Ride with the Devil
Theatrical release poster
Directed byAng Lee
Screenplay byJames Schamus
Based onWoe to Live On
by Daniel Woodrell
Produced byTed Hope
Robert F. Colesberry
James Schamus
CinematographyFrederick Elmes
Edited byTim Squyres
Music byMychael Danna
Distributed byUSA Films[1]
Release date
Running time
138 minutes (theatrical),[2] 148 minutes (Director's Cut)
CountryUnited States
Budget$38 million[1]
Box office$635,096[1]

Ride with the Devil is a 1999 American Revisionist Western film[3] directed by Ang Lee and starring Tobey Maguire, Skeet Ulrich, Jeffrey Wright, and Jewel in her feature film debut. Based on the novel Woe to Live On, by Daniel Woodrell, the film, set during the American Civil War, follows a group of men who join the First Missouri Irregulars, also known as the Bushwhackersguerrilla units loyal to pro-Confederacy units of the state—and their attempt to disrupt and marginalize the political activities of Northern Jayhawkers allied with Union soldiers. Simon Baker, Jonathan Rhys Meyers, Jonathan Brandis, Jim Caviezel, Mark Ruffalo, and Celia Weston are featured in supporting performances.

The film was a co-production between Universal Studios and Good Machine. Principal photography began on March 25, 1998. Theatrically, it was commercially distributed by the USA Films division of Universal, and premiered in only six theaters nationwide in the United States on November 26, 1999, and for only three days, grossing a total of $635,096. Taking into account its $38 million budget costs, the film was considered a major box office bomb.

Ride with the Devil has been noted for its thematic exploration of politics, violence and war.[4] In 2010, The Criterion Collection released a restored high-definition digital transfer for the home media market, featuring an extended 148-minute director's cut of the film.


Jake Roedel and Jack Bull Chiles are friends in Missouri when the American Civil War breaks out; Roedel is a German American (born in Germany but raised by his immigrant father in Missouri) who suffers from sporadic anti-German suspicion from other Southerners, due to the German population in the state being largely sympathetic to the Union. During the mayhem, Chiles' father is murdered by Kansas pro-Union Jayhawkers. The two men join the First Missouri Irregulars (Bushwhackers) under Black John Ambrose, an informal unit loyal to pro-Confederacy units of Missouri in 1861. They later meet George Clyde and Daniel Holt, who most assume is Clyde's slave. But Clyde had "bought out" Holt from slavery after Holt, who Clyde had known since childhood, had joined the Bushwhackers along with Clyde after killing several Union soldiers who killed Clyde's father. Holt is considered a good scout and a good shot who is cool in combat and is known by the Confederates as "a good Yankee killer."

The Bushwhackers battle Jayhawkers using guerrilla warfare tactics while trying to evade capture. During their travels, Jake is notified that his father, also a German immigrant, has been murdered by Alf Bowden, a Unionist whose life Jake spared. The men manage to hide out in a coarsely-built shelter on the property of a pro-Confederacy family, the Evanses. A young widow in the household, Sue Lee Shelley, becomes romantically involved with Chiles. With Clyde off to visit a woman friend at nearby farm and Chiles occupied with Sue Lee, a friendship begins between Roedel and Holt. Soon after, Chiles is severely wounded during a skirmish with Union soldiers and they take him back to their hideout. With Union soldiers in the area, Clyde abandons the others on the pretext of finding a doctor but actually rejoins the Bushwhackers. Jake, Daniel and Sue Lee amputate Chiles' arm, but he dies of gangrene. After Chiles' death, Roedel and Holt escort Shelley to a refuge dwelling where another pro-Confederate kindred, the Brown family, reside. Roedel and Holt then rejoin the Bushwhackers where they find Clyde, who appears embarrassed to see them although they bear him no ill will.

Following the collapse and destruction of a makeshift prison holding the female relatives of guerrillas, a complementary clan of Bushwhackers led by William Quantrill plot a revenge attack against the Union and raid Lawrence, Kansas.[4] After the Bushwhackers have overrun and killed the Union troops on the edge of town, they enter Lawrence, and commence to kill everyone they deem a Jayhawker, Federal, or supportive of them. Roedel and Holt do not engage in the killing of civilians, and enter an establishment to eat. Fellow Bushwhacker Pitt Mackeson –who has steadily grown to be jealous of Roedel due to him being viewed as intelligent by the commander of the group– also known as having predilection for vicious killing, enters the establishment and orders Roedel to bring out the family who owns the place so he can execute them in the street. Roedel refuses, and when Mackeson threatens Roedel with violence, Roedel draws his pistol and points it in Mackeson's face, daring him to carry out his threat, to which Mackeson backs down. Later, Union cavalry who were on the trail of Quantrill's band arrives to Lawrence and turn to attack. The Bushwackers first fall back and later draw the Union cavalry into a woodline and dismount to take cover and deliver volley fire into the Union cavalry, in subsequent lines, as they retreat. In an episode of more hostility, Mackeson purposely shoots Roedel in the leg during the action. Holt is also hit in the side in the battle. Clyde tries to pull Holt away from the danger, and then is himself hit in the throat, dying in Holt's arms. Roedel pulls Holt away to mount horses and escape the Union cavalry.

Once clear of the Union cavalry, Roedel and Holt make their way to Brown farm to have their wounds treated. The Brown family takes the two in, and they recuperate for a time. With both Chiles and Clyde gone, friendship grows between Roedel and Holt and they reflect on their futures. Roedel is less sure he will return to fight for the Confederate Cause, starting to think the war is going against the South. Holt confides that although he was not Clyde's slave, he felt he belonged with him and now felt free for the first time in his life and begins to comprehend he faces a life of his own choices. He confides in Roedel that he knew his mother was a slave who had been sold and taken to Texas, and was now the only person left of family he had.

Meanwhile, Shelley gives birth to Chiles's daughter. Holt and Roedel, both wounded, recover at the same residence that took in Shelley occupied by the Brown folk. The Browns, who mistakenly suppose Roedel is the child's father, pressure Roedel to marry her, which he is reluctant to do. However, after spending time with Shelley and the child, Roedel begins to have feelings for both of them. At the same time, Anderson and many other Bushwhackers have been killed, taken prisoner or otherwise rendered inactive. Pitt Mackeson has gathered some survivors into a gang which no longer fights the Yankees, but instead robs, murders and plunders Unionists and Southerners alike. Word comes from one of Roedel's compatriots that Mackeson and his gang are headed South and plan on visiting Roedel soon.

One day Mr. Brown takes Holt to town and they return with a reverend, with the sole purpose of marrying Shelley and Roedel. After realizing he does love Shelley and she him, Roedel marries her in an almost-abrupt wedding. Roedel's feelings toward Shelley are further deepened by a tender wedding night together. Later, proclaiming himself finished with war, Roedel gives up being a Bushwhacker and takes his new family to California. On the way, and while making camp, they meet Mackeson and the last of his men, Turner, who is now ragged and injured, with both of them on their last legs and on the run. Mackeson reveals that Black John and Quantrill are both dead. During a tense standoff between Mackeson, Roedel, Turner and Holt, Mackeson boasts of his plan to ride into Newport despite the fact the town is full of Federal soldiers and certain death awaits him and Turner. Mackeson's almost unhinged manners makes Roedel and Holt to hold guns on him and Turner in self-defense, but the two bandits ride off without violence, with Mackeson implicitly agreeing with Roedel that the war is lost and their personal feud is now over too.

Daniel Holt rides with Roedel and his family toward California, until their roads part. He bids Jake his farewell, while Shelley and the baby sleep. Holt leaves for Texas, now a truly free man, to find his long lost mother.



Film scholar Stephen Teo notes that the film approaches themes of "domesticity, the role of women, homosociality, and violence...  with great sensitivity."[5]

Many critics have noted that the film does little to orient or guide its audience through the historical landscape in which it is set,[6] and instead presents events in a manner that is "unremarkable," "undemonstrative," and "somewhat ghostly."[3] Writer Andrew Patrick Nelson considers Ride with the Devil as being part of the revisionist Western tradition, though he concedes that it "has little of the self-consciousness that generally marks the form."[3] Nelson asserts that director Ang Lee often forgoes excessive attention to historical details, and instead attempts to immerse the audience in an experience that "is responsive to the daily realities and rhythms that surround the characters."[3] It is because of this that Nelson claims the film has more in common with "metaphysical" works of filmmakers such as Terrence Malick."[3]


Casting and set design

The leading actors were required to go through three weeks of boot camp to prepare them for their roles. During shooting, Maguire hesitated under the grueling heat and 16-hour workdays, but pressed on to complete the filming. The actors first trained shooting blank loads, and then live ammunition for action conflict scenes.[4] More than 250 Civil War black-powder pistols were used during the production phase.[4] Over 140 extras played Lawrence residents, and more than 200 Civil War re-enactors were brought in to relay their style of living to the filming sequences.[4]

Principal photography began on March 25, 1998. Filming took place primarily on location in Sibley, Missouri, Kansas City, Kansas, and Kansas City, Missouri.[7] Pattonsburg, Missouri also stood in as a primary filming set locale.[4] The set design production team removed telephone poles and utilized truckloads of dirt to cover existing asphalt and concrete.[4] Production designer Mark Friedberg created numerous indoor and outdoor sets of the time period to ensure and maintain historical accuracy.[4]

Music and soundtrack

The original motion picture music for Ride with the Devil, was released by the Atlantic Records music label on November 23, 1999.[8] The score for the film was orchestrated by Mychael Danna and Nicholas Dodd. Musical artist Jewel contributed vocals to the score with her song "What's Simple Is True", from her 1998 album Spirit.[9]

Ride with the Devil: Music from and inspired by the Motion Picture
Film score by
ReleasedNovember 23, 1999
LabelAtlantic Records
Ride with the Devil: Music from and inspired by the Motion Picture
1."Opening Credits"3:01
2."Miss McLeod's Reel"1:41
3."Jayhawkers and Bushwhackers"3:20
4."Clark Farm Shootout"3:05
5."Fireside Letter"1:50
6."Sally in the Garden"1:21
7."Settling in for Winter"0:49
8."Ride to the Evans/Hilltop Letter"2:10
9."Sue Lee/Dinner at the Evans"1:28
10."The Ambush"2:52
11."George Clyde Clears Out"1:44
12."Jack Bull's Death"4:45
13."Old King Crow"2:06
14."Quantrill's Arrival/Ride to Lawrence"2:37
15."Sacking Lawrence"4:05
16."Don't Think You Are a Good Man"2:11
17."Battle and Betrayal"3:13
19."A Chicken at the End of It"1:36
21."What's Simple Is True"3:36
Total length:53:21



The basis for the film, Daniel Woodrell's novel Woe to Live On (originally published in 1987) was released as a movie tie-in edition, re-titled Ride With the Devil, by Pocket Books on November 1, 1999. The book dramatizes the events of the American Civil War during the 1860s, as depicted in the film. It expands on the inner-fighting between rebel Bushwhackers and Union Jayhawkers, with civilians caught in the crossfire.[10] The story relates a coming of age experience for Roedel as he emotionally comprehends the losses of his best friend, father and comrades. On a separate front, Roedel expresses love for his best friend's widow, and learns about tolerance from his contact with a reserved black Irregular.


Ride with the Devil received its world premiere at the 25th Deauville American Film Festival in France on September 9, 1999. The following day it had its North American premiere at the Toronto Film Festival in Canada.[11] The film's UK premiere was at the opening night gala of the London Film Festival on November 3, 1999.[12]

Box office

Ride with the Devil had an initial screening on November 24, 1999, in New York City, Kansas City, Missouri and Los Angeles.[7] For most of its limited release, the film fluctuated between 11 and 60 theater screening counts. At its most competitive showing, the filmed ranked in 37th place for the December 17–19 weekend in 1999.[13]

The film premiered in cinemas on November 26, 1999, in limited release throughout the United States.[1] During that weekend, the film opened in 50th place grossing $64,159 in business showing at 11 locations.[1] The film Toy Story 2 opened in 1st place during that weekend with $57,388,839 in revenue.[14] The film's revenue dropped by almost 20% in its second week of release, earning $51,600. For that particular weekend, the film fell to 53rd place although with an increased theater count showing at 15 theaters.[13] Toy Story 2 remained unchallenged in 1st place with $18,249,880 in box office business.[15] During its final week in release, Ride with the Devil opened in 57th place grossing $39,806.[13] For that weekend period, Stuart Little starring Geena Davis opened in 1st place with $11,214,503 in revenue.[16] Ride with the Devil went on to top out domestically at $635,096 in total ticket sales through a 6-week theatrical run.[1] For 1999 as a whole, the film would cumulatively rank at a box office performance position of 219.[17]

Critical response

Among mainstream critics in the U.S., the film received generally positive reviews.[18] Rotten Tomatoes reported that 63% of 65 sampled critics gave the film a positive review, with an average score of 6.2 out of 10.[19] At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average out of 100 to critics' reviews, Ride with the Devil received a score of 69 based on 29 reviews.[18] The film failed to garner any award nominations for its acting or production merits from accredited film organizations.

"From a technical perspective, Ride with the Devil is nearly perfect. The attention to detail invested by Lee and his crew shows. From costumes to props, everything has the unmistakable hallmark of authenticity. The only Civil War drama able to boast an equal level of historical accuracy is Gettysburg."
—James Berardinelli, writing in ReelViews[20]

Peter Stack, writing in the San Francisco Chronicle, said in outward positive sentiment, "Lee's approach mixes an unsettling grittiness with an appealing, often luminous elegance (thanks to Frederick Elmes' cinematography) in picturing a patch of America at war with itself."[21] Left impressed, Stephen Hunter in The Washington Post, wrote that the film was "terrific" and that it contained the "most terrifying kind of close-in gunplay, with big, pulsing holes blown into human beings for a variety of reasons ranging from the political to the nonsensical."[22] In a mixed to positive review, Stephen Holden of The New York Times, described the film's production aspects as being of "meditative quality and its attention to detail and the rough-hewn textures of 19th-century life are also what keep the story at a distance and make "Ride with the Devil" dramatically skimpy, even though the movie stirs together themes of love, sex, death and war."[23] Wesley Morris of The San Francisco Examiner, commented that Ride with the Devil was "downright hot-blooded in the nameless violence going on west of marquee Civil War battles. Never has this war been filmed with such ragged glory. The boys grasping their rifles look like trigger-happy rock stars of the prairies, so much so that they threaten to transform the film into a great hair movie."[24] In a slightly upbeat conviction, Andrew O'Hehir of Salon.com asserted that "for all its clumsy dialogue and loose plotting, this is historical filmmaking of a high order, both visually and thematically ambitious."[25] Todd McCarthy of Variety, added to the exuberant tone by declaring, "Impressing once again with the diversity of his choices of subject matter and milieu, director Ang Lee has made a brutal but sensitively observed film about the fringes of the Civil War".[26]

The film was not without its detractors. Writing for the Chicago Sun-Times, Roger Ebert bluntly noted that the motion picture "does not have conventional rewards or payoffs, does not simplify a complex situation, doesn't punch up the action or the romance simply to entertain. But it is, sad to say, not a very entertaining movie; it's a long slog unless you're fascinated by the undercurrents."[27] In a primarily negative review, Lisa Schwarzbaum writing for Entertainment Weekly, called the film "an oddly unengaging one, not because of any weak performances (even crooning poetess Jewel acquits herself pleasantly in her film debut), but because the waxy yellow buildup of earnest tastefulness (the curse of the Burns school of history) seals off every character from our access."[28] Describing a favorable opinion, Russell Smith of The Austin Chronicle professed the film as exhibiting "unostentatious originality, psychological insight, and stark beauty". While following up, he stressed "There's an odd blend of stylization and extreme realism to this film. The dialogue is stilted, full of archaic $20-words and dime-novel flamboyance — all the more jarring when delivered by these teenaged bumpkin characters."[29]

"It's a film that would inspire useful discussion in a history class, but for ordinary moviegoers, it's slow and forbidding."
—Roger Ebert, writing for the Chicago Sun-Times[27]

James Berardinelli of ReelViews proclaimed Ride with the Devil "takes us away from the big battles of the East and to a place where things are less cleanly defined." He also stated that "As was true almost everywhere else, idealogical gulfs often divided families. This is the terrain into which Lee has ventured, and the resulting motion picture offers yet another effective and affecting portrait of the United States' most important and difficult conflict."[20] David Sterritt writing for The Christian Science Monitor reasoned, "The movie is longer and slower than necessary, but it explores interesting questions of wartime violence, personal integrity, and what it means to come of age in a society ripping apart at the seams."[30] Film critic Steve Simels of TV Guide was consumed with the nature of the subject matter exclaiming, "A nicely ambiguous ending and terrific acting by the mostly young cast mostly makes up for the longeurs, however, and for the record, Jewel acquits herself well in a not particularly demanding role."[31]

In 2013, the film was the subject of an essay in a collection of scholarly essays on Ang Lee's films, The Philosophy of Ang Lee.[32]

Home media

Following its cinematic release in theaters, the Region 1 Code widescreen edition of the film was released on DVD in the United States on July 18, 2000. Special features for the DVD include; Jewel music video: "What's Simple Is True", the Theatrical Trailer, Production notes, Cast and filmmakers extra, and a Universal web link.[33]

The Criterion Collection released a restored special edition on DVD and Blu-ray on April 27, 2010. It includes a 148-minute extended cut of the film. Special features include; Two audio commentaries one featuring Lee and producer-screenwriter James Schamus and one featuring Elmes, sound designer Drew Kunin, and production designer Mark Friedberg; a new video interview with star Jeffrey Wright, and a booklet featuring essays by critic Godfrey Cheshire and Edward E. Leslie, author of The Devil Knows How to Ride: The True Story of William Clarke Quantrill and his Confederate Raiders.[34]

The film is also available in video on demand formats, as well.[35]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f "Ride with the Devil (1999)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
  2. ^ "RIDE WITH THE DEVIL (15)". British Board of Film Classification. October 20, 1999. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e Nelson 2013, p. 41.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Ang Lee. (1999). Ride with the Devil [Motion picture] Production Notes. United States: Universal Pictures.
  5. ^ Teo 2017, p. 169.
  6. ^ Nelson 2013, pp. 40–41.
  7. ^ a b "Ride with the Devil (1999) Movie Details". Yahoo! Movies. Archived from the original on May 9, 2006.
  8. ^ "Ride with the Devil: Music from and inspired by the Motion Picture". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  9. ^ "Ride with the Devil (1999) Cast and Credits". Yahoo! Movies. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012.
  10. ^ Woodrell, Daniel (1999). Ride with the Devil. Pocket Books. ISBN 978-0-671-03648-5.
  11. ^ Butler, Robert W. (September 12, 1999). "Praise flows at debut of 'Ride With the Devil' KC-filmed Civil War drama plays to emotions of Toronto film festival audience, critics". The Kansas City Star. p. A1. closed access
  12. ^ "London Film Festival opens". BBC News. Archived from the original on July 19, 2018.
  13. ^ a b c Domestic Total Gross. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  14. ^ "November 26–28, 1999 Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  15. ^ "December 10–12, 1999 Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  16. ^ "January 7–9, 2000 Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  17. ^ 1999 DOMESTIC GROSSES. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  18. ^ a b "Ride with the Devil". Metacritic. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  19. ^ "Ride with the Devil (1999)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  20. ^ a b Berardnelli, James (November 1999). "Ride with the Devil". ReelViews. Archived from the original on November 10, 2019.
  21. ^ Stack, Peter (December 17, 1999). "Civil War's Toll in Microcosm]". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on December 18, 2002.
  22. ^ Hunter, Stephen (December 17, 1999). "When Johnny Doesn't Come Marching Home". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
  23. ^ Holden, Stephen (November 24, 1999). "Ride With the Devil: Far From Gettysburg, a Heartland Torn Apart". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 13, 2019.
  24. ^ Morris, Wesley (December 17, 1999). "Two new movies use Maguire as icon". The San Francisco Examiner. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011.
  25. ^ O'Hehir, Andrew (November 24, 1999). "Ride with the Devil". Salon. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
  26. ^ McCarthy, Todd (September 12, 1999). "Ride with the Devil". Variety. Archived from the original on January 22, 2012.
  27. ^ a b Ebert, Roger (December 17, 1999). "Ride with the Devil". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on November 2, 2019.
  28. ^ Schwarzbaum, Lisa (December 3, 1999). "Ride with the Devil". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on December 9, 2017.
  29. ^ Smith, Russell (December 17, 1999). "Ride with the Devil". The Austin Chronicle. Austin, Texas. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016.
  30. ^ Sterritt, David (November 1999). Ride with the Devil. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  31. ^ Steve, Simels (November 1999). Ride with the Devil:Review. TV Guide. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  32. ^ "All's Fair in Love and War? Ang Lee's Ride With the Devil" in The Philosophy of Ang Lee, eds. Robert Arp, Adam Barkman, and Jim McRae (University Press of Kentucky, 2013), 265–290.
  33. ^ "Ride with the Devil (1999) – DVD Widescreen". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  34. ^ "Ride with the Devil DVD – Special Edition)". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  35. ^ "Ride with the Devil VOD Format". Retrieved December 1, 2011.


Further reading

  • Woodrell, Daniel (2012). Woe To Live On. Back Bay Books. ISBN 978-0-316-20616-7.
  • Schrantz, Ward (1988). Jasper County, Missouri, in the Civil War. The Carthage, Missouri Kiwanis Club. ASIN B001J3JKDU.
  • Livingston-Martin, Lisa (2011). Civil War Ghosts of Southwest Missouri. The History Press. ISBN 978-1-60949-267-0.
  • Tibbetts, John C. (2007). The Literature/Film Reader: Issues of Adaptation. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-5949-4.
  • Arp, Robert; et al. (2013). The Philosophy of Ange Lee. University of Kentucky Press. ISBN 978-0813141664.
  • Marcus, Alan (2010). Teaching History with Film: Strategies for Secondary Social Studies. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-99956-4.
  • McCorkle, John (1998). Three Years with Quantrill. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3056-3.
  • Castel, Albert (2006). Bloody Bill Anderson: The Short, Savage Life of a Civil War Guerrilla. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1434-6.
  • Schultz, Duane (1997). Quantrill's War: The Life & Times Of William Clarke Quantrill. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0-312-16972-5.
  • McLachlan, Sean (2011). Ride Around Missouri - Shelby's Great Raid 1863. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84908-429-1.
  • Connelley, William (2010). Quantrill and the Border Wars. Forgotten Books. ISBN 978-1-4510-0194-5.
  • Monaghan, Jay (1984). Civil War on the Western Border, 1854-1865. Bison Books by University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-8126-4.
  • O'Brien, Cormac (2007). Secret Lives of the Civil War. Quirk Books. ISBN 978-1-59474-138-8.
  • Foreman, Amanda (2011). A World on Fire: Britain's Crucial Role in the American Civil War. Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50494-5.
  • Mills, Charles (2002). Treasure Legends of the Civil War. BookSurge Publishing. ISBN 1-58898-646-2.
  • Fellman, Michael (1990). Inside War: The Guerrilla Conflict in Missouri During the American Civil War. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506471-2.
  • Eicher, David (2002). The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84945-3.
  • Nichols, Bruce (2004). Guerrilla Warfare in Civil War Missouri, 1862. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-1689-9.
  • Collins, Robert (2007). Jim Lane: Scoundrel, Statesman, Kansan. Pelican Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58980-445-6.
  • Bird, Roy (2004). Civil War in Kansas. Pelican Publishing. ISBN 1-58980-164-4.
  • Ponce, Pearl (2011). Kansas's War. Ohio University Press. ISBN 978-0-8214-1936-6.
  • Toplin, Robert (2002). Reel History. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1200-9.
  • McCrisken, Trevor (2005). American History and Contemporary Hollywood Film. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-3621-7.
  • Goodrich, Thomas (1992). Bloody Dawn: The Story of the Lawrence Massacre. Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-476-8.
  • Benedict, Bryce (2009). Jayhawkers: The Civil War Brigade of James Henry Lane. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3999-9.
  • Ross, Kirby (2005). Autobiography of Samuel S. Hildebrand: The Renowned Missouri Bushwhacker. University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 978-1-55728-799-1.