Gnome
Rolls-Royce Gnome at the Imperial War Museum Duxford
Type Turboshaft
Manufacturer de Havilland Engine Company
Bristol Siddeley
Rolls-Royce
First run 5 June 1959
Major applications Westland Sea King
Westland Wessex
Westland Whirlwind
Developed from General Electric T58

The Rolls-Royce Gnome is a British turboshaft engine originally developed by the de Havilland Engine Company as a licence-built General Electric T58, an American mid-1950s design.[1] The Gnome came to Rolls-Royce after their takeover of Bristol Siddeley in 1966, Bristol having absorbed de Havilland Engines Limited in 1961.

A licence to manufacture the T58 was purchased in 1958. The T58 had begun bench testing in 1955[2] and by 1958 had already been used in helicopters and de Havilland were able to test their first engines in a Westland Whirlwind and Wasp helicopters in August 1959 and March 1960 respectively.[3]

A free-turbine turboshaft, it was used in helicopters such as the Westland Sea King and Westland Whirlwind. The design was sub-licensed to Alfa-Romeo.[4]

There were two series produced: the "H" turboshaft for helicopter use, and the "P" turboprop for fixed-wing aircraft.[3]

Design and development

A two-stage turbine drives the 10 stage all-axial compressor, whilst a single-stage free power turbine drives the load. [5] The combustor is annular. The Gnome differed from the T-58 in having a British developed fuel control system (Lucas).

Because an all-axial design is employed, the final stage compressor rotor blades are amongst the smallest ever manufactured. Normally, a small engine such as this would feature an axial/centrifugal or even a double centrifugal compressor.

The engine was the first developed with a full authority analogue computer, de Havilland Propellers' own, as part of the fuel control system, specifically to anticipate helicopter power demand from pilot control inputs and to limit fuel flow during acceleration to prevent engine surge from occurring. The system developed relieved the helicopter pilot of the need to control rotor speed directly; it delivered constant rotor speed under varying rotor load.[6] and in this way was the analogue forerunner of all subsequent full authority digital engine control (FADEC) systems worldwide.

Variants

H.1000
(Mk.101) 1,050 shp (780 kW), first production version for use on later marks of Westland Whirlwind
H.1200
1,250 shp (930 kW), the Westland Wessex uses two H.1200, as the Coupled Gnome, with a coupled gearbox with a power limited to 1,550 shp (1,160 kW) at the rotor.
H.1400
1,400 shp (1,000 kW) for the Westland Sea King HAS.1
H.1400-1
1,535 shp (1,145 kW), uprated from the 1400 by increasing the gas-generator speed and using improved blades that can operate at higher temperatures for the Westland Sea King HAS.2.
H.1400-1T
For the Westland Commando HC.4 troop carrier variant of the Westland Sea King
H.1400-2
1,660 shp (1,240 kW) for the Westland Sea King HAS.5.
H.1400-3
1,720 shp (1,280 kW) with new two-stage power turbine.
H.1600
11-stage compressor with 2-stage free power turbine 1,600 hp (1,200 kW)
P.1000
Turboprop version of the H.1000
P.1200
Turboprop version of the H.1200
P.1400-3
Turboprop version of the H.1400-3 rated at 1,700 shp (1,300 kW).
Gnome Mk.101
Gnome Mk.110
Handed H.1200 engines for Coupled Gnome units used in Westland Wessex helicopters.
Gnome Mk.111
Handed H.1200 engines for Coupled Gnome units used in Westland Wessex helicopters.
Gnome Mk.112
Handed H.1200 engines for Coupled Gnome units used in Westland Wessex HU.5 helicopters.
Gnome Mk.113
Handed H.1200 engines for Coupled Gnome units used in Westland Wessex HU.5 helicopters.
Gnome Mk.501
Civilianised H.1000.
Gnome Mk.510
Civilianised H.1000.
Gnome Mk.610
Civilianised H.1200.
Gnome Mk.640
Civilianised H.1200.
Gnome Mk.640A
Civilianised H.1200.
Gnome Mk 660
Used in the civilian Westland Wessex 60 helicopter variant of Wessex HC.2
Coupled Gnome
Twin engines driving through a common gearbox to a single output.

Applications

Engines on display

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Rolls-Royce Gnome engines are on display at the following museums:

University of Aberdeen

Specifications (Gnome H1400-1)

Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982-83[5]

General characteristics

Components

Performance

See also

Related development

Comparable engines

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ Gunston 1989, p.155.
  2. ^ "Aeroengines 1960". Flight. 18 March 1960. p. 383. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016.
  3. ^ a b "Aeroengines 1960". Flight. 18 March 1960. p. 370. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019.
  4. ^ "Turbine Engines of the World". Flight. 4 January 1973. p. 36. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  5. ^ a b Taylor 1982, p. 764.
  6. ^ "Gnome", Flight, p. 587, 29 April 1960, archived from the original on 5 March 2016
  7. ^ "Engines List". City of Norwich Aviation Museum. Retrieved 27 August 2023.

Bibliography

  • Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Cambridge, England. Patrick Stephens Limited, 1989. ISBN 1-85260-163-9
  • Taylor, John W.R. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982-83., London, Jane's Publishing Company Ltd, 1982. ISBN 0 7106-0748-2.