Kingdom of Soissons, a Roman rump state

A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a greatly reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory.[1] In the last case, a government stops short of going into exile because it controls part of its former territory.


Ancient history

Post-classical history

Modern history

See also



  1. ^ Tir, Jaroslav (Feb 22, 2005). Keeping the Peace After Secessions: Territorial Conflicts Between Rump and Secessionist States. Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association. Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu: Hawaii Online. Retrieved Oct 26, 2014.
  2. ^ Van de Mieroop, Marc (2021). A history of ancient Egypt (Second ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley. p. 152. ISBN 9781119620891.
  3. ^ Myśliwiec, Karol (2000). The twilight of ancient Egypt : first millennium B.C.E. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. p. 69. ISBN 9780801486302.
  4. ^ Potts, D. T.; Radner, Karen; Moeller, Nadine (2020). The Oxford history of the ancient Near East. Volume III: from the Hyksos to the Late Second Millennium BC. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 88. ISBN 9780190687601.
  5. ^ Fattah, Hala Mundhir; Caso, Frank (2009). A Brief History of Iraq. p. 277.
  6. ^ Dodd, Leslie (25 November 2016). "Kinship Conflict and Unity among Roman Elites in Post-Roman Gaul". Official Power and Local Elites in the Roman Provinces. Routledge. p. 170. ISBN 9781317086147.
  7. ^ Richard Todd (2014), The Sufi Doctrine of Man: Ṣadr al-Dīn al-Qūnawī's Metaphysical Anthropology, p. 6
  8. ^ Davies, Norman. Europe: A History, p. 335
  9. ^ Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. p. 166. ISBN 9780813513041.
  10. ^ Fletcher, R. A. (2001). Moorish Spain. London: Phoenix Press. p. 117. ISBN 9781842126059.
  11. ^ Des Forges, Roger V. (2003). Cultural centrality and political change in Chinese history : northeast Henan in the fall of the Ming. Stanford University Press. p. 6. ISBN 9780804740449.
  12. ^ Chaffee, John W. (2015). The Cambridge History of China Volume 5 Part Two Sung China, 960-1279. Cambridge University Press. p. 625.
  13. ^ Seth, Michael J. (2010). A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 115.
  14. ^ Charles Melville (2021). Safavid Persia in the Age of Empires: The Idea of Iran. Vol. 10. p. 33. Only after five more years did Esma'il and the Qezelbash finally defeat the rump Aq Qoyunlu regimes. In Diyarbakr, the Mowsillu overthrew Zeynal b. Ahmad and then later gave their allegiance to the Safavids when the Safavids invaded in 913/1507. The following year the Safavids conquered Iraq and drove out Soltan-Morad, who fled to Anatolia and was never again able to assert his claim to Aq Qoyunlu rule. It was therefore only in 1508 that the last regions of Aq Qoyunlu power finally fell to Esma'il.
  15. ^ Husain, Muzaffar; Akhtar, Syed Saud; Usmani, B. D. (2011). Concise History of Islam (unabridged ed.). Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 310. ISBN 9789382573470. OCLC 868069299.
  16. ^ Bauer, Brian S.; Fonseca Santa Cruz, Javier; Araoz Silva, Miriam (2015). Vilcabamba and the Archaeology of Inca Resistance. Los Angeles. pp. 1–2. ISBN 9781938770623.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  17. ^ Fazal, Tanisha M. (2011). State Death: The Politics and Geography of Conquest, Occupation, and Annexation. Princeton University Press. p. 110. ISBN 9781400841448.
  18. ^ Lerski, George J. (1996). Historical dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Greenwood Press. p. 121. ISBN 9780313260070.
  19. ^ "History". Embassy of Luxembourg in Vientiane. Ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes. Retrieved 23 May 2023. The Belgian Revolution of 1830 and subsequent Treaty of London (1839) led to the partitioning of a section of Luxembourg territory between Belgium and the Dutch king, which resulted in the Grand Duchy's present-day geographical borders.
  20. ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert (2018). Historical atlas of Central Europe: Third Revised and Expanded Edition. University of Toronto Press. p. 128. ISBN 9781487523312.
  21. ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander (2019). Tucker, Spencer C. (ed.). Middle East Conflicts from Ancient Egypt to the 21st Century. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9798216117292.
  22. ^ Mirzoyan, Alla (2010). Armenia, the Regional Powers, and the West: Between History and Geopolitics, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 188—189
  23. ^ Hovannisian Richard G. Armenian Sebastia/Sivas and Lesser Armenia, p. 430
  24. ^ Romsics, Ignác (2004). Magyarország története a XX. században (in Hungarian). Budapest: Osiris Kiadó. p. 136. ISBN 963-389-590-1.
  25. ^ Rychlík, J.; Rychlíková, M. (2016). Podkarpatská Rus v dějinách Československa, 1918–1946 (in Czech). Prague: Vyšehrad. ISBN 9788074295560.
  26. ^ James Hartfield, Unpatriotic History of the Second World War, ISBN 178099379X, 2012, p. 424
  27. ^ Eric Morris, Circles of Hell: The War in Italy 1943-1945, ISBN 0091744741, 1993, p. 140
  28. ^ Neville, Peter (2014). Mussolini (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 199. ISBN 9781317613046.
  29. ^ Williams, Jack; Chang, Ch'ang-yi David (25 February 2008). Taiwan's Environmental Struggle: Toward a Green Silicon Island. ISBN 9781134062836.
  30. ^ "Democracy and the (Non)Statehood of Taiwan". 3 November 2022.
  31. ^ Sudetic, Chuck (1991-10-24), "Top Serb Leaders Back Proposal To Form Separate Yugoslav State", New York Times, retrieved 2018-03-07.
  32. ^ Woodward, Susan L. (April 1995). Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution After the Cold War. Brookings Institution Press. p. 285. ISBN 9780815722953. OCLC 476203561.