Revelation 19
Аллилуйя (в транскрипции "халелу-Йа`х"), буквально "Хвалите Иаг" (Яг, Яхве, Иегову).jpg
The Greek text of Revelation 19 in Codex Sinaiticus (British Library, Add. 43725; from 4th century AD). The term "hallelujah" (in Greek majuscule: ἈΛΛΗΛΟΎΪΑ) occurs 4 times in this chapter (Revelation 19:1,3,4,6) as highlighted in red frames.
BookBook of Revelation
CategoryApocalypse
Christian Bible partNew Testament
Order in the Christian part27

Revelation 19 is the nineteenth chapter of the Book of Revelation or the Apocalypse of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is traditionally attributed to John the Apostle,[1][2] but the precise identity of the author remains a point of academic debate.[3] In this chapter, heaven exults over the fall of Babylon the Great.[4]

Text

The original text was written in Koine Greek. This chapter is divided into 21 verses.

Textual witnesses

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter are:[5][a]

Old Testament references

New Testament references

Structure

In the Jerusalem Bible, verses 1 to 10 conclude the section in chapters 17 and 18 dealing with the Punishment of Babylon, and verses 11 to 21 concern "the first battle of the End".[8]

The Fall of Babylon (19:1–8)

Verse 1

After these things I heard a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Alleluia! Salvation and glory and honor and power belong to the Lord our God!" [9]

A 'full range of voices in heaven' give praise to God for his judgment of Babylon.[10]

John and the Angel (19:9–10)

Verse 9

Then he said to me, "Write: 'Blessed are those who are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb!'" And he said to me, "These are the true sayings of God."[11]

In place of "he said", many English translations infer that the speaker is an angel, because in verse 10 he forgoes being worshipped and calls himself "your fellow servant, and [the fellow servant] of your brethren who have the testimony of Jesus".[12] The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges assumes that this angel and the one who came forward in Revelation 17:1 are the same.[13]

The Rider from Heaven and his Victory (19:11–21)

Verse 11

Now I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse.[14]

According to the Jerusalem Bible, the white horse symbolises victory. According to Methodist writer Joseph Benson, it was "intended to denote [Jesus'] justice and holiness, and also that victory and triumph should mark his progress".[15] The horse may be contrasted with the colt or ass on which Jesus rode into Jerusalem (Matthew 21:1–7 etc.) and the biblical prophecy underpinning the gospel accounts (Zechariah 9:9). The ass is for peace, but the horse was used for war.[16]

Verse 13

He was clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The Word of God.[17]

The person of Jesus, as the truth and the one who has 'supremely witnessed to the truth of God in his life and his death', comes to earth and is the Word of God in person.[10]

Verse 15

Now out of His mouth goes a sharp sword, that with it He should strike the nations. And He Himself will rule them with a rod of iron. He Himself treads the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.[18]

Uses

Music

The King James Version of verse 6 from this chapter is cited as texts in the English-language oratorio "Messiah" by George Frideric Handel (HWV 56).[20]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Book of Revelation is missing from Codex Vaticanus.[6]

References

  1. ^ Davids, Peter H (1982). I Howard Marshall and W Ward Gasque (ed.). New International Greek Testament Commentary: The Epistle of James (Repr. ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans. ISBN 0802823882.
  2. ^ Evans, Craig A (2005). Craig A Evans (ed.). Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: John, Hebrews-Revelation. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Victor. ISBN 0781442281.
  3. ^ F. L. Cross, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 45
  4. ^ New King James Version, sub-heading to Revelation 19:1-10
  5. ^ Elliott, J. K. "Revelations from the apparatus criticus of the Book of Revelation: How Textual Criticism Can Help Historians." Union Seminary Quarterly Review 63, no. 3-4 (2012): 1-23.
  6. ^ Claremont Coptic Encyclopaedia, Codex Vaticanus, accessed 29 September 2018
  7. ^ a b Kirkpatrick, A. F. (1901). The Book of Psalms: with Introduction and Notes. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Vol. Book IV and V: Psalms XC-CL. Cambridge: At the University Press. p. 838. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  8. ^ Jerusalem Bible (1966), Revelation 19:11-20:15
  9. ^ Revelation 19:1 NKJV
  10. ^ a b Bauckham 2007, p. 1302.
  11. ^ Revelation 19:9 NKJV
  12. ^ Revelation 19:10
  13. ^ Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on Revelation 19, accessed 9 December 2018
  14. ^ Revelation 19:11 NKJV
  15. ^ Benson Commentary on Revelation 19, accessed 10 December 2018
  16. ^ Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary on Revelation 19, accessed 10 December 2018
  17. ^ Revelation 19:13 NKJV
  18. ^ Revelation 19:15 NKJV
  19. ^ Note [a] on Revelation 19:15 in NKJV
  20. ^ Block, Daniel I. (2001). "Handel's Messiah: Biblical and Theological Perspectives" (PDF). Didaskalia. 12 (2). Retrieved 19 July 2011.

Bibliography

Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Gill, John. Exposition of the Entire Bible (1746-1763).