Robert Brustein
Brustein in 2011
BornRobert Sanford Brustein
(1927-04-21) April 21, 1927 (age 94)
New York City
Occupationtheatrical critic, producer, playwright, educator
EducationAmherst College (BA)
Yale University
Columbia University (MA, PhD)
ChildrenPeter Beinart (stepson)

Robert Sanford Brustein (born April 21, 1927) is an American theatrical critic, producer, playwright, writer, and educator. He founded both the Yale Repertory Theatre in New Haven, Connecticut, and the American Repertory Theatre in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he remains a creative consultant, and was the theatre critic for The New Republic. He comments on politics for the Huffington Post.

Brustein is a senior research fellow at Harvard University and a distinguished scholar in residence at Suffolk University in Boston.[1] He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1999[2] and in 2002 was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame.[3] In 2003 he served as a senior fellow with the National Arts Journalism Program[4] at Columbia University, and in 2004 and 2005 was a senior fellow at the National Endowment for the Arts Arts Journalism Institute in Theatre and Musical Theatre[5] at the University of Southern California. In 2010, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts by President Barack Obama.

Life and career

Brustein was born in New York City.[6] In elementary and high school, his dream was “to be Artie Shaw’s successor as a swing band leader.”[7] He was educated at The High School of Music & Art,[8] and Amherst College, where he received a BA in 1948 (briefly studying in the medieval history graduate program), the Yale School of Drama for a year studying dramatic literature and criticism, and Columbia University, where he received an MA in 1950 and a PhD in 1957 in dramatic literature and cultural criticism, supervised by Lionel Trilling. During this time, he served in the Merchant Marine on tankers and Victory ships, and later at Kings Point Academy on Long Island. He also held a Fulbright Fellowship to study in the United Kingdom from 1953 to 1955, where he directed plays at the University of Nottingham.[9] After teaching at Cornell University, Vassar College, and Columbia, where he became a full professor of dramatic literature in the English department, he became Dean of the Yale School of Drama in 1966, and served in that position until 1979. It was during this period, in 1966, that he founded the Yale Repertory Theatre.[10]

In 1979, Brustein left Yale for Harvard University, where he founded the American Repertory Theatre (ART) and became a professor of English. At Harvard, he founded the Institute for Advanced Theater Training. He retired from the artistic directorship of ART in 2002 and now serves on the faculty of the institute. He has been a distinguished scholar in residence since 2007 at Suffolk University, where he teaches courses in Shakespeare Analysis.[11] As the artistic director of Yale Rep from 1966 to 1979, and of ART from 1980 to 2002, Brustein supervised over 200 productions, acting in eight and directing twelve.[11]

Critical writing

Brustein was the theatre critic for The New Republic from 1959 to "about 2000",[12] and contributes to the Huffington Post. He is the author of sixteen books on theatre and society:

Brustein was the writer and narrator of a WNET television series in 1966 called The Opposition Theatre. He also comments on contemporary social and political issues for the Huffington Post.

Conflict with August Wilson

In 1996 and 1997, Brustein was involved in an extended public debate – through their essays, speeches and personal appearances – with African-American playwright August Wilson about multiculturalism, color-blind casting, and other issues where race impacts on the craft and practice of theatre in America.[27][28][29][30][31]

Other Conflicts

Brustein criticized the not-for-profit theaters for developing commercial work and becoming tryout houses for Broadway.[32] His fellow directors of regional theaters felt betrayed. A series of articles and letters followed in the New York Times and elsewhere.[33] Critics from the Boston Globe and the Boston Phoenix attacked Brustein for his dual roles as producer/director and theater critic, calling it a conflict of interest. The critic Davi Napoleon wrote an essay that included quotations from other critics who said that Brustein's dual roles made him uniquely qualified to review theater with insight and intelligence. Napoleon pointed out that while Brustein sometimes reviewed colleagues and former students, he did not always review them favorably.[34]


As a playwright, Brustein has both authored plays and adapted the material of other authors.


During his tenure at ART, Brustein wrote eleven adaptations, including Henrik Ibsen's The Wild Duck,[35] The Master Builder,[36] and When We Dead Awaken, the last directed by Robert Wilson; Three Farces and a Funeral,[37] adapted from the works and life of Anton Chekhov; Luigi Pirandello's Enrico IV;[38] and Brustein's final production at ART, Lysistrata[39] by Aristophanes, directed by Andrei Serban.

Adaptations which he also directed while at ART include a Pirandello trilogy: Six Characters in Search of an Author,[40] which won the Boston Theatre Award for Best Production of 1996, Right You Are (If You Think You Are), and Tonight We Improvise; Ibsen's Ghosts, Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard, Strindberg's The Father, and Thomas Middleton's The Changeling.[41]

Brustein also conceived and adapted the musical Shlemiel the First, based on the stories of Isaac Bashevis Singer and set to traditional klezmer music, which was directed and choreographed by David Gordon.[42][43] After the original presentation in 1994 at ART[44] and in Philadelphia at the American Music Theatre Festival, who co-produced the show, Shlemiel the First was revived several times in Cambridge and subsequently played at the Lincoln Center Serious Fun Festival, the American Conservatory Theater in San Francisco,[45] and the Geffen Playhouse in Los Angeles,[46] as well as touring theatres on the east coast of Florida and in Stamford, Connecticut.[47] The play has also been produced at Theater J[48] in Washington, D.C.. A remount of the original David Gordon production was presented by Peak Performances at Montclair State University's Kasser Theatre in January 2010,[49] and went on to a three-week run at New York University's Skirball Center for the Performing Arts.

Brustein's new klezmer musical, with composer Hankus Netsky, The King of Second Avenue, an adaptation of Israel Zangwill's The King of the Schnorrers, was produced at the New Repertory Theatre in 2015.[50]

Original works

Brustein's full-length plays include Demons, Nobody Dies on Friday, The Face Lift, Spring Forward, Fall Back, and his Shakespeare Trilogy The English Channel, Mortal Terror, and "The Last Will."

Demons, which was broadcast on WGBH radio in 1993, had its stage world premiere as part of the American Repertory Theatre New Stages Season. Nobody Dies on Friday was given its world premiere in the same series[51] and was presented at the Singapore Arts Festival and the Pushkin Theatre in Moscow. It was included in Marisa Smith's anthology New Playwrights: Best Plays of 1998.[52]

Spring Forward, Fall Back was produced in 2006 at the Vineyard Playhouse[53] on Martha's Vineyard and at Theater J[54] in Washington. The English Channel was produced at the C. Walsh Theatre of Suffolk University in Boston and at the Vineyard Playhouse in the fall of 2007.[55] In the Fall of 2008, it played at the Abingdon Theatre in New York where it was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize.

His short plays Poker Face, Chekhov on Ice, Divestiture, AnchorBimbo, Noises, Terrorist Skit, Airport Hell, Beachman's Last Poetry Reading, "Sex For a Change", and Kosher Kop were all presented by the Boston Playwrights' Theatre and form a play called "Seven/Elevens.[56]

Brustein is also the author of Doctor Hippocrates is Out: Please Leave a Message an anthology of theatrical and cinematic satire on medicine and physicians, commissioned by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement for its 2008 convention in Nashville. Brustein's musical satire, Exposed, was performed in 2014 at the Martha's Vineyard Playhouse.[57]

Awards and honors

Brustein has been the recipient of many awards and honors, including:

In addition, Brustein received the Pirandello Medal, and a medal from the Egyptian government for contributions to world theatre. His papers are housed at the Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center at Boston University.[74]

See also


  1. ^ Celebrated Writer-Director Robert Brustein Joins Suffolk University
  2. ^ a b Current Academicians
  3. ^ a b Complete List of ATHOF Inductees (pdf)
  4. ^ National Arts Journalism Program Past Fellows
  5. ^ NEA Arts Journalism Institute Previous Faculty
  6. ^ Napoleon, Davi. "Theater Talk: Robert Brustein and His Dads" The Faster Times (June 4, 2011)
  7. ^ "Drama, Robert Brustein". VEERY JOURNAL. Retrieved July 16, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ Wolfson, C.K. "Theatre: Robert Brustein: Best of all worlds," Archived November 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine The Martha's Vineyard Times (September 20, 2007).
  9. ^ a b Robert Brustein, "A Critic in the Making"(pdf), Nottingham Alumni Online, 2001. p.15
  10. ^ "History" on the Yale School of Drama website
  11. ^ a b "Robert Brustein" on the Suffolk University website
  12. ^ Rocamora, Carol (November 28, 2017). "A Critical Lion in Winter: Robert Brustein Looks Back". AMERICAN THEATRE. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  13. ^ A Havoc of Meddling Fools Wrapped Up in One Man
  14. ^ Kirkus Reviews
  15. ^ Book Detail
  16. ^ Norton catalog
  17. ^ Kirkus Reviews
  18. ^ Google Books
  19. ^ Kirkus Reviews
  20. ^ Google Books
  21. ^ Publishers Weekly
  22. ^ Google Books
  23. ^ Robin Lippincott in the New York Times
  24. ^ Kirkus Reviews
  25. ^ Google Books
  26. ^ Yale University Press catalog
  27. ^ William Grimes, "On Stage and Off: Face to Face on Multiculturalism", New York Times (December 13, 1996).
  28. ^ William Grimes, "Face-to-Face Encounter on Race in the Theater", New York Times (January 29, 1997).
  29. ^ Frank Rich, "Two Mouths Running", New York Times (February 1, 1997)
  30. ^ Margo Jefferson, "Oratory vs. Really Talking About Culture", New York Times (February 4, 1997).
  31. ^ Wilson vs. Brustein
  32. ^ ["The Siren Song of Broadway is a Warning," New York TImes, May 22nd 1988]
  33. ^ "Who Exercises Artistic Control?". The New York Times. July 3, 1988.
  34. ^ How Much Should a Critic Know? Davi Napoleon, TheaterWeek Magazine, June 12–18, 1995, p 41-43
  35. ^ ART Past Productions: The Wild Duck
  36. ^ ART Past Productions: The Master Builder
  37. ^ ART Past Productions: Three Farces and a Funeral
  38. ^ ART Past Productions: Enrico IV
  39. ^ ART Past Productions: Lysistrata
  40. ^ ART Past Productions: Six Characters
  41. ^ Harvard Crimson review
  42. ^ According to Alvin Klein, writing in the New York Times: "It can be said that Singer is the original author, Mr. Brustein is the adapter and Mr. Gordon is the auteur."
  43. ^ According to John Lahr, writing in The New Yorker: "In its artfulness and eloquence, "Shlemiel the First" is far better than anything currently on Broadway."
  44. ^ ART Past Productions: Shlemiel the First
  45. ^ ACT Production History
  46. ^ Variety review
  47. ^ 'Shlemiel' Continues A Path to Broadway
  48. ^ Theater Shlemiel the First
  49. ^ Shlemiel the First at Peak Performances
  50. ^ "The King of Second Avenue" on the New Repertory Theatre website
  51. ^ ART Past Productions: Nobody Dies On Friday
  52. ^ Smith, Marisa (2000). New Playwrights: The Best Plays of 1998. ISBN 1-57525-171-X.
  53. ^ Vineyard Playhouse Production History
  54. ^ 2006–2007 Season
  55. ^ Vineyard Playhouse: The English Channel
  56. ^ BPT: Production History
  57. ^ "Exposed" on the Martha's Vineyard Playhouse website
  58. ^ 1961 Fellows Archived February 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^ George Jean Nathan Award
  60. ^ 1962 Nathan winner
  61. ^ 1987 Nathan winner
  62. ^ 1964 winners
  63. ^ "Urban Land". 1987.
  64. ^ 1st thru 9th Norton Award winners
  65. ^ NETC Major Award winners of the 1980s
  66. ^ Award Winners
  67. ^ ATHE Career Achievement Award
  68. ^ 2001 Winners
  69. ^ Robert Ridge: Broadway Beat Archived November 17, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  70. ^ USITT Award Winners Archived December 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  71. ^ Playbill News: Mulgrew, Jones, Durang Honor Robert Brustein
  72. ^ Around Waltham
  73. ^ 2008 International O'Neill Conference
  74. ^ Howard Gottlieb Archival Research Center Acquires the Person Archive of Robert Brustein