Red Bank was formed as a town on March 17, 1870, from parts of Shrewsbury Township. On February 14, 1879, Red Bank became Shrewsbury City, part of Shrewsbury Township; this lasted until May 15, 1879, when Red Bank regained its independence. On March 10, 1908, Red Bank was formed as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature and was set off from Shrewsbury Township. The borough was named for the red soil along the Navesink River.
Red Bank has been occupied by indigenous peoples for thousands of years. The area of modern-day Red Bank was the territory of the Algonquian-speaking LenapeNative Americans, also called the Delaware by the English. The Lenape lived in the area between the Navesink River and the Shrewsbury River in an area they called Navarumsunk. The Native Americans traded freely with European settlers from England and the Dutch Republic in the mid-17th century, who purchased land in the area.
Originally part of "Shrewsbury Towne", Red Bank was named in 1736, when Thomas Morford sold Joseph French "a lot of over three acres on the west side of the highway that goes to the red bank". English colonists settled Red Bank beginning in the 17th century and it became a center for shipbuilding. Its population grew rapidly after 1809, when regularly scheduled passenger ships were established to serve the route to Manhattan.
By 1844, Red Bank had become a commercial and manufacturing center, focused on textiles, tanning, furs, and other goods for sale in Manhattan. With the dredging of the Navesink River about 1845, Red Bank became a port from which steamboats transported commuters to work in Manhattan. Red Bank grew in size as a result, and because the Raritan and Delaware Bay Railroad constructed a railway in the town in 1860.
In the 20th century, Red Bank was a strong cultural, economic, and political center in Monmouth County until it was hindered by the economic recession that began in 1987. During this time, its economy, based largely on retail commerce, was in decline, due to a real estate scandal. Local pundits and urban planners referred to the town as "Dead Bank".
Beginning in approximately 1991, under the New Jersey Development and Redevelopment Law, the borough authorized the creation of the Red Bank RiverCenter to manage redevelopment in what was designated as a special improvement district. RiverCenter retains authority over the management and redevelopment of a defined central business district, which includes Broad Street from the post office to Marine Park and from Maple Avenue to one block east of Broad Street. A number of urban redevelopment projects have taken place, including improved signage, distinctive and pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and lighting, a coherent design plan for Main Street and other major thoroughfares, and improving the condition of parking lots with landscaping.
The district as originally proposed was larger, to include the commercial areas west of Maple Avenue, including the antique buildings, The Galleria, and Shrewsbury Avenue. But some property owners in this area opposed paying the special assessment. Plans for the larger district advanced but opposition became more rigorous. The proposed district was amended to exclude opponents, and the district that was adopted stops at Maple Avenue.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had an area of 2.16 square miles (5.58 km2), including 1.75 square miles (4.52 km2) of land and 0.41 square miles (1.06 km2) of water (18.98%).
Red Bank is on the southern bank of the Navesink River in northern Monmouth County, New Jersey. It is about 24 miles (39 km) due south of the tip of Manhattan and about 25 nautical miles (46 km) to the tip of Manhattan if traveling by water along the Navesink River and through Raritan Bay.
Of the 4,929 households, 23.1% had children under the age of 18; 32.8% were married couples living together; 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present and 49.9% were non-families. Of all households, 40.1% were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.29.
20.4% of the population were under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 34.6% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.2 years. For every 100 females, the population had 103.6 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 103.5 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $59,118 (with a margin of error of $9,139) and the median family income was $79,922 (+/− $12,117). Males had a median income of $51,053 (+/− $6,351) versus $47,368 (+/− $9,445) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $36,424 (+/− $3,310). About 13.1% of families and 14.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.5% of those under 18 and 9.7% of those 65 or older.
There were 5,201 households, of which 18.0% had children under age 18 living with them, 32.2% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 51.9% were non-families. 42.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.9% had someone living alone who 65 or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.99.
In the borough the population was spread out, with 17.5% under 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 35.2% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 18.3% who were 65 or older. The median age was 38. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females 18 and over, there were 88.9 males.
The median income for a household was $47,282, and the median income for a family was $63,333. Males had a median income of $45,922 versus $34,231 for females. The per capita income was $26,265. About 6.3% of families and 12.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.5% of those under 18 and 10.6% of those 65 or older.
New office building construction on West Front Street
Red Bank has an eclectic mix of businesses, including companies in entertainment, retail, professional, medical and hospitality sectors. Among these are major locations of national and luxury retailers. Garmany of Red Bank has been expanded from a men's store into a luxury department store with 40,000 square feet (3,700 m2) of high-end retail space. Store openings have included Tiffany & Co. in November 2007.
Arts and culture
The Count Basie Theatre in Red Bank
Red Bank is a noted social and commercial destination, filled with boutiques, designer clothing and home stores, parks, and restaurants with special events scheduled throughout the year
Since the 1950s, Red Bank has held the Annual Red Bank Sidewalk Sale. The 58th Annual Sidewalk Sale was held from July 27 to July 29, 2012, and was seen in "The Sidewalk Stash", the November 11, 2012 episode of the reality TV series Comic Book Men.
The town is considered a center of artistic activity, and is home to the Monmouth County Arts Council, as well as several art and photography galleries.
Broad Street is one of the borough's central streets and is known for its lavish Christmas decorations during the holiday season. The street is closed to traffic for a free concert sponsored by Holiday Express, after which the lights are all lit again. Up to 7,000 people attend the shows annually.
Each year from 1960 through 2011, a fireworks display was launched from the Navesink River close to Red Bank on July 3, the eve of Independence Day. "KaBoomFest" was held in Marine Park, where local bands and vendors formed a major gathering. In 2010, it attracted as many as 150,000 spectators at its 51st annual event.
The George Sheehan Classic began in 1981 as the Asbury Park 10K Classic and quickly became one of the nation's major road running events. The race moved to Red Bank in 1994 and was renamed in honor of George A. Sheehan, the prominent author, philosopher and area physician. Runner's World magazine named the Classic one of the Top 100 Road Races, and The New York Times named it the Best Memorial Race in New Jersey. The 2012 running, shortened to a 5K race, attracted nearly 1,300 participants.
In January 2018, FC Monmouth announced that Red Bank's Count Basie Park would be the home stadium for the team's inaugural season. The team's owners selected this park due to Red Bank's central location in the county both geographically and in terms of the local economy, along with the fact that the stadium will be easily accessible by public transit (NJ Transit Rail and Bus) and by car.
Red Bank is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government, which is used in 218 municipalities (of the 565) statewide, making it New Jersey's most common form of government. The governing body comprises a mayor and a borough council, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis in the November general election. Voters elect a mayor to a four-year term of office. The borough council comprises six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. The Borough form of government used by Red Bank is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie. The mayor can veto ordinances subject to an override by a two-thirds majority vote of the council. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, and also makes most appointments with the council's advice and consent.
As of 2022, the mayor of Red Bank is Pasquale Menna, whose term of office ends on December 31, 2022. Members of the Borough Council are Council President Kate L. Triggiano (D, 2024), Erik K. Yngstrom (D, 2022), Michael K. Ballard (D, 2023), Kathleen A. Horgan (D, 2022), Jacqueline Sturdivant (D, 2024) and Edward Zipprich (D, 2023).
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 63.2% of the vote (2,730), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 35.2% (1,523), and other candidates with 1.6% (70), among the 4,359 ballots cast by the borough's 6,440 registered voters (36 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 67.7%. In the 2008 presidential election, Obama received 63.2% of the vote (3,129), ahead of Republican John McCain with 34.0% (1,682) and other candidates with 0.9% (47), among the 4,948 ballots cast by the borough's 6,669 registered voters, for a turnout of 74.2%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 58.1% of the vote (2,849), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 40.4% (1,984) and other candidates with 0.6% (42), among the 4,905 ballots cast by the borough's 6,856 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 71.5.
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 56.4% of the vote (1,527), ahead of Democrat Barbara Buono with 41.2% (1,116), and other candidates with 2.4% (65), among the 2,772 ballots cast by the borough's 6,510 registered voters (64 were spoiled), for a turnout of 42.6%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 46.0% of the vote (1,460), ahead of Christie with 45.9% (1,457), Independent Chris Daggett with 6.3% (200) and other candidates with 0.8% (24), among the 3,176 ballots cast by the borough's 6,332 registered voters, a 50.2% turnout.
For ninth through twelfth grades, public school students attend Red Bank Regional High School, which also serves students from Little Silver and Shrewsbury Borough, along with students in the district's academy programs from other communities who are eligible to attend on a tuition basis. Students from other Monmouth County municipalities are eligible to attend the high school for its performing arts program, with admission on a competitive basis. The borough has five elected representatives on the nine-member Board of Education. As of the 2018–2019 school year, the high school had an enrollment of 1,208 students and 119.6 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 10.1:1.
Red Bank Charter School is a public school for students in kindergarten through eighth grade that operates under a New Jersey Department of Educationcharter and accepts students and receives its funding from a portion of property taxes, like a typical public school. It does not charge tuition and operates independently of the public school system, with a separate school board. Students are selected to enroll in the charter school based on an annual lottery, which is open to all Red Bank residents of school age.
As of May 2010[update], the borough had 29.86 miles (48.06 km) of roadways, of which 23.09 miles (37.16 km) were maintained by the municipality, 5.25 miles (8.45 km) by Monmouth County and 1.52 miles (2.45 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.
Route 35 runs north-south through the borough while CR 520 passes through briefly in the southeastern area. Red Bank is also 2 miles (3.2 km) east of Interchange 109 of the Garden State Parkway.
Red Bank is connected by rail to other urban centers
Bus service through Red Bank is provided by Academy Bus (express to New York City) and Veolia Transport, running routes under contract to NJ Transit. Local bus service is provided on the 831, 832, 834 and 838 routes.
Jay and Silent Bob's Secret Stash on Broad Street. Tinted panels have been placed over the windows and door to block sunlight during filming of the reality TV series Comic Book Men.
Several tunes composed and/or made famous by Count Basie name-check the town in their title, including "Red Bank Boogie" and "The Kid from Red Bank". Basie was born and grew up in Red Bank, starting his musician's career there. A bronze bust of him was commissioned to mark what would have been his 100th birthday in 2004, and placed in the plaza outside the Red Bank train station.
In his 1942 essay "Memoirs of a Drudge", humorist James Thurber recalls being sent to Red Bank by his newspaper's city editor on a tip that "Violets [are] growing in the snow over in Red Bank". Putting in a telephone call to that town's Chief of Police in advance, Thurber is told by a desk sergeant, "Ain't no violence over here."
^James, George. "Communities; From Dead Bank To Red Bank", The New York Times, June 17, 2001. Accessed May 9, 2012. "It was the mid 1980s, and downtown stores were being forced out of business by the invasion of sprawling new malls, the population was slipping and the commercial and residential tax base was eroding. Red Bank was known as Dead Bank."
^Red Bank, New Jersey Travel and Vacation Information. Accessed July 10, 2012.
^Burton, John. "Special Improvement District Seeks Expansion To West Side", The Two River Times, November 17, 2006. Accessed July 15, 2012. "A plan to include the borough's west side in the original special improvement district was abandoned because of a threat of legal action brought by a Shrewsbury Avenue commercial property owner, who opposed the special assessment as inequitable.... As proposed, the lines of the district would include Monmouth Street west of Maple Avenue to Bridge Avenue, including Bridge and extending to Rector Place, to Chestnut Street on the south, and going to the Navesink River to the north."
^Fischler, Marcelle S. "Shopping; A Cappuccino With That $5,000 Suit?", The New York Times, November 19, 2006. Accessed November 7, 2018. "Last year the Garmanys expanded the Red Bank outlet into a 40,000-square-foot, sophisticated department store. The first-floor men's department is divided into boutiques for designer brands like Canali and Zegna."
^"The Sidewalk Stash". Comic Book Men. Season 2. Episode 5. November 11, 2012. AMC.
^Egan, Christine. "Journeys; 36 Hours | Red Bank, N.J.", The New York Times, September 17, 2004. Accessed November 7, 2018. "Red Bank supports a growing array of trendy shops and restaurants, and has fashioned itself into a mini-center for the arts, with famous neighbors including Bruce Springsteen and Jon Bon Jovi in nearby towns."
^Who We Are, Monmouth County Arts Council. Accessed May 9, 2012.
^Who We Are, Two River Theater Company. Accessed May 9, 2012.
^VH1 Storytellers Bruce Springsteen, AllMusic. Accessed May 9, 2012. "Springsteen, appearing alone on-stage at the Two River Theater in Red Bank, NJ, on April 4, 2005 (except for a duet with his wife, Patti Scialfa, on Beautiful Disguise) takes the 'storytellers' concept of explaining the sources of his songs seriously, although he peppers his remarks with self-deprecating humor, much of it directed at his good-guy image."
^LaGorce, Tammy. "A Town Celebration, Fireworks and All", The New York Times, June 24, 2011. Accessed May 9, 2012. "KaBoomFest, now in its 52nd year, shows few signs of slowing down. In 2010, 150,000 people attended the fireworks display, which will run 23 minutes this year. The same number of spectators is expected this year, said Mr. Hogan, who is also the president of the town's Riverview Medical Center."
^Robbins, Jim; and Hinck, penny. "Annual George Sheehan Event is Exceptionally Classic", Atlantic Highlands Herald, June 17, 2012. Accessed July 15, 2012. "Twelve hundred and 96 (1296) road racers competed in the annual George Sheehan Classic 5K (previously a five-mile race) on a course that starts and finishes on Broad Street in Red Bank, continues onto Red Bank's Bergen, Silverton, Prospect Streets then onto Harding Road where the racers are confronted with challenging Tower Hill, on the sunny, windless, warm, great-running-weather morning of June 16."
^Biography, Congressman Chris Smith. Accessed January 3, 2019. "Elected in 1980, U.S. Rep. Chris Smith (R-Hamilton, N.J.) is currently in his 19th two-year term in the U.S. House of Representatives, and serves residents of the Fourth Congressional District of New Jersey."
^Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "Menendez, who started his political career in Union City, moved in September from Paramus to one of Harrison's new apartment buildings near the town's PATH station.."
^Monmouth County Government, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed July 19, 2022. "Monmouth County is governed by five Commissioners elected at-large for three year terms. Each January, the Freeholders select one of their members to serve as the Director of the Board for the year to preside over the meetings and activities of the Board."
^Red Bank Borough Board of Education District Policy 0110 - Identification, Red Bank Borough Public Schools. Accessed April 19, 2020. "Purpose: The Board of Education exists for the purpose of providing a thorough and efficient system of free public education in grades Pre-Kindergarten through eight in the Red Bank Borough School District. Composition: The Red Bank Borough School District is comprised of all the area within the municipal boundaries of Red Bank Borough."
^About Us, Red Bank Borough Public Schools. Accessed April 19, 2020. "The Red Bank Borough Public Schools are comprised of over 1,400 students in grades Preschool through 8. The Red Bank Middle School houses grades 4-8, the Red Bank Primary School houses grades Preschool-3, and several off-site locations and providers house our free full-day Preschool program for all children ages 3 and 4 in Red Bank. After graduation, our students attend Red Bank Regional High School or a variety of public and private academies."
^Red Bank Regional High School 2016 Report Card Narrative, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed May 30, 2017. "Red Bank Regional High School is a comprehensive and diverse secondary school that offers a multitude of rigorous academic and extra-curricular programs for the student body which numbers 1,236. The constituent sending districts include Little Silver, Red Bank Borough and Shrewsbury. The district also accepts students on a tuition basis who may be interested in one of our specialized academies of study."
^About the Board of Education, Red Bank Regional High School District. Accessed January 21, 2017. "The Board of Education is composed of nine citizens elected from our constituent districts. Representatives are elected on the basis of constituent population - two from Little Silver, five from Red Bank, and two from Shrewsbury."
^Steinberg, Kimberley. " The 'Kid from Red Bank' is back where he belongs; Basie bust gets prominent spot at train station", The Hub, October 8, 2009. Accessed October 8, 2013. "The bronze bust of the Count, sculpted by New Jersey artist Brian Hanlon, has been housed at the Visitors Center at the Red Bank Train Station for the past few years. 'When first commissioned in 2004 to commemorate the Count's 100th birthday, the original plan called for the Basie statue to be displayed outdoors on the train station plaza,' said Councilman Arthur V. Murphy III, who served as the emcee for the ceremony.... Basie remembered his hometown when he recorded 'The Kid from Red Bank' and 'The Red Bank Boogie,' both of which were played during the ceremony."
^Lussier, Germain; Harris, Karen; Rothman, Robin A.; and Tomcho, Sandy. "The Top 10 Drives of 2006". Times Herald-Record. January 5, 2007. Accessed May 9, 2012. "This year, he hosted Vulgarthon 2006 in Red Bank, where two theaters full of Smith fans enjoyed early screenings of Smith's latest film, Clerks 2 and his latest acting effort, Catch and Release, to be released Jan. 26, among other things."
^Manual of the Legislature of New Jersey, 1973, p. 403. J.A. Fitzgerald, 1973. Accessed April 19, 2020. "District 5B (part of Monmouth) Chester Apy (Rep., Little Silver) - Assemblyman Apy was born in Red Bank, N. J., March 8, 1932."
^Staff. "The Painting World of James Avati", Atlanticville, July 28, 2011. Accessed September 21, 2015. "The Monmouth Museum is hosting an exhibit of paintings by Red Bank native James Avati, the pre-eminent painter of paperback book covers in the second half of the 20th century."
^National Flute Association (Spring 2012). "Happy birthday, NFA!". Flutist Quarterly. 37, no. 3: 70 – via Academic OneFile.
^Staff. "Sept. 11 Activist Bauer Weds Judge", Red Bank Green, October 9, 2007. Accessed August 31, 2016. "The paper reports that Bauer, of Red Bank, wed U.S. Bankruptcy Court Judge Donald H. Steckroth in a ceremony held Saturday at Georgian Court College. Bauer, 51, grew up in Middletown and was a Rumson resident when her first husband, David Bauer, died in the terror attacks."
^Chesek, Tom. "Red Bank 'N Black, Perfect Together", Red Bank Green, July 25, 2012. Accessed September 21, 2015. "redbankgreen: It is customary, whenever someone from our neck of the weeds talks to Clint Black, to remind you once again that you were born in Long Branch, New Jersey and Wikipedia even says you lived your first few months in Red Bank.... Clint Black: It's nice to be claimed!... The people around me knew of the New Jersey connection, but not necessarily the Red Bank area connection."
^Dave Bry, Huffington Post. Accessed October 16, 2017. "Dave Bry was born in Red Bank, New Jersey in 1970 and raised in the neighboring town of Little Silver."
^Pete Capella, Behind the Voice Actors. Accessed September 21, 2015.
^"Gets Scholarship", Red Bank Register, June 26, 1961. Accessed May 5, 2022, via Newspapers.com. "William J. Chiego, Jr., son of Mr. and Mrs. William J. Chiego of 45 Madison Ave., is the recipient of a scholarship from the University of Virginia, which he will enter in September. Graduated with honor from Red Bank High School, Mr. Chiego was a member of both the National Honor Society and the French Honor Society."
^Mittan, Barry. "DeFazio Hopes Third Time's the Charm", Golden Skate, April 15, 2007. Accessed September 21, 2015. "David DeFazio, an American from Red Bank, New Jersey, hopes to be successful in ice dancing competing for Switzerland with Nora von Bergen."
^Chesek, Tom. "Archive: A Sneak Preview in Circuit City", Upper Wet Side, April 22, 2011. Accessed September 22, 2015. "Red Bank area native, movie actor and filmmaker Peter Dobson directing his project EXIT 102, which climaxes a daylong Reels & Wheels event at various venues in Asbury Park.... Peter Dobson: I was born in Riverview Hospital; lived on West Front Street out by River Plaza.... I went to Lincroft Elementary, Thompson Junior High and Middletown High School South — where I spent two years in tenth grade. I also lived for a while in Loch Arbour, so I have very vivid memories of hanging out in Asbury Park."
^Moon, Eileen. Legendary Locals of red Bank, p. 35. Arcadia Publishing, 2014. ISBN978-1-4671-0095-3. Accessed September 21, 2015. "Among the most influential citizens in the history of Red Bank was Sigmund, an immigrant who built a manufacturing empire but who also helped build a community. Born in Bohemia in 1859, he settled in Red Bank in 1881."
^Harry Flaherty, Pro Football Archives. Accessed February 8, 2020. "Born: 12/15/1961 Red Bank, NJ"
^Horner, Shirley. "About Books", The New York Times, October 3, 1993. Accessed May 9, 2012. "Timothy Thomas Fortune, a pioneering black journalist, who went on to start 'The New York Age,' once the nation's leading black newspaper, moved to Red Bank in 1901. His Red Bank home, Maple Hill, is a National Historic Landmark."
^"In Memoriam: Marilyn Levy", The Two River Times, July 4, 2014. Accessed August 31, 2021. "Marilyn Levy, 92, died on Thursday, June 19, at Riverview Hospital of heart failure. Marilyn was a long-time resident of Little Silver, previously residing in Red Bank."
^"Coach", Daily Record, December 13, 1988. Accessed September 15, 2020, via Newspapers.com. "Longo, 30, was born in the Jersey Shore community of Red Bank and grew up in Bayville, where he attended Central Regional High."
^Franklin, Paul. "Peddie School grad Peters has led Duke women into the Sweet 16", The Times, March 29, 2013. Accessed July 16, 2019. "While Haley Peters’ basketball skills have improved every year since her days at The Peddie School, what hasn’t changed is her will to win.... Business as usual — an approach that hasn’t much changed since Peters, a Red Bank native, enrolled at Peddie."
^"Catch Up With Phoebe Ryan, Saturday At The Fillmore With Carly Rae Jepsen", Philthy Mag, July 19, 2019. Accessed July 15, 2022. "Phoebe Ryan’s batch of dates opening up for Jepsen begins with the Philadelphia show this Saturday and, originally hailing from Red Bank, New Jersey, I shouldn’t be surprised to hear that she has a fondness for the City of Brotherly Love and Sisterly Affection"
^Hahnen, Gretchen (1948). "Biography of Eddie August Schneider (1911–1940) written by Gretchen Hahnen (1902–1986) to accompany his papers deposited at the George H. Williams, World War I Aviation Library at the University of Texas at Dallas". ... his family moved to Red Bank, New Jersey where he attended grade school.
^Chanko, Kenneth M. "A Lot Happens at a Convenience Store", The New York Times. October 16, 1994. Accessed May 9, 2012. "Earlier this month, the film maker, who recently moved into an apartment in Red Bank, returned to Leonardo to shoot a music video for Soul Asylum's "Can't Even Tell", a song that appears on the Clerks soundtrack."
^Kimmelman, Michael. "David Wojnarowicz, 37, Artist in Many Media", The New York Times, July 24, 1992. Accessed January 15, 2015. "An abused child and a teen-age street hustler, Mr. Wojnarowicz made much of his personal history in the social margins in his art and writings. He was born in Red Bank, N.J., ran away from home, lived on the streets, and eventually graduated from the High School of Music and Art in Manhattan."
^Meehan, Thomas. "At last the star of the show; Smart Aleck", The New York Times, May 16, 1976. Accessed November 7, 2018. "The son of a deadbeat father and a doting mother, Woollcott, Teichmann tells us, grew up in a commune called the Phalanx, in Red Bank, N.J., where he was born in 1887, and throughout his life, perhaps because of his happy early exposure to communal living, he had an almost psychopathic fear of being alone."