Rolette County
St. John–Lena Border Crossing
Map of North Dakota highlighting Rolette County
Location within the U.S. state of North Dakota
Map of the United States highlighting North Dakota
North Dakota's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 48°46′N 99°50′W / 48.77°N 99.84°W / 48.77; -99.84
Country United States
State North Dakota
FoundedJanuary 4, 1873 (created)
October 14, 1884 (organized)
Named forJoseph Rolette
SeatRolla
Largest communityBelcourt
Area
 • Total939 sq mi (2,430 km2)
 • Land903 sq mi (2,340 km2)
 • Water36 sq mi (90 km2)  3.9%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total12,187
 • Estimate 
(2021)
12,048
 • Density13/sq mi (5.0/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional districtAt-large
Websitewww.rolettecounty.com

Rolette County is a county in the U.S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2020 census, the population was 12,187.[1] Its county seat is Rolla.[2]

History

The Dakota Territory legislature created the county on January 4, 1873, with territory partitioned from Buffalo County. It was not organized at that date, and was not attached to another county for judicial or administrative purposes. It was named for Joseph Rolette Jr., a fur trader and political figure from Pembina. The county government was effected on October 14, 1884, with Dunseith as the county seat. In 1885 the county seat was assigned to Saint John, and in 1889 it was assigned to Rolla.

The county boundaries were adjusted in 1883 and in 1887. It has retained its present boundary configuration since 1887.[3][4]

The International Peace Garden is located in the northwest corner of the county along the Canada–United States border with Manitoba.

Geography

Native vegetation based on NRCS soils information
Native vegetation based on NRCS soils information

Rolette County lies on the northern border of North Dakota with Canada. Gimby Creek and Wakopa Creek flow into the county from Canada. The terrain consists of dry rolling hills in the south, and more verdant low hills in the north and northwest, dotted with lakes and ponds.[5]

Part of the Turtle Mountain plateau lies in the northwestern part of the county. The terrain slopes to the south and east; its highest point is its northwest corner, at 2,195' (669m) ASL.[6]

The Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation is in the northeast section of Rolette County.

Rolette County has an area of 939 square miles (2,430 km2), of which 903 square miles (2,340 km2) is land and 36 square miles (93 km2) (3.9%) is water.[7]

Major highways

Adjacent counties and rural municipalities

Protected areas

Lakes

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18902,427
19007,995229.4%
19109,55819.5%
192010,0615.3%
193010,7606.9%
194012,58316.9%
195011,102−11.8%
196010,641−4.2%
197011,5498.5%
198012,1775.4%
199012,7724.9%
200013,6747.1%
201013,9371.9%
202012,187−12.6%
2021 (est.)12,048−1.1%
US Decennial Census[8]
1790-1960[9] 1900-1990[10]
1990-2000[11] 2010-2020[1]

2000 census

As of the 2000 census there were 13,674 people, 4,556 households, and 3,366 families in the county. The population density was 15.1/sqmi (5.85/km2). There were 5,027 housing units at an average density of 5.57/sqmi (2.15/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 25.12% White, 0.07% Black or African American, 73.01% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.12% from other races, and 1.61% from two or more races. 0.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 9.3% were of Norwegian and 7.4% German ancestry. 94.6% spoke English, 1.3% Ojibwa, 1.0% French Cree and 1.0% Cree as their first language.

There were 4,556 households, out of which 43.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.00% were married couples living together, 22.70% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.10% were non-families. 22.60% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.97 and the average family size was 3.45.

The county population contained 36.50% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 25.80% from 25 to 44, 18.50% from 45 to 64, and 9.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 97.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $26,232, and the median income for a family was $29,744. Males had a median income of $24,288 versus $20,383 for females. The per capita income for the county was $10,873. About 28.00% of families and 31.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.20% of those under age 18 and 19.60% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census

As of the 2010 census, there were 13,937 people, 4,783 households, and 3,413 families in the county.[12] The population density was 15.4/sqmi (5.96/km2). There were 5,372 housing units at an average density of 5.95/sqmi (2.30/km2).[13] The racial makeup of the county was 77.2% American Indian, 20.3% white, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.0% of the population.[12] In terms of ancestry, 48.5% were French Canadian, 7.0% were German, 6.8% were Norwegian, and 0.3% were American.[14]

Of the 4,783 households, 44.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.1% were married couples living together, 23.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.6% were non-families, and 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.39. The median age was 30.5 years.[12]

The median income for a household in the county was $28,265 and the median income for a family was $35,523. Males had a median income of $35,595 versus $27,459 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,632. About 25.9% of families and 31.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.5% of those under age 18 and 24.8% of those age 65 or over.[15]

Communities

Cities

Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Townships

Politics

Due to its Native American majority population, Rolette County voters are historically Democratic, more consistently so than other such counties in North Dakota. Since 1928 the only Republican to carry the county was Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952.[16] It was the only county in the state to support George McGovern in 1972 and is additionally the only North Dakota county to have supported Jimmy Carter in 1980.[17] In each of the five presidential elections from 1996 to 2012, the Democratic candidate received over 60% of the vote, with Barack Obama winning 75.1% in 2008 and 74.0% in 2012.[18][19] In 2016, Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton received 57.3% of the county's votes,[20] one of the two North Dakota counties that she carried.

United States presidential election results for Rolette County, North Dakota[21][22]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 1,257 33.04% 2,482 65.25% 65 1.71%
2016 1,217 32.41% 2,099 55.90% 439 11.69%
2012 1,092 23.99% 3,353 73.66% 107 2.35%
2008 1,045 23.05% 3,403 75.06% 86 1.90%
2004 1,392 34.42% 2,564 63.40% 88 2.18%
2000 1,416 32.20% 2,681 60.96% 301 6.84%
1996 823 22.85% 2,299 63.84% 479 13.30%
1992 895 24.82% 2,002 55.52% 709 19.66%
1988 1,126 31.23% 2,426 67.28% 54 1.50%
1984 1,479 39.43% 2,179 58.09% 93 2.48%
1980 1,599 44.84% 1,660 46.55% 307 8.61%
1976 1,094 29.62% 2,531 68.54% 68 1.84%
1972 1,713 48.13% 1,803 50.66% 43 1.21%
1968 1,211 37.23% 1,870 57.49% 172 5.29%
1964 892 25.80% 2,566 74.20% 0 0.00%
1960 1,277 35.33% 2,335 64.59% 3 0.08%
1956 1,444 45.44% 1,728 54.37% 6 0.19%
1952 2,188 65.02% 1,160 34.47% 17 0.51%
1948 1,179 41.09% 1,565 54.55% 125 4.36%
1944 1,070 37.78% 1,745 61.62% 17 0.60%
1940 1,555 35.41% 2,820 64.21% 17 0.39%
1936 857 19.34% 3,186 71.89% 389 8.78%
1932 706 19.59% 2,855 79.22% 43 1.19%
1928 1,327 37.50% 2,181 61.63% 31 0.88%
1924 869 35.92% 137 5.66% 1,413 58.41%
1920 2,139 75.05% 535 18.77% 176 6.18%
1916 600 40.00% 762 50.80% 138 9.20%
1912 339 26.74% 396 31.23% 533 42.03%
1908 811 55.32% 529 36.08% 126 8.59%
1904 912 66.38% 366 26.64% 96 6.99%
1900 566 60.41% 355 37.89% 16 1.71%


See also

References

  1. ^ a b "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Rolette County, North Dakota". www.census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 25, 2022.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Dakota Territory, South Dakota, and North Dakota: Individual County Chronologies". Dakota Territory Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2006. Archived from the original on April 2, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
  4. ^ "County History". Official Portal for North Dakota State Government. Archived from the original on February 2, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
  5. ^ a b Rolette County ND Google Maps (accessed February 24, 2019)
  6. ^ ""Find an Altitude/Rolette County ND" Google Maps (accessed February 24, 2019)". Archived from the original on May 21, 2019. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  7. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on January 29, 2015. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  8. ^ "US Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  9. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  10. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (April 20, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  11. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  12. ^ a b c "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
  13. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
  14. ^ "Selected Social Characteristics in the US – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
  15. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
  16. ^ Geographie Electorale
  17. ^ David Leip's Presidential Atlas (Maps for North Dakota by election)
  18. ^ The New York Times electoral map (Zoom in on North Dakota)
  19. ^ 2012 presidential election results from North Dakota, New York Times. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
  20. ^ 2016 presidential election results from North Dakota, New York Times (December 20, 2016). Retrieved December 27, 2016.
  21. ^ Leip, David. "Atlas of US Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
  22. ^ The leading "other" candidate, Progressive Theodore Roosevelt, received 322 votes, while Socialist Eugene Debs received 184 votes, Prohibition candidate Eugene Chafin received 27 votes.

Coordinates: 48°46′N 99°50′W / 48.77°N 99.84°W / 48.77; -99.84