|Republic of China Navy|
|Country||Republic of China|
|Allegiance||Kuomintang (to 1947)|
|Part of||Republic of China Armed Forces|
|Colors|| White |
|Website||navy.mnd.gov.tw (in Chinese)|
|Commander of the Navy||Admiral Liu Chih-pin|
|Deputy Commanding-General|| Vice Admiral Hu Zhan-Hao|
|Chief of Staff||Vice Admiral Chiang Cheng-kuo|
|Literal meaning||China Navy|
The Republic of China Navy (ROCN; Chinese: 中華民國海軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Hǎijūn), also called the ROC Navy and colloquially the Taiwan Navy, is the maritime branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces (ROCAF).
The service was formerly commonly just called the Chinese Navy during World War II and prior to the ROC's retreat from the mainland. While still sometimes used especially in domestic circles, it is now not as often used internationally due to the current ambiguous political status of Taiwan and to avoid confusion with the People's Liberation Army Navy of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Today, the ROC Navy's primary mission is to defend the remaining ROC's territories and the sea lanes under its jurisdiction against any possible blockades, attacks, or invasion. Operations include maritime patrols in the Taiwan Strait and surrounding waters, as well as readiness for counter-strike and counter-invasion operations during wartime. The Republic of China Marine Corps (ROCMC) also functions as a branch of the Navy.
The ship prefix for ROCN combatants is ROCS (Republic of China Ship); an older usage is CNS (Chinese Navy Ship).
The Navy CHQs (中華民國國防部海軍司令部) is subordinate to the General Staff, the Minister of Defense, and the ROC President.
|ROC (Taiwan) Navy|
Ministry of Defense
Commander of the Navy
|Republic of China Marine Corps|
|Orders, Decorations and Medals|
List of orders, decorations and medals
Order of Blue Sky and White Sun
|History and Traditions|
|Naval history of China|
See also: Naval history of China
The precursor to the modern ROC Navy was established as the Ministry of the Navy in the Provisional Government of the Republic of China in 1911 following the overthrow of the Qing dynasty. Liu Guanxiong, a former Qing dynasty admiral, became the first Minister of Navy of the Republic of China. During the period of warlordism that scared China in the 1920s and 1930s the ROCN remained loyal to the Kuomintang government of Sun Yat-sen instead of the warlord government in Beijing which fell to the nationalist government in the 1928 northern campaign and between the civil war with the Communist Party and 1937 Japanese invasion of Northeast China. During that time and throughout World War II, the ROCN concentrated mainly on riverine warfare as the poorly equipped ROCN was not a match to Imperial Japanese Navy over ocean or coast.
Following World War II, a number of Japanese destroyers and decommissioned U.S. ships were transferred to the ROC Navy. During the Chinese Civil War, the ROCN was involved in the protection of supply convoys and the withdrawal of the ROC Government and over 1 million refugees to Taiwan in 1949. The subsequent reorganization and reestablishment of the Navy after evacuation to Taiwan is referenced in the lyrics of the post 1949 ROC Navy Song "The New Navy" (新海軍).
See also: History of Taiwan (1945–present)
In 1895, the island of Taiwan was placed under Japanese rule, with the Imperial Japanese Navy responsible for defending the waters of Taiwan and Penghu. After World War II, on 25 October 1945, the jurisdiction of Taiwan and Penghu was transferred to the Republic of China and the ROCN began its operation in that territory.
Following the relocation of the ROC government to Taiwan, the ROCN was involved in a number of commando attack escorts, evacuation and transport of more displaced soldiers and later to provide patrols and resupply operations to Kinmen and Matsu in the Taiwan Strait and South China Sea offshore islands.
Since the 1990s the Navy has grown in importance as the emphasis of the ROC's military doctrine moves towards countering a possible People's Republic of China (PRC) blockade, as well as offshore engagement. As of 2004 the ROCN had been working hard to expand its capability in electronic and anti-submarine warfare, as well as the replacement of antiquated warships and support vessels. While for many years the ROCN operated hand me down and foreign designed vessels in recent years they have been operating a higher number of indigenous platforms, sensors, and weapons much of it made by the National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology.
In 2018 Lungteh Shipbuilding was awarded a contract to produce eleven Tuo Chiang Block II corvettes and four minelayers for the Taiwanese Navy.
In April 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic the ROCN cut short their semi-annual goodwill mission to Central and South America. The flotilla consisting of two frigates and a supply vessel was subject to 30 days of quarantine after returning to Taiwan.
In April 2020 Taiwanese boatbuilder Karmin International Co., Ltd. won a NT$450-million (US$14.9-million) contract to supply the Republic of China Navy with eighteen special operations watercraft and eight RIB tenders, the later for the Cheng Kung-class frigates. Delivery is scheduled for June 2022. The contract covered only the watercraft themselves with their machine guns, infrared equipment, and boarding ladders sourced separately.
Main article: Republic of China Armed Forces rank insignia
|Rank group||General/flag officers||Field/senior officers||Junior officers||Officer cadet|
| Republic of China Navy
|Rank group||Senior NCOs||Junior NCOs||Enlisted|
| Republic of China Navy
For a more comprehensive list, see List of ships of the Republic of China Navy.
Traditionally, most ROCN equipment has been purchased from the United States. The ships themselves have often been older, second-hand vessels without the newest technology. More recently, however, several ships have been built domestically under licence or through domestic development. The ROCN has also purchased La Fayette-class frigates from France and Zwaardvis-class submarines from the Netherlands as well as four U.S. Kidd-class (renamed Keelung) destroyers originally intended for Iran.
Despite the ROCN refurbishing and extending the service life of its vessels and equipment, it has suffered from procurement difficulties due to pressures exerted by the PRC. It has only two useful submarines. The U.S. has approved sales of eight new diesel-powered submarines but lacks the manufacturing capability to make the engines; at the same time, threats from the PRC prevent the necessary technology transfer from other countries. Furthermore, the Legislative Yuan did not approve the budget and thereby slowed the opportunity to procure the badly needed underwater defense capability.
On 12 September 2007, an arms notification was sent to the United States Congress concerning an order for 12 P-3C Orion patrol aircraft and 3 "spare aircraft", along with an order for 144 SM-2 Block IIIA surface-to-air missiles. A contract was awarded to Lockheed Martin to refurbish the 12 P-3C Orion aircraft for the ROC on 13 March 2009, with deliveries to start in 2012.
In 2008, the ROCN set out to acquire an improved anti-ship capability. On 26 August, an arms notification was sent to Congress for an order for 60 air-launched Harpoon Block II missiles for the 12 P-3Cs. At least a portion of these missiles will be installed on the navy's Hai Lung-class submarines.
On 29 January 2010, the U.S. government announced five notifications to the U.S. Congress for arms sales to the ROC. In the contracts total US$6.392 billion, ROC Navy would get 2 Osprey-class minehunters for US$105 million, 25 Link 16 terminals on ships for US$340 million, 10 ship- and 2 air-launched Harpoon L/II for US$37 million.
The ROC Navy already has 95 older Harpoon missiles in its inventory for the 8 Knox-class frigates, 22 newer RGM-84L for the 4 Kidd-class destroyers, 32 sub-launched Harpoon II on order for the 2 Hai Lung-class submarines, and with 60 air-launched Harpoon Block II anti-ship missile on order for the 12 P-3Cs, plus the newly announced 10 ship-launched and 2 air-launched Harpoon II/L sales.
On 31 August 2010, it was announced for the next year's defense budget, ROCN planned to lease one or two more Newport-class tank landing ships (LST) from the United States, but the 900-ton stealth corvette plan was put on hold, due to lack of funds. That same year, On 29 September, the U.S. Congress passed a resolution, authorizing the U.S. Government for the sale of one more Osprey-class minehunter to the ROC.
Other ongoing local upgrade programs include locally designed and built Ching Chiang class of 12 patrol ships that were designed back in the 1990s to carry four HF-1 anti-ship missiles on board but only the lead ship of the class had them. Since 2006, seven ships of this class were upgraded to carry four HF-2/3 with W-160 fire control radar from Wu Chin III program (as well as Honeywell H-930 MCS CDS stripped from seven retired Yang-class Wu Chin 3 anti-air warfare destroyers). In 2010 more ships of this class were undergoing this same upgrade program but using CSIST produced fire control radars instead. Currently four different variants exist within this class, the original Ching Chiang patrol ship constructed with four HF-1 (one existing in this configuration).
On 29 December 2010, two LSTs (中肇、中治戰車登陸艦) and four remaining of Adjutant-class coastal minehunters were retired.
In 2011, the navy retired several vessels. On 31 October, all eight PCL in the 124th Fleet were retired. On 28 December, the two Lung Jiang-class (PSMM Mk5) guided missile patrol boats (PGG 601 and PPG 602) of the 131st Fleet were retired from ROC Navy service, after entering service in 1978 and 1981 respectively.
In June 2018, two Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates of the US Navy, ex-USS Taylor and ex-USS Gary, were handed over to the Government of Taiwan for the Republic of China Navy. The transfer cost was an estimated US$177 million. The transfer of the ships includes the advanced AN/SQR-19 Multi-Function Towed array sonar. Taiwan had previously been blocked from acquiring the AN/SQR-19, and the transfer of the system points to an anti-submarine focus in line with the Knox-class frigates they will likely replace.
The keel of a new rescue and salvage ship was laid in March 2022.
Main article: Yushan-class landing platform dock
In September 2018, Taiwan confirms contract for first amphibious assault ship built in Taiwan. It will be built by CSBC Corporation, a local shipyard. Four are planned with the first to be entering service around 2021. It is roughly similar to US Navy's San Antonio class, but with a slightly smaller displacement. Support features include a full hospital, well deck, full aviation facilities, storage for wheeled vehicles, and dedicated accommodations for a full battalion of Marines. The vessel design will be armed with a 76 mm naval gun in the primary position, a close-in weapon system (CIWS) turret, two 12.7 mm machine gun positions in the forward section, and launchers that can deploy the Hsiung Feng II and III family of anti-ship and land-attack cruise missiles. The primary sensor is expected to be a naval version of the indigenous CS/MPQ-90 Bee Eye AESA radar.
The ROC Navy currently lacks a modern fleet defense system. Its destroyers currently use obsolete Mark 26 missile launchers designed from the 1970s and does not currently have a modern centralized air defense combat system like the Aegis. Past US administrations rejected the sale of Aegis radar system and Arleigh Burke-class destroyers, including George W. Bush in 2001. Under the George W. Bush administration, the US instead sold Taiwan four Kidd-class destroyers, which did not carry the Aegis and were no longer in service in the US Navy at the time. However, in January 2019, the US government delivered two sets of Mk 41 VLS to Taiwan. The ROC government plans to integrate the MK41 VLS and locally developed Tien-Kung III (Sky Bow III) with its indigenously developed Hsun Lien naval combat system, which is similar to Aegis, to upgrade its ship air defense capabilities. Taiwan has acquired the license and technology to produce additional MK 41 VLS launchers. The ROC Navy currently as of 2019 possesses at least 14 warships compatible with the Mk41. Additionally, the AN/SLQ-32 system on the Kee Lung class guided missile destroyers (formerly Kidd-Class Destroyers) will be upgraded and is expected to be completed by 2023. In November 2019 it was reported that the decommissioned amphibious landing ship Kao Hsiung (LCC-1) was being used as a test ship for the Hsun Lien naval combat system project and had been fitted with a large phased array radar system and the Mark 41 Vertical Launching System. In January 2020, it is reported the Tien-Kung III (Sky Bow III) is successfully fired from the Mark 41 Vertical Launching System.
Main article: Indigenous Defense Submarine
In November 2020, President Tsai Ing-wen opened the submarine construction facility in Kaohsiung with plans to build eight submarines. Construction was to begin with a prototype boat which was to be built over 78 months. The first boat is scheduled to enter service in 2025. Between December 2020 and February 2021, the United States reportedly approved the export of three key systems to Taiwan for the program: digital sonar systems, integrated combat systems and auxiliary equipment systems (periscopes).
|Kee Lung-class||United States / destroyer||ROCS Kee Lung (DDG-1801)
ROCS Su Ao (DDG-1802)
ROCS Tso Ying (DDG-1803)
ROCS Ma Kong (DDG-1805)
|9,783 tonnes||Formerly Kidd-class destroyer in US Service built in 1978. Originally built for the Imperial Iranian Navy.|
|Cheng Kung-class||Republic of China / frigate||ROCS Cheng Kung (PFG2-1101)
ROCS Cheng Ho (PFG2-1103)
ROCS Chi Kuang (PFG2-1105)
ROCS Yueh Fei (PFG2-1106)
ROCS Tzu I (PFG2-1107)
ROCS Pan Chao (PFG2-1108)
ROCS Chang Chien (PFG2-1109)
ROCS Tian Dan (PFG2-1110)
ROCS Ming Chuan (PFG-1112)
ROCS Feng Jia (PFG-1115)
|4,105 tonnes||Eight licensed ships based on US Oliver Hazard Perry class built. Two additional ex-US Navy ships (ROCS Ming Chuan & ROCS Feng Jia )|
|Kang Ding-class||France / frigate||ROCS Kang Ding (FFG-1202)
ROCS Si Ning (FFG-1203)
ROCS Wu Chang (FFG-1205)
ROCS Di Hua (FFG-1206)
ROCS Kun Ming (FFG-1207)
ROCS Chen De (FFG-1208)
|3,600 tonnes||French-built La Fayette class|
|Chi Yang-class||United States / frigate||ROCS Fong Yang (FFG-933)
ROCS Fen Yang (FFG-934)
ROCS Lan Yang (FFG-935)
ROCS Hwai Yang (FFG-937)
ROCS Ning Yang (FFG-938)
ROCS Yi Yang (FFG-939)
|4,260 tonnes||Ex-Knox class|
|Ching Chiang-class||Republic of China / patrol ship / corvette||ROCS Dan Chiang (PG-605)
ROCS Sing Chiang (PG-606)
ROCS Feng Chiang (PG-607)
ROCS Tzeng Chiang (PG-608)
ROCS Kao Chiang (PG-609)
ROCS Jin Chiang (PG-610)
ROCS Hsiang Chiang (PG-611)
ROCS Tze Chiang (PG-612)
ROCS Po Chiang (PG-614)
ROCS Chang Chiang (PG-615)
ROCS Chu Chiang (PG-617)
|500 tonnes||Delivery began 1999-2000|
|Tuo Chiang class||Republic of China / corvette||ROCS Tuo Chiang (PGG-618)
ROCN Ta Chiang (PGG-619)
ROCN Fu Chiang (PGG-620)
|600 tonnes||Lead ship delivered in March 2014.|
|Kuang Hua VI-class|| Republic of China /
|186.5 tonnes||Delivery began 2003|
|Yung Feng-class||Germany / minesweeper||ROCS Yung Feng (MHC-1301)
ROCS Yung Chia (MHC-1302)
ROCS Yung Nien (MHC-1303)
ROCS Yung Shun (MHC-1305)
|558.3 tonnes||MWW-50 class, built anew in Germany in early 1990s|
|Yung Yang-class||United States / minesweeper||ROCS Yung Yang (MSO-1306)||735 tonnes||ex-Aggressive class. 1 vessel still in active commission (ROCS Yung Tzu (MSO-1307) |
ROCS Yung Ku (MSO-1308)
ROCS Yung Teh (MSO-1309) have been decommissioned.)
|Yung Jin-class||United States / minesweeper||ROCS Yung Jin (MHC-1310)
ROCS Yung An (MHC-1311)
|893 tonnes||ex-Osprey class|
|Min Jiang-class minelayer||Taiwan / minelayer||FMLB-1
|347 tons||Built in Taiwan by Lung Teh Shipbuilding, 2020-2021|
|Newport class|| United States /
tank landing ship
|ROCS Chung Ho (LST-232)
ROCS Chung Ping (LST-233)
|8,450 tonnes||ex-USN USS Manitowoc (LST-1180) and USS Sumter (LST-1181)|
|Chung Hai-class|| United States /
tank landing ship
|ROCS Chung Chien (LST-205)
ROCS Chung Chih (LST-218)
ROCS Chung Ming (LST-227)
ROCS Chung Ye (LST-231)
|4,080 tonnes||Landing Ship, Tank (LST-1)|
|Kaohsiung-class|| United States /
amphibious command ship
|ROCS Kao Hsiung (LCC-1)||3,698 tonnes||ex-USS Dukes County (LST-735), an LST-542-class tank landing ship|
|Hsu Hai-class|| United States /
dock landing ship
|ROCS Hsu Hai (LSD-193)||13,700 tonnes||ex-USS Pensacola (LSD-38), an Anchorage-class dock landing ship|
|Yushan-class|| Republic of China /
Amphibious transport dock
|ROCS Yus han (LPD-1401)||10,600 tonnes|
|Chien Lung-class|| Netherlands /
|ROCS Hai Lung (SS-793)
ROCS Hai Hu (SS-794)
|2,660 tonnes||Based on Zwaardvis-class submarine. These are also known by the lead ship's name as the Hai Lung-class.|
|Hai Shih-class (Tench)|| United States /
|ROCS Hai Shih (SS-791) (ex-USS Cutlass)
ROCS Hai Bao (SS-792) (ex-USS Tusk)
|2,420 tonnes||Used primarily for training. World's oldest longest-serving submarines. Has two (one for each submarine) of the three remaining working Arma gyrocompass in the world. Expected to be retired after the construction of the IDS project .|
|Pan Shi class|| Republic of China /
fast combat support ship
|ROCS Pan Shi (AOE-532)||20,895 tonnes||AOE-532|
|Wu Yi-class|| Republic of China /
fast combat support ship
|ROCS Wu Yi (AOE-530)||17,000 tonnes||AOE-530|
|Ta Kuan-class||Italy / research ship||ROCS Ta Kuan (AGS-1601)||3,200 tonnes||Oceanographic measurement|
aka Diver class
| United States /
rescue and salvage ship
|ROCS Ta Hu (ARS-552) (ex-USS Grapple)
ROCS Ta Twen (ARS-556) (ex-USS Recovery)
|1,975 tonnes||Expected to be retired after the construction of the An-hai Project|
|United States / fleet tug||ROCS Ta Wan (ATF-551) (ex-USS Apache)
ROCS Ta Tung (ATF-554) (ex-USS Achomawi)
ROCS Ta Tai (ATF-563) (ex-USS Shakori)
|1,680 tonnes||Consisted of ex-USN Navajo-class and Abnaki-class tugboat Expected to be retired after the construction of the An-Hai Project|
Main article: Republic of China Naval Aviation Command
|Lockheed P-3 Orion||United States||Maritime patrol||P-3C||12||Re-built ex-US Navy aircraft and replaced ROCN Grumman S-2 Trackers|
|Lockheed EP-3 ARIES||United States||Signals reconnaissance||EP-3E||3||Spare P-3C airframes acquired for future conversion to EP-3E Aries I of II platform|
|NCSIST Albatross||Republic of China||Reconnaissance UAV||26||In service as of 2019|
|Sikorsky S-70||United States||Search and rescue / Anti-submarine warfare||S-70C(M)-1/2 Thunderhawk||18||10 on order|
|McDonnell Douglas MD 500 Defender||United States||Anti-submarine warfare||500MD/ASW Defender||7||Out of original 13 ordered|
|Sky Sword I||Republic of China||Short-range||Shipboard deployment with Sea Oryx system.|
|Sky Sword II||Republic of China||Medium-range||Unknown number of TC-2N, to be fielded on Tuo Chiang Block II corvettes and retrofitted on the Kang Ding-class frigates.|
|RIM-66 Standard||United States||Medium-range||97 RIM-66B Standard-1MR delivered in 1993, 207 RIM-66B Standard-1MR delivered in 1994, 204 RIM-66B Standard-1MR delivered in 2001|
|RIM-67 Standard||United States||Medium-long range||148 Standard Missile-2MR delivered in 2005, 144 Standard Missile-2MR delivered in 2008, 16 Standard Missile-2MR ordered in 2017|
|RIM-72C Sea Chaparral||United States||Short-range||Deployed on some domestic warships as well as La Fayette Frigates. To be replaced.|
|AGM-84 Harpoon||United States||Subsonic||(183) AGM-84s – (60) 84Ls|
|Hsiung Feng II||Republic of China||Subsonic||Unknown, in mass production with secondary ground attack capability|
|Hsiung Feng III||Republic of China||Supersonic||Unknown, in mass production with secondary ground attack capability|
|Phalanx CIWS||United States||Gun System||20mm, 7 Mk-15 delivered in 1989, 6 Mk-15 delivered in 1996, 1 Mk15 delivered in 2014, 13 Mk15 delivered in 2016, 11 Mk15 delivered in 2018|
|XTR-101/102||Taiwan||Gun System||20mm, more than 20 systems deployed in coastal defenses.|
|Mark 46 torpedo||United States||Lightweight||100 delivered in 1992, 150 Mk-46 Mod-5 NEARTIP delivered in 1994, 110 Mk-46 Mod-5 NEARTIP delivered in 1998, |
90 Mk-46 Mod-5 NEARTIP delivered in 2000, 41 Mk-46 Mod-5 NEARTIP delivered in 2001
|Mark 48 torpedo||United States||Heavyweight||46 ordered in 2018|
|SUT torpedo||Germany||Heavyweight||multirole, 200 delivered in 1998 from Indonesian production line|
All remaining bases are small naval stations supporting PCL class small patrol boats and Fast Attack Boat: