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Renfe Operadora
TypeState-owned enterprise
IndustryRail transport
Founded24 January 1941
Key people
Julio Gómez-Pomar Rodríguez (CEO),
Enrique Peña Pérez,
Manuel Fresno Castro,
José Luis Marroquín
ProductsRail transport, Freight
RevenueIncrease €3.979 billion (2018)[1]
Increase €111 million (2018)
OwnerGovernment of Spain (100%)
Number of employees
Decrease 13,720 (2018)[2]
SubsidiariesRenfe Cercancías
RENFE logo used from 1972 until 1989.
RENFE logo used from 1972 until 1989.
Renfe logo used from 2000 until 2005.
Renfe logo used from 2000 until 2005.
A Cercanías Civia unit near Zaragoza.
A Cercanías Civia unit near Zaragoza.
AVE Class 100 train at Córdoba station.
AVE Class 100 train at Córdoba station.
Trains at Santa Justa station Seville.
Trains at Santa Justa station Seville.

Renfe Operadora (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈreɱfe opeɾaˈðoɾa]) is the state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains on the 1,668 mm (5 ft 5+2132 in) Iberian gauge, the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge and the 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge networks of the Spanish national railway infrastructure company Adif (Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias—Railway Infrastructure Administration).


Further information: History of rail transport in Spain

The name "Renfe" is derived from that of the former Spanish National Railway Network, RENFE (acronym of Red Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Españoles—National Network of Spanish Railways) created on 24 January 1941 with the nationalisation of Spain's railways. As per EU Directive 91/440, RENFE was divided into Renfe-Operadora (operations) and ADIF (infrastructure) on 1 January 2005. At the same time, the existing RENFE double-arrowed logo (nicknamed the "galleta", Spanish for biscuit), first introduced in 1971 and given a facelift in 1983, with a sans-serif font, and again in 2000, with a mixed-case italic font, has been replaced by a dark purple lower-case wordmark designed by Interbrand, and also replaces some of the separate logos used by the other sectors, although the old RENFE logo remains in use in some stations in Spain and on maps to indicate an ADIF station.

The Railway Sector Act, 2003 separated the management, maintenance and construction of rail infrastructure from train operation. The first activity is now the responsibility of Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias (ADIF), the legal successor of RENFE, while the newly created Renfe-Operadora (commercial name "Renfe Operadora" or simply "Renfe") owns the rolling stock and remains responsible for the planning, marketing and operation of passenger and freight services (though no longer with a legal monopoly).[3]

Renfe Operadora inherited the management model of the business units of the old RENFE, which made Renfe Operadora responsible for the operation of the following passenger and freight services. In January 2006, Renfe Operadora restructured the main business units into four:

The Spanish state railways are currently engaged in a transformation and modernisation project.[citation needed] Key to this effort is a major overhaul of their out-dated ICT (information and communication technology) systems through an ICT renewal project scheduled for completion at the end of 2010 under the responsibility of Corporate Director of Information Systems Óscar Gómez Barbero. So far, the company has introduced improvements to their internet ticket sales and adopted new ICT management practices within a "more industrial" organisational model, though Mr. Gomez has publicly acknowledged the difficulties in transforming what still remains a very hierarchical organisation.


In June 2013, Renfe's board agreed to restructure the organisation into four separate companies, responsible for:

These four would be underneath a single holding company.[4][5]


Figures[6] 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Passengers (Mio.)[7] 527.975 517.583 510.176 476.334 463.012 476.917 472.145 466.057 464.961 465.201 471.359 487.881 507.088 510.453
Passenger-kilometer (Mio.) 20.480 20.167 22.281 21.895 21.166 21.585 21.319 22.563 23.754 24.825 25.291 26.060 26.931 27.263
AVE Passengers (Tsd.) 4.878 5.559 11.461 11.250 10.851 12.563 12.101 14.697 17.967 19.428 20.352 21.108 21.332 22.370
AVE Passenger-kilometer (Tsd.) 1.884 2.161 4.888 5.260 5.171 5.846 5.793 7.095 8.038 9.230 9.632 10.267 10.289 10.760


Map of the Spanish rail network in 2019, with colour-coded track types. Renfe Operadora operates on broad (red) and standard (black) gauge lines.
Map of the Spanish rail network in 2019, with colour-coded track types. Renfe Operadora operates on broad (red) and standard (black) gauge lines.
A Renfe train ticket
A Renfe train ticket

The company operates some 12,000 km (7,500 mi) of railways, 7,000 km (4,300 mi) of them electrified. Most of the tracks are constructed to the broad "Iberian gauge" of 1,668 mm (5 ft 5+2132 in), the same as that used in Portugal but wider than the international gauge of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) which is standard in neighbouring France, most of western and central Europe, and most of the rest of the world. The newer high-speed (AVE) network has been built to the international standard gauge of 1,435 mm for the connection to the rest of the European railway system. For this reason, the 1,435 mm gauge is generally termed "European gauge" in Spain.

The Spanish high-speed system is called AVE (Alta Velocidad Española, meaning "Spanish High Speed"). The logo incorporates a feature which resembles a bird (ave in Spanish). The high-speed lines are built to the standard European gauge (1,435 mm or 4 ft 8+12 in).

Construction of the high-speed rail line between Madrid and Seville began in 1988 and operation commenced in 1991. Train speed on the Seville line is 300 km/h (190 mph). The second high-speed rail line (Madrid to Barcelona) was completed in 2007 with the inaugural service commencing at 06:00 on 20 February 2008. The operational speed on this route is 350 km/h (220 mph). The greater part of the line (Madrid to Lleida) was placed into service on 11 October 2003, with connection to Huesca from Zaragoza. The third high-speed line (Madrid to Toledo) was opened in November 2005, followed by the spur from Córdoba to Málaga as far as Antequera in 2007. Another high-speed route from Madrid to Valladolid was opened in 2007, the line from Madrid to Valencia was opened in 2010 and the first stage of the high-speed line in Galicia opened in 2011. A line to Lisbon is being designed.

Other lines operated by Renfe include Euromed, a moderate-speed line between Barcelona and Alicante.

In addition to intercity transport, Renfe operates commuter train systems, known as Cercanías (or Rodalies in Catalonia and Cercanías-Aldirikoak in the Basque Country), in eleven metropolitan areas, including Madrid and Barcelona. In some cities, Renfe shares the market with other commuter railway operators, such as FGC in Barcelona.

Passenger rolling stock

Renfe Operadora utilises the following rolling stock and commercial products inside of its two divisions:

Suburban and Medium Distance (DGSPCMD)

Renfe 447 EMU with the orange Rodalies livery.
Renfe 447 EMU with the orange Rodalies livery.

Cercanías (commuter rail)

Rolling stock Metropolitan area Image
Renfe Class 442 EMU Madrid
Renfe Class 446 EMU Bilbao
Renfe Class 447 EMU Barcelona
San Sebastián
Renfe Class 450 EMU Barcelona
Civia EMU Asturias
Renfe Class 592 DMU Valencia
Zamora train station
Zamora train station
Toledo station
Toledo station
Atocha station, Madrid
Atocha station, Madrid
Estació del Nord, Valencia
Estació del Nord, Valencia

Medium Distance

Rolling stock Route(s) Image
Renfe Class 440/470 EMU (to be phased out) Córdoba – Rabanales
León – Ponferrada – Vigo
León – Gijón
Valladolid – Santander
Valladolid – Ávila
Valladolid – León
Valencia − Barcelona
Valencia − Alicante
Renfe Class 447 EMU Barcelona
Renfe Class 448 EMU Catalunya
Renfe Class 449 EMU Madrid – Jaén
León – Ponferrada – Orense – Vigo
Sevilla – Cádiz
Barcelona – Girona – Figueres – Portbou
Huelva – Sevilla
Jaén – Córdoba – Sevilla – Cadiz
Madrid − Alcázar de San Juan − Albacete
Madrid − Alcázar de San Juan − Ciudad Real
Alicante – Albacete – Ciudad Real
Madrid − León
Madrid – Vitoria
Vitoria – Irun
Córdoba – Bobadilla
Barcelona – Reus
Barcelona – Tortosa
Renfe Class 592 DMU (to be phased out) Madrid – Cuenca – Valencia
Madrid – Talavera
Murcia – Cartagena
Valencia − Alcoi
Oporto - Vigo (Service CP)
Renfe Class 594 DMU Valladolid – Zamora – Puebla de Sanabria
A Coruña – Ferrol
A Coruña – Lugo – Monforte de Lemos - Ourense
Madrid – Soria
Murcia – Cartagena
Renfe Class 596 DMU Murcia – Cartagena
Orense – Monforte de Lemos
Zaragoza – Canfranc
Vigo - Valença
Renfe Class 598 DMU Madrid – Badajoz
Huelva – Zafra
Sevilla – Mérida
Renfe Class 599 DMU A Coruña – Vigo Guixar
Salamanca – Ávila – Madrid
Zaragoza – Salamanca
Salamanca – Palencia
Valencia – Cartagena
Zaragoza – Valencia
Zaragoza – Cartagena
Sevilla – Málaga
Sevilla – Almería
Granada – Algeciras
Málaga – Ronda
Granada – Linares
Madrid − Águilas
Renfe Class 104 EMU (High-speed) Madrid – Toledo
Madrid – Ciudad Real
Sevilla – Córdoba
Barcelona – Camp De Tarragona
Zaragoza – Calatayud
Renfe Class 114 EMU (High-speed) Madrid – Valladolid
Barcelona – Lleida
Renfe Class 121 EMU (High-speed) Cádiz – Jaén
A Coruña – Ourense
A Coruña – Vigo Urzaiz
Madrid – Ponferrada
Madrid – Gandia

Long Distance (DGSLD)

Main Line and long-distance services
Service Rolling stock Route(s) Image
Altaria Renfe Class 334 locomotive
+ Talgo IV cars
Madrid – Algeciras
Madrid – Granada
Madrid – Murcia – Cartagena
Talgo Renfe Class 252/334 locomotive
+ Talgo VI cars
Madrid – Almería
Barcelona – Murcia – Cartagena/Lorca
Torre del Oro:
Barcelona – Valencia – Sevilla
Intercity (Talgo) Renfe Class 252 locomotive
+ Talgo VI cars
Madrid – Valencia
Intercity (Arco) Renfe Class 334/252 locomotive
and Series 2000 cars (Arco)
A Coruña - Hendaye
Vigo - Bilbao
Trenhotel (sleeper service) Renfe Class 252/334 locomotive
+ Talgo sleeper cars
Barcelona – A Coruña
Barcelona – Vigo
Rías Gallegas:
Madrid – Pontevedra
Madrid – A Coruña - Ferrol
Madrid – Lisbon[1]
Hendaye – Lisbon[2]
High-speed long-distance services
Service Rolling stock Route(s) Image
AVE Renfe Class 100 EMU Madrid – Sevilla
Madrid – Alicante
Madrid – Marseille[3]
Barcelona – Toulouse[4]
Barcelona – Lyon[5]
Renfe Class 102 EMU Madrid – Huesca
Madrid – Zaragoza
Madrid – Valladolid
Madrid – Málaga
Valencia – Sevilla
Renfe Class 103 EMU Madrid – Barcelona
Madrid – Málaga
Renfe Class 112 EMU Madrid – Cuenca – Valencia
Madrid – Cuenca – Albacete
Madrid – León
Barcelona – Málaga
Barcelona – Zaragoza
Barcelona – Sevilla
(mixed high-speed &
conventional service)
Renfe Class 120/121 EMU Madrid – Pamplona
Madrid – Logroño
Madrid – Irún/Hendaya
Madrid – Bilbao
Barcelona – Irún
Barcelona – Bilbao
Barcelona – Pamplona
Barcelona – Valladolid
Renfe Class 130 EMU Madrid – Gijón
Madrid – Santander
Alicante – Gijón
Alicante – Santander
Madrid – Cádiz
Madrid – Huelva
Madrid – Valencia – Castellón
Madrid – Valencia – Gandía
Barcelona – A Coruña
Barcelona – Vigo
Barcelona – Gijón
Renfe Class 730 HMU Alicante – Madrid – Pontevedra
Alicante – Madrid – A Coruña
Madrid – Ferrol
Madrid – Pontevedra
Madrid – Ponferrada
AVE City Renfe Class 104 EMU
Renfe Class 121 EMU
Valencia – Málaga
Madrid – Sevilla
Madrid – León
(medium-high-speed service)
Renfe Class 130 EMU Barcelona – Valencia – Alicante

Class numbers

All classes are designated by three numbers. The first digit has a special meaning:

See also


1.^ Operated by CP in Portugal.
2.^ Managed by Elipsos under the brand Renfe-SNCF en Cooperación/en Coopération.


  1. ^ "Renfe cerró 2018 con un beneficio de 111 millones de euros" [Renfe closed 2018 with a profit of 111 million euros]. Rail Press News (in Spanish). 7 April 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  2. ^ "Renfe presenta otro plan de bajas voluntarias para 2018 de hasta 805 trabajadores" [Renfe presents another voluntary leave plan for 2018 of up to 805 workers]. ABC (in Spanish). Madrid. 20 January 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  3. ^ "La Nueva Renfe" [The New Renfe]. Federación Castellano Manchega de Amigos del Ferrocarril (in Spanish). 11 January 2005.
  4. ^ "RENFE restructuring approved". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  5. ^ Puente, Fernando. "Renfe confirms four subsidiary split". International Railway Journal. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  6. ^ "Railway Gazette". Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  7. ^ Railway Gazette. "Railway Gazette".