This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Article is completely unintelligible and makes no attempt to explain its topic Please help improve this article if you can. (August 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article may rely excessively on sources too closely associated with the subject, potentially preventing the article from being verifiable and neutral. Please help improve it by replacing them with more appropriate citations to reliable, independent, third-party sources. (July 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Gautama Buddha delivering his first sermon in the deer park at Sarnath, Varanasi with his right hand turning the Dharmachakra, resting on the Triratna symbol flanked on either side by a deer. Statue on display at the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya in Mumbai.
Gautama Buddha delivering his first sermon in the deer park at Sarnath, Varanasi with his right hand turning the Dharmachakra, resting on the Triratna symbol flanked on either side by a deer. Statue on display at the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya in Mumbai.
Translations of
Refuge
Sanskritशरण (śaraṇa)
Palisaraṇa
Bengaliশরন
(Shôrôn)
Burmeseသရဏ
(Tharana)
Chinese皈依
(Pinyin: Guīyī)
Japanese帰依
(Rōmaji: kie)
Khmerសរណៈ
(Saranak)
Korean귀의
(RR: gwiui)
Sinhalaසරණ(saraṇa)
Thaiสรณะ, ที่พึ่ง ที่ระลึก RTGSsarana, thi phueng thi raluek
VietnameseQuy y
Glossary of Buddhism

Buddhists take refuge in the Three Jewels or Triple Gem (also known as the "Three Refuges").

The Three Jewels are:

Refuge is common to all major schools of Buddhism. Pali texts employ the Brahmanical motif of a group of three refuges, as found in Rig Veda 9.97.47, Rig Veda 6.46.9 and Chandogya Upanishad 2.22.3-4.[1]

The chant in the Pali language goes:[2]

Buddham saranam gacchami. “I take refuge in the Buddha.”

Dhammam saranam gacchami. “I take refuge in the Dharma.”

Sangham saranam gacchami. “I take refuge in the Sangha.”

Faith

Veneration of the Three Jewels, Chorasan, Gandhara, 2nd century AD, schist – Ethnological Museum of Berlin.
Veneration of the Three Jewels, Chorasan, Gandhara, 2nd century AD, schist – Ethnological Museum of Berlin.

Main article: Faith in Buddhism

Faith is an important teaching element in both Theravada and Mahayana traditions. In contrast to perceived Western notions of faith, faith in Buddhism arises from accumulated experience and reasoning.

In the Kalama Sutra, the Buddha explicitly argues against simply following authority or tradition, particularly those of religions contemporary to the Buddha's time.[3] There remains value for a degree of trusting confidence and belief in Buddhism, primarily in the spiritual attainment and salvation or enlightenment. Faith in Buddhism centres on belief in the Three Jewels.

Precepts

Main article: Five precepts

Lay followers often undertake five precepts in the same ceremony as they take the refuges.[4][5] Monks administer the precepts to the laypeople, which creates an additional psychological effect.[6] The five precepts are:

  1. to refrain from killing;[7][8][9]
  2. to refrain from stealing;[7][8][9]
  3. to refrain from lying;[7][8][9]
  4. to refrain from improper sexual conduct;[7][8][9]
  5. to refrain from consuming intoxicants.[7][8][9]

In Early Buddhist Texts, the role of the five precepts gradually developed. First of all, the precepts were combined with a declaration of faith in the triple gem (the Buddha, his teaching and the monastic community). Next, the precepts developed to become the foundation of lay practice.[10] The precepts were seen as a preliminary condition for the higher development of the mind.[11] At a third stage in the texts, the precepts were actually mentioned together with the triple gem, as though they were part of it. Lastly, the precepts, together with the triple gem, became a required condition for the practice of Buddhism, as lay people had to undergo a formal initiation to become a member of the Buddhist religion.[12] When Buddhism spread to different places and people, the role of the precepts began to vary. In countries in which Buddhism was adopted as the main religion without much competition from other religious disciplines, such as Thailand, the relation between the initiation of a lay person and the five precepts has been virtually non-existent, and the taking of the precepts has become a sort of ritual cleansing ceremony. In such countries, people are presumed Buddhist from birth without much of an initiation. The precepts are often committed to by new followers as part of their installment, yet this is not very pronounced. However, in some countries like China, where Buddhism was not the only religion, the precepts became an ordination ceremony to initiate lay people into the Buddhist religion.[13]

A layperson who upholds the precepts is described in the texts as a "jewel among laymen".[14]

Three Roots

Main article: Three Roots

Symbol of the Three Jewels
Symbol of the Three Jewels

In Tibetan Buddhism there are three refuge formulations, the Outer, Inner, and Secret forms of the Three Jewels. The 'Outer' form is the 'Triple Gem', (Sanskrit:triratna), the 'Inner' is the Three Roots and the 'Secret' form is the 'Three Bodies' or trikaya of a Buddha. These alternative refuge formulations are employed by those undertaking Deity Yoga and other tantric practices within the Tibetan Buddhist Vajrayana tradition as a means of recognizing Buddha Nature.

Buddhist Vajrayana Refuge Formulations
Outer ('Triple Gem') Buddha Dharma Sangha
Inner ('Three Roots') Guru Yidam Dharmapala and Dakini
Secret Nadi Prana Bindu
Ultimate Dharmakaya Sambhogakaya Nirmanakaya

Three refuge motivation levels are: 1) suffering rebirth's fear motivates with the idea of happiness, 2) knowing rebirth won’t bring freedoms motivated by attaining nirvana, while 3) seeing others' suffering motivates establishing them all in Buddhahood.[15] Happiness is temporary, lifetimes are impermanent and ultimately refuge is taken until reaching unsurpassed awakening.[16][clarification needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Shults, Brett (May 2014). "On the Buddha's Use of Some Brahmanical Motifs in Pali Texts". Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies. 6: 119.
  2. ^ "The Three Treasures". The Pluralism Project. Harvard University. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  3. ^ "Kalama Sutta: The Buddha's Charter of Free Inquiry". 4 February 2013. Archived from the original on 4 February 2013.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  4. ^ Getz 2004, p. 673.
  5. ^ "Festivals and Calendrical Rituals". Encyclopedia of Buddhism. The Gale Group. 2004. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017 – via Encyclopedia.com.
  6. ^ Harvey 2000, p. 80.
  7. ^ a b c d e "The Eight Precepts: attha-sila". www.accesstoinsight.org.
  8. ^ a b c d e "Uposatha Sila: The Eight-Precept Observance". www.accesstoinsight.org.
  9. ^ a b c d e Sāmi, Dhamma. "The 8 precepts". en.dhammadana.org.
  10. ^ Kohn 1994, pp. 173–4.
  11. ^ Terwiel 2012, p. 178.
  12. ^ Kohn 1994, p. 173.
  13. ^ Terwiel 2012, pp. 178–9, 205.
  14. ^ De Silva 2016, p. 63.
  15. ^ Rinpoche, Patrul. Words of My Perfect Teacher: A Complete Translation of a Classic Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism (Sacred Literature) (2011 ed.). Yale University Press. pp. 176–177. ISBN 0-300-16532-3.
  16. ^ Dorje, Choying Tobden; Zangpo, Ngawang (June 2, 2015). The Complete Nyingma Tradition from Sutra to Tantra, Books 1 to 10: Foundations of the Buddhist Path (First ed.). Snow Lion. pp. 224–227. ISBN 1-55939-435-8.

References