96. ^ Baron, Reuben (March 16, 2019). "The MCU's Relationship with the Military, from Iron Man to Captain Marvel". CBR. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  97. ^ Pawlyk, Oriana (January 5, 2020). "'Captain Marvel' Effect? Air Force Academy Sees Most Female Applicants in 5 Years". Military.com. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  98. ^ Rose, Steve (May 26, 2022). "Top Gun for hire: Why Hollywood is the US military's best wingman". The Guardian. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  99. ^ Ackerman, Spencer (May 7, 2012). "Pentagon Quit the Avengers Because of Its 'Unreality'". Wired. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  100. ^ Olla, Akin (March 9, 2021). "Is WandaVision ... Pentagon propaganda?". The Guardian. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  101. ^ Henley, Stacey (March 23, 2021). "MCU Action Scenes Are Back, and So is Tacit Acceptance of Militarism". TheGamer. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  102. ^ Baker-Whitelaw, Gavia (March 2019). "Is 'Captain Marvel' military propaganda?". The Daily Dot. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  103. ^ Saveliev, David (November 9, 2021). "New Marvel film puts spotlight on Hollywood's military ties". The New Arab. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  104. ^ Chilton, Louis (October 28, 2021). "If this mega Chinese blockbuster is propaganda, what are Bond and Captain Marvel?". The Independent. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  105. ^ Jenkins, Tricia; Secker, Tom (2020). "Battling for the Future of Space in Superhero Movies: NASA, the United States Space Force, the Avengers and Captain Marvel". The Journal of American Culture. 43 (4): 285–299. doi:10.1111/jacc.13205. S2CID 228886431.
  106. ^ Braslow, Samuel (March 9, 2019). "Captain Marvel's Feminism is All Tangled up with Military Boosterism". Los Angeles. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  107. ^ Moore, Emma (March 21, 2019). "The Necessary Impact of Captain Marvel on the Military". Military.com. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  108. ^ Pardy, Brett (2019). "The Militarization of Marvel's Avengers". Studies in Popular Culture. 42 (1): 103–122. JSTOR 26926334.
  109. ^ Northrup, Ryan (October 28, 2021). "James Gunn Explains Marvel's Relationship with Military & Script Approval". Screen Rant. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
  110. ^ Medina-Contreras, Juan; Sangro-Colón, Pedro (2020). "Representation of defense organizations in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (2008–2019)". Communication & Society. 33 (4): 19–32. doi:10.15581/003.33.4.19-32. S2CID 229250462.
  111. ^ Johnston, Dais (March 29, 2021). "'Falcon and Winter Soldier' is finally fixing one thing the MCU screwed up". Inverse. Retrieved July 21, 2022.