Rizal
Province of Rizal
Clockwise (from the top): Rizal Provincial Capitol, Hinulugang Taktak, Angono Petroglyphs, Pililla Wind Farm, Masungi Georeserve
Flag of Rizal
Official seal of Rizal
Anthem: Rizal Mabuhay
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
OpenStreetMap
Coordinates: 14°40′N 121°15′E / 14.67°N 121.25°E / 14.67; 121.25Coordinates: 14°40′N 121°15′E / 14.67°N 121.25°E / 14.67; 121.25
CountryPhilippines
RegionCalabarzon
FoundedJune 11, 1901
Named forJosé Rizal
Capital
and largest city
Antipolo (since 2020)
Government
 • TypeSangguniang Panlalawigan
 • GovernorNina Ricci A. Ynares (NPC)
 • Vice GovernorReynaldo H. San Juan, Jr. (PFP)
 • LegislatureRizal Provincial Board
Area
 • Total1,191.94 km2 (460.21 sq mi)
 • Rank73rd out of 81
Highest elevation
(Mount Irid)
1,509 m (4,951 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [2]
 • Total3,330,143
 • Rank4th out of 81
 • Density2,800/km2 (7,200/sq mi)
  • Rank1st out of 81
Demonym(s)Rizaleño
Divisions
 • Independent cities0
 • Component cities
 • Municipalities
 • Barangays189
 • Districts
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups
 • Languages
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
1850–1990
IDD:area code+63 (0)2
ISO 3166 codePH-RIZ
Websiterizalprovince.ph Edit this at Wikidata

Rizal, officially the Province of Rizal (Filipino: Lalawigan ng Rizal), is a province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon. Its capital is the city of Antipolo. It is about 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) east of Manila. The province is named after José Rizal, one of the main national heroes of the Philippines. Rizal is bordered by Metro Manila to the west, Bulacan to the north, Quezon to the east and Laguna to the southeast. The province also lies on the northern shores of Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country. Rizal is a mountainous province perched on the western slopes of the southern portion of the Sierra Madre mountain range.

Pasig served as its capital until 2008, even it became a part of the newly created National Capital Region since November 7, 1975. A provincial capitol has been in Antipolo since 2009, making it the administrative center. On June 19, 2020, President Rodrigo Duterte signed Republic Act No. 11475, which designated Antipolo as the capital of Rizal.[3][4] The change took place on July 7, 2020.

This province is a part of Greater Manila Area.

History

Further information: Morong (district) and Manila (province)

Tagalog settlement arrived some time in the pre-Spanish period. The provincial territory began with the organization of the Tondo province and Laguna province during the Spanish administration. Some of the towns like Pasig, Parañaque, Taytay and Cainta were already thriving.

From the reports of the Encomiendas in 1582–1583, the Encomiendas of Moron (Morong) was under the jurisdiction of La Laguna and, the Encomiendas of Passi (Pasig), Taitay (Taytay) and Tagui (Taguig) belonged to the Province of Tondo. It was recorded that in 1591, the Encomiendas of Moron and Taitay were under the jurisdiction of the Franciscan Order in the Province of La Laguna; and the Encomiendas of Nabotas (Navotas), Tambobo (Malabon), Tondo, Parañaque (then La Huerta, Parañaque), Longalo (Don Galo, Parañaque), Tagui and Pasig were under the jurisdiction of the Augustinians in the Province of Tondo.

In 1853, a new political subdivision named Distrito Politico-Militar de los Montes de San Mateo (transl. Politico-Militar District of the San Mateo Mountains) was formed.[5] This consisted of the towns of Antipolo, Bosoboso, Cainta and Taytay from the Province of Tondo; and the towns of Morong, Baras, Tanay, Pililla, Angono, Binangonan and Jala-jala from the Province of La Laguna, with the capital at Morong. This district was changed to Distrito Politico-Militar de Morong four years later.[6]

In 1860, by virtue of Circular No. 83, dated September 2, 1785, the Province of Tondo became the Province of Manila. All its towns were placed under the administration, fiscal supervision and control of the Governor of the new province.

The town of Mariquina (Marikina) became the capital of the Province of Manila during the tenure of the revolutionary government of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. The Politico-Military District of Morong had for its capital the town of Antipolo from 1898 to 1899 and the town of Tanay from 1899 to 1900.

Creation of the province

Map of Manila province

On February 6, the First Philippine Commission sought to establish civil government in the country through a provincial organization act after the Filipino-Spanish and Filipino-American conflicts.

Therefore, on June 5, 1901, a historic meeting was held at the Pasig Catholic Church for the organization of a civil government in the Province of Manila and District of Morong, with 221 delegates in attendance.[7] The first Philippine Commission, headed by William Howard Taft and composed of Commissioners Luke E. Wright, Henry C. Ide, Bernard Moses and Dean C. Worcester, discussed with the Assembly the issue of whether or not to write the Province of Manila with the District of Morong, was not self-sufficient to operate as a separate province.

Although the delegates from Morong, Hilarion Raymundo, and José Tupas, objected to the proposal, Juan Sumulong of Antipolo strongly advocated the move. After much acrimonious debate and upon the suggestion of Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera the body agreed on the creation of a new province independent of the Province of Manila. The new province was aptly named after José Rizal, the country's national hero.

The ruins of the first provincial capitol in Santa Rosa, Pasig that was the seat of government for the province until 1950[8]
The ruins of the first provincial capitol in Santa Rosa, Pasig that was the seat of government for the province until 1950[8]

On June 11, 1901, the province of Rizal was officially and legally created by virtue of Act No. 137 by the First Philippine Commission which during the time was acting as the unicameral legislative body in the island of Luzon.[9]

The new province was composed of 32 municipalities, 19 from the old Province of Manila (i.e. Cainta, Caloocan, Las Piñas, Malibay, Mariquina (Marikina), Montalban (Rodriguez), Muntinlupa, Navotas, Novaliches, Parañaque, Pasig, Pateros, Pineda (Pasay), San Felipe Neri (Mandaluyong), San Juan del Monte (San Juan), San Mateo, San Pedro Macati (Makati), Taguig, Tambobong (Malabon)); and 13 from the Politico-Military District of Morong (i.e. Angono, Antipolo, Baras, Binangonan, Bosoboso, Cardona, Jalajala, Morong, Pililla, Quisao, Tanay, Taytay and Teresa).[10] The City of Manila from the old Province of Manila was treated as a separate entity. The seat of the provincial government was Pasig.

The number of municipalities changed with the municipal boundaries through time, mostly occurring within the provincial boundary.[11][12][13][14] On October 12, 1903, the former municipalities of Bosoboso, Malibay, Novaliches and Quisao were absorbed by Antipolo, Pasay, Caloocan and Pililla, respectively, by virtue of Act No. 942.[10] On November 25, 1903, Muntinlupa was ceded to the Province of La Laguna and became part of the municipality of Biñan,[15] but was later returned to Rizal on March 22, 1905 and became part of Taguig until December 17, 1917.[16][17]

Political map of Rizal before the creation of Quezon City
Political map of Rizal before the creation of Quezon City

On October 12, 1939, Quezon City was established,[18] which included parts of Caloocan, and later on, Novaliches and parts of Marikina, Pasig and San Juan.

World War II

Marking's and the Hunter's ROTC Guerrillas operated in Rizal Province throughout the war.[19][20]

In 1942, the towns of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Pateros, San Juan and Taguig and Quezon City were merged with Manila to form the City of Greater Manila as an emergency measure by President Manuel L. Quezon. The Japanese occupation forces dissolved the city in 1944, thus separating the consolidated cities and towns.[21]

Post-war

The second provincial capitol along Shaw Boulevard, Pasig, which was the seat of government for the province from 1950 to 2009[22]
The second provincial capitol along Shaw Boulevard, Pasig, which was the seat of government for the province from 1950 to 2009[22]

Through Presidential Decree No. 824, Rizal was partitioned on November 7, 1975 to form Metro Manila. The municipalities of Las Piñas, Parañaque, Muntinlupa, Taguig, Pateros, Makati, Mandaluyong, San Juan, Malabon, Navotas, Pasig and Marikina, and the three cities of Caloocan, Pasay and Quezon City were excised to form the new region, while the other 14 towns remained in Rizal.[23]

Contemporary history

On June 17, 2008, Governor Casimiro Ynares III announced the transfer of the Capitol from Pasig. Its ₱270-million capitol building, constructed in Antipolo by Ortigas & Co., owner thereof, was completed by December of that year. Built on a five-hectare lot at the Ynares Center, it employs 2,008 employees.[24] The New Capitol was successfully inaugurated on March 4, 2009, bringing back the Capitol Building inside the provincial territory, from which it was absent for 34 years (when Pasig was incorporated into Metro Manila).

On June 19, 2020, President Rodrigo Duterte signed Republic Act No. 11475 into law, which officially transferred the capital of the Rizal province from Pasig to Antipolo. The law was published on June 22, 2020, and took effect on July 7, 2020. The publication of the law coincided with the 159th birth anniversary of Rizal.

Geography

Rizal covers a total area of 1,191.94 square kilometers (460.21 sq mi)[25] occupying the northern-central section of the Calabarzon in Luzon. The province is bordered on the north by Bulacan, east by Quezon, southeast by Laguna, south by the Laguna de Bay, and west by Metro Manila.

Located 20 kilometers (12 mi) east of Manila, commuters take approximately an hour to reach the provincial seat which is in Antipolo. Generally hilly and mountainous in terrain, most of the province's southern towns lie in the shores of Laguna de Bay, the country's largest inland body of water.[1]

Talim Island, the largest island situated within the Laguna de Bay, is under the jurisdiction of the province.

Mountainous terrain in Rodriguez
Rice fields in Binangonan
Laguna de Bay as seen from Cardona
Limestone outcrop along the Marilaque Highway in Tanay

Climate

Climate data for Rizal
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
31.5
(88.7)
33.1
(91.6)
34.5
(94.1)
34.0
(93.2)
32.6
(90.7)
32.0
(89.6)
31.2
(88.2)
31.4
(88.5)
31.6
(88.9)
31.4
(88.5)
30.5
(86.9)
32.0
(89.7)
Average low °C (°F) 21.6
(70.9)
21.8
(71.2)
22.9
(73.2)
24.1
(75.4)
25.0
(77.0)
25.0
(77.0)
24.6
(76.3)
24.8
(76.6)
24.3
(75.7)
24.0
(75.2)
23.5
(74.3)
22.3
(72.1)
23.7
(74.6)
Average rainy days 5 3 4 5 13 20 22 22 22 17 15 8 156
Source: Storm247 [26]

Administrative divisions

Rizal comprises 13 municipalities and 1 city.[25]

Political map of Rizal
Political map of Rizal

Demographics

Population census of Rizal
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 50,095—    
1918 63,719+1.62%
1939 87,876+1.54%
1948 104,578+1.95%
1960 173,958+4.33%
1970 307,238+5.85%
1975 414,192+6.17%
1980 555,533+6.05%
1990 977,448+5.81%
1995 1,312,489+5.68%
2000 1,707,218+5.80%
2007 2,298,691+4.19%
2010 2,484,840+2.87%
2015 2,884,227+2.88%
2020 3,330,143+2.87%
Figures prior to 1980 exclude areas that became part of Metro Manila.
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[27][28][29][30]

Population

The population of Rizal in the 2020 census was 3,330,143 people, [2] with a density of 2,800 inhabitants per square kilometre or 7,300 inhabitants per square mile. Due to its location being in the heart of the Katagalugan, almost all of the residents of Rizal mainly speak Tagalog. English and Filipino are used as second languages respectively.

Religion

Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion with about 80 percent adherence, 2% are from Members Church of God International. Various Christian groups exist such as Oneness Apostolic or Pentecostal like UPC, ALJC and ACJC, Iglesia Filipina Independiente, Born-again Christians, Jesus Is Lord Church Worldwide, Iglesia ni Cristo, Jehovah's Witnesses, Baptist, Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints, El Shaddai (movement) Methodists, Presbyterians, Seventh-day Adventist and other Evangelical Christians. Muslims, Anitists, animists, and atheists are also present in the province.

Economy

Before the 1990s, the primary source of economy in Rizal province were the huge piggery estates owned by Manila-based families.[citation needed] In recent years, the province became one of the most progressive provinces in the country, owing to its proximity to Metro Manila, the economic center of the Philippines. Antipolo, Taytay and Cainta serve as the economic centers of the province, while Angono, Rodriguez, Morong, San Mateo, Tanay, Binangonan and Teresa are taking successful steps to urbanize areas within their jurisdiction.[citation needed] Other areas of the province are having difficulty to start the urbanization process, mainly because of the lack of main roads to connect these to economic centers.[citation needed]

In a study recently[when?] conducted by the National Statistics Coordination Board (NSCB),[citation needed] Rizal province came out to be the Philippines' least poor province with a poverty incidence rate of 3.4%, even lower than that of the National Capital Region or Metro Manila.[citation needed]. On April 23, 2013, the National Statistics Coordination Board (NCSB) reported that Rizal, from being the least poor province in poverty incidence moved down to the 3rd Place, with Cavite taking over as the least province by 4.1% (compared to Rizal's 7.6%) and Laguna for 2nd with 6.3%.[38]

Antipolo, the province's capital city, is the center of trade and exchange, tourism, government, and economy.[citation needed] It is also a center of education and sports because of the availability of various educational and physical training facilities.[citation needed] Acclaimed of its scenic attractions, the city also produces agricultural products such as cashew nuts and rice cakes.[citation needed] Taytay, the province's center of garment and textile manufacturing, is also the town where the country's largest mall operator runs a store near the town center.[citation needed] Meanwhile, Cainta serves as the center of business-process outsourcing (BPO) businesses in the province, aside from being known for the presence of several shopping centers and delicacies such as bibingka or rice cakes.[citation needed]

Points of interest

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Government

The new provincial capitol in Antipolo
The new provincial capitol in Antipolo

The provincial legislature or the Sangguniang Panlalawigan is composed of ten elected members. Effective 2022, four members are elected from each of the province's first legislative district, two from the second district, and one each from the third and fourth legislative districts and Antipolo's first and second legislative districts.

Governors

Main article: Governor of Rizal

References

  1. ^ a b "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Census of Population (2020). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  3. ^ Aguilar, Krissy (June 22, 2020). "Duterte transfers capital, seat of gov't of Rizal from Pasig City to Antipolo City". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  4. ^ "Antipolo City now Rizal provincial capital after four decades". CNN Philippines. June 22, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  5. ^ "Journey to the Past". Rizal Provincial Government. Retrieved June 18, 2022.
  6. ^ "Journey to the Past". Rizal Provincial Government. Retrieved June 19, 2022.
  7. ^ "Historical Spots". Pasig City. Retrieved June 16, 2022.
  8. ^ "the Pasig formerly of Rizal: Rizal's first Capitol". Urban Roamer. April 14, 2012. Retrieved June 17, 2022.
  9. ^ Act No. 137 (11 June 1901), An Act Extending the Provisions of the Provincial Government Act to the Province of Rizal, retrieved June 12, 2022
  10. ^ a b Act No. 942 (12 October 1903), An Act Reducing the Thirty-Two Municipalities of the Province of Rizal to Fifteen, retrieved June 17, 2022
  11. ^ Act No. 984 (6 November 1903), An Act Amending Acy Numbered Nine Hundred and Forty-Two, Entitled "An Act Reducing the Thirty-Two Municipalities of the Province of Rizal to Fifteen," by Reducing the Thirty-Two Municipalities of the Said Province to Sixteen, retrieved June 21, 2022
  12. ^ Act No. 1442 (16 January 1906), An Act Increasing the number of municipalities in the Province of Rizal from sixteen, as established by Act Numbered Nine hundred and forty-two, as amended, to seventeen, by making Malabon and Navotas separate municipalities, and transferring the former municipality of Baras from the municipality of Morong to the municipality of Tanay., retrieved April 24, 2022
  13. ^ Act No. 1625 (27 March 1907), An Act Increasing the number of municipalities in the Province of Rizal from seventeen to nineteen, by separating from San Felipe Neri the former municipality of San Juan del Monte and from Parañaque the former municipality of Las Piñas, giving to each the territory which it comprised prior to the passage of Act Numbered Nine hundred and forty-two, and providing for the distribution of funds in the municipal treasuries of said municipalities., retrieved June 19, 2022
  14. ^ Act No. 1720 (20 September 1907), AN ACT INCREASING THE NUMBER OF MUNICIPALITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF RIZAL TO TWENTY, BY SEPARATING FROM THE PRESENT MUNICIPALITY OF PILILLA THE FORMER MUNICIPALITY OF JALAJALA AND GIVING THE LATTER THE SAME TERRITORY WHICH IT COMPRISED PRIOR TO THE PASSAGE OF ACT NUMBERED NINE HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO., retrieved June 20, 2022
  15. ^ Act No. 1008 (25 November 1903), An Act Amending Act Numbered Nine hundred and thirty-nine, entitled "An Act reducing the thirty municipalities of the Province of La Laguna to nineteen," and Act Numbered Nine hundred and forty-two, entitled "An Act reducing the thirty - two municipalities of the Province of Rizal to fifteen," and providing that the boundary line between the Provinces of La Laguna and Rizal be changed so as to include in La Laguna the municipality of Muntinlupa now a part of Rizal., retrieved April 24, 2022
  16. ^ Act No. 1308 (22 March 1905), An Act providing for the return of the former municipality of Muntinlupa from the Province of La Laguna to the Province of Rizal, repealing paragraph (e) of section one and sections two and three of Act Numbered One thousand and eight, and changing the name of the municipality of Pateros, of the Province of Rizal, to Taguig., retrieved June 18, 2022
  17. ^ "About the City". City Government of Muntinlupa. Retrieved June 19, 2022.
  18. ^ Commonwealth Act No. 502 (12 October 1939), An Act to Create Quezon City, retrieved June 19, 2021
  19. ^ Kaminski, Theresa (2016). Angels of the Underground. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 244–246, 332, 351–353, 375. ISBN 9780199928248.
  20. ^ Panlilio, Yay (1950). The Crucible: An Autobiography by Colonel Yay, Filipina American Guerrilla. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. pp. 42, 187. ISBN 9780813546827.
  21. ^ "Historical Background". DENR - Environment Management Bureau - National Capital Region. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  22. ^ "the Pasig formerly of Rizal: the second Rizal capitol". Urban Roamer. April 19, 2012. Retrieved June 17, 2022.
  23. ^ Presidential Decree No. 824 (7 November 1975), Creating the Metropolitan Manila and the Metropolitan Manila Commission and for Other Purposes, retrieved 17 April 2016
  24. ^ "gmanews.tv, Rizal capitol to be transferred to Antipolo". Gmanews.tv. 2008-06-17. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
  25. ^ a b c d "Province: Rizal". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  26. ^ "Weather forecast for Rizal, Philippines". Storm247.com. Bergen, NO: StormGeo AS. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  27. ^ a b Census of Population (2015). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  28. ^ a b Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  29. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities (PDF). NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  30. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
  31. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  32. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/NSCB_LocalPovertyPhilippines_0.pdf; publication date: 29 November 2005; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  33. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2009%20Poverty%20Statistics.pdf; publication date: 8 February 2011; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  34. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  35. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  36. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  37. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Updated%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%20with%20Measures%20of%20Precision%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province_2015%20and%202018.xlsx; publication date: 4 June 2020; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  38. ^ "Rizal poverty incidence rate". NCSB. 2013-04-23. Archived from the original on 2013-04-29. Retrieved 2013-05-05.
  39. ^ Pinto Art Museum
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