Revelation 15
Revelation 13:16-14:4 on Papyrus 47 from the third century.
BookBook of Revelation
CategoryApocalypse
Christian Bible partNew Testament
Order in the Christian part27

Revelation 15 is the fifteenth chapter of the Book of Revelation or the Apocalypse of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is traditionally attributed to John the Apostle,[1][2] but the precise identity of the author remains a point of academic debate.[3] This chapter includes the hymn of Moses and the Lamb [4] and introduces the seven angels who appear with seven plagues.[5]

Text

The original text was written in Koine Greek. This chapter is divided into 8 verses; it is the shortest chapter in the book.

Textual witnesses

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter are among others:[6][a]

Old Testament reference

The Song of the Conquerors (15:1–4)

Those who have the victory over the beast, over his image and over his mark, and over the number of his name, sing the song of Moses (as in the Song of the Sea from Exodus 15:1–8) and the song of the Lamb, because "they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb" (Revelation 12:11).[9]

Verse 1

Then I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvelous: seven angels having the seven last plagues, for in them the wrath of God is complete.[10]

Verse 2

And I saw something like a sea of glass mingled with fire, and those who have the victory over the beast, over his image and over his mark and over the number of his name, standing on the sea of glass, having harps of God.[11]

For "mingled with fire", the New International Version suggests "glowing with fire".[12] A sea of glass, like crystal, has previously appeared in chapter 4,[13] although German theologian Johannes Ebrard suggests they are different seas of glass.[14]

Heinrich Meyer notes that the "harps of God" are "such as serve only for the praise of God".[15]

Verses 3–4

3 They sing the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying:
"Great and marvelous are Your works,
Lord God Almighty!
Just and true are Your ways,
O King of the saints!
4 Who shall not fear You, O Lord, and glorify Your name?
For You alone are holy.
For all nations shall come and worship before You,
For Your judgments have been manifested."[16]

The wording O King of the saints! (Biblical Greek: ο βασιλευς των αγιων, romanized: o basileus ton hagion) appears in the Textus Receptus, but Meyer argues that this reading is "almost without any testimony" in the early manuscripts.[15] Alternative readings are:

Verse 4 contains a citation from Psalm 86:9.[21]

Introduction to the Seven Bowls (15:5–16:1)

It is a continuation of 'the anticipatory vision' of Revelation 15:1, which states that these seven plagues are the last ones.[9]

Verse 5

The temple of the tabernacle of the testimony in heaven was opened.[22]

Biblical Greek: ο ναος της σκηνης του μαρτυριου εν τω ουρανω, may also be translated as "the temple of the tabernacle of witness in the heaven".[23] Acts 7 records St Stephen's contrast between the tabernacle or tent of witness (Biblical Greek: η σκηνη του μαρτυριου) in the wilderness and the real home of the Most High:

Heaven is My throne,
And earth is My footstool.[24]

This verse echoes Revelation 11:9, showing the relationship with the seventh trumpet, just as the seven trumpets are related to the seventh seal.[9]

Verse 6

And out of the temple came the seven angels having the seven plagues, clothed in pure bright linen, and having their chests girded with golden bands.[25][26]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Book of Revelation is missing from Codex Vaticanus.[7]

References

  1. ^ Davids, Peter H (1982). I Howard Marshall and W Ward Gasque (ed.). New International Greek Testament Commentary: The Epistle of James (Repr. ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans. ISBN 0802823882.
  2. ^ Evans, Craig A (2005). Craig A Evans (ed.). Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: John, Hebrews-Revelation. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Victor. ISBN 0781442281.
  3. ^ F. L. Cross, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 45
  4. ^ Subtitle to Revelation 15 in the Jerusalem Bible (1966)
  5. ^ Subtitle to Revelation 15 in the New International Version
  6. ^ Elliott, J. K. "Revelations from the apparatus criticus of the Book of Revelation: How Textual Criticism Can Help Historians." Union Seminary Quarterly Review 63, no. 3-4 (2012): 1-23.
  7. ^ Claremont Coptic Encyclopaedia, Codex Vaticanus, accessed 29 September 2018
  8. ^ Kirkpatrick, A. F. (1901). The Book of Psalms: with Introduction and Notes. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Book IV and V: Psalms XC-CL. Cambridge: At the University Press. p. 839. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Bauckham 2007, p. 1299.
  10. ^ Revelation 15:1 NKJV
  11. ^ Revelation 15:2 NKJV
  12. ^ Revelation 15:2: NIV
  13. ^ Revelation 4:6
  14. ^ Referred to by Heinrich Meyer in his NT Commentary on Revelation 15, accessed 16 November 2018
  15. ^ a b Meyer, H. in Meyer's NT Commentary on Revelation 15, accessed 16 November 2018
  16. ^ Revelation 15:3-4 NKJV
  17. ^ τῶν ἐθνῶν - Meyer lists this reading as found in A, B, 2, 4, 6, al., Compl., Plant., Genev., Beng., Lach., Tisch
  18. ^ τῶν αἰώνων - Meyer lists this reading in as found in C, א1, 18, Vulgate
  19. ^ Westcott and Hort, Revelation 15:3-4
  20. ^ Meyer notes caelorum as an alternative reading in the Vulgate
  21. ^ Kirkpatrick, A. F. (1901). The Book of Psalms: with Introduction and Notes. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Book IV and V: Psalms XC-CL. Cambridge: At the University Press. p. 839. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  22. ^ Revelation 15:5 NKJV
  23. ^ Revelation 15:5: Darby Translation
  24. ^ Acts 7:44 NKJV
  25. ^ Revelation 15:6 NKJV
  26. ^ John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible - Revelation 15:6