STS-127
STS-127 JEM-EF.jpg
Canadarm2 grapples the exposed facility of Kibō, prior to its installation on the ISS
NamesSpace Transportation System-127
Mission typeISS assembly
OperatorNASA
COSPAR ID2009-038A Edit this at Wikidata
SATCAT no.35633
Mission duration15 days, 16 hours, 44 minutes, 58 seconds
Distance travelled10,537,748 kilometres (6,547,853 mi)
Orbits completed248[1]
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftSpace Shuttle Endeavour
Crew
Crew size7
Members
Launching
Landing
Start of mission
Launch dateJuly 15, 2009, 22:03 (2009-07-15UTC22:03Z) UTC
Launch siteKennedy LC-39A
End of mission
Landing dateJuly 31, 2009, 14:48 (2009-07-31UTC14:49Z) UTC
Landing siteKennedy SLF Runway 15
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee altitude344 kilometres (214 mi)[2]
Apogee altitude351 kilometres (218 mi)[2]
Inclination51.6 degrees[1][2]
Period91.48 minutes[2]
EpochJuly 18, 2009[2]
Docking with ISS
Docking portPMA-2
(Harmony forward)
Docking dateJuly 17, 2009 17:47 UTC
Undocking dateJuly 28, 2009 17:26 UTC
Time docked10 days, 23 hours, 41 minutes
STS-127 Patch.svg
STS-127 Crew Photo.jpg

From left to right: Wolf, Cassidy, Hurley, Payette, Polansky, Marshburn, and Kopra
← STS-125
STS-128 →
 

STS-127 (ISS assembly flight 2J/A) was a NASA Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS).[1] It was the twenty-third flight of Space Shuttle Endeavour. The primary purpose of the STS-127 mission was to deliver and install the final two components of the Japanese Experiment Module: the Exposed Facility (JEM EF), and the Exposed Section of the Experiment Logistics Module (ELM-ES).[3][NASA 1] When Endeavour docked with the ISS on this mission in July 2009, it set a record for the most humans in space at the same time in the same vehicle, the first time thirteen people have been at the station at the same time.[4] Together they represented all ISS program partners[5] and tied the general record of thirteen people in space with the first such occurrence of 1995.[6]

The first launch attempt, on June 13, 2009, was scrubbed due to a gaseous hydrogen leak observed during tanking.[7][8] The Ground Umbilical Carrier Plate (GUCP) on the external fuel tank experienced a potentially hazardous hydrogen gas leak similar to the fault that delayed the Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-119 in March 2009. Since a launch date of June 18, 2009, would have conflicted with the launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)/Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), NASA managers discussed the scheduling conflict with both the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter project and the Air Force Eastern Range, which provides tracking support for rockets launched from Florida.[9][10] A decision was made to allow the shuttle to attempt a second launch on June 17, 2009, allowing LRO to launch on June 18, 2009.[8]

The second launch attempt on June 17, 2009, was also scrubbed due to hydrogen leak issues seen from the Ground Umbilical Carrier Plate.[11] Due to conflicts with the launch of the LRO, and due to a beta angle constraint, the next available launch opportunity was scheduled for July 11, 2009.[NASA 2][12] A successful tanking test for leak checks was performed on July 1, 2009, with modified GUCP seals allowing launch preparations to proceed as scheduled.[13] Because of lightning strikes near the launch pad during the evening of July 10, 2009, NASA scrubbed the launch for the third time and rescheduled for July 12, 2009.[14] Due to a Return To Launch Site (RTLS) weather violation, NASA scrubbed the launch for the fourth time on the evening of July 12, 2009.

STS-127's fifth launch attempt, on July 13, 2009, was also scrubbed due to anvil clouds and lightning within 10 nautical miles (19 km) of the launch site, which violated launch safety rules. STS-127 finally launched successfully on its sixth launch attempt, on July 15, 2009, at 18:03 EDT. Pieces of foam were observed falling off of the External Tank during the ascent, the same occurrence that had led to the loss of Columbia in 2003. However, Endeavour received only minor scuffs to its heat shield, the damage not enough to cause concern over reentry.[15] The shuttle landed at Kennedy Space Center 16 days later at 10:48 EDT on July 31, 2009.

Crew

Position[1][NASA 1][NASA 3] Launching Astronaut Landing Astronaut
Commander United States Mark L. Polansky
Third and last spaceflight
Pilot United States Douglas G. Hurley
First spaceflight
Mission Specialist 1 United States Christopher J. Cassidy
First spaceflight
Mission Specialist 2 Canada Julie Payette, CSA
Second and last spaceflight
Mission Specialist 3 United States Thomas H. Marshburn
First spaceflight
Mission Specialist 4 United States David Wolf
Fourth and last spaceflight
Mission Specialist 5 United States Timothy Kopra
Expedition 20
First spaceflight
Japan Koichi Wakata, JAXA
Expedition 20
Third spaceflight
STS-127 marked the first time that two Canadian astronauts, Robert Thirsk and Julie Payette, were in space at the same time.

Christopher Cassidy was the 500th person to fly in space.[16]

Mission payload

Payload bay of the shuttle being loaded inside the cleanroom of the Rotating Service Structure.
Payload bay of the shuttle being loaded inside the cleanroom of the Rotating Service Structure.
ICC-VLD1 STS-127
ICC-VLD1 STS-127

Endeavour carried a wide variety of equipment and cargo in the payload bay, with the largest item being the Kibō Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF), and the Kibō Japanese Experiment Logistics Module – Exposed Section (ELM-ES).[NASA 1] The exposed facility is a part of Kibō that will allow astronauts to perform science experiments that are exposed to the vacuum of space. The exposed section is similar to the logistics module on the Kibō laboratory, but is not pressurized.[NASA 1] Once its payloads were transferred to the JEM EF, the ELM-ES was returned to the payload bay.

Also inside the payload bay was an Integrated Cargo Carrier-Vertical Light Deployable (ICC-VLD), containing a variety of equipment and spare components for the station. The carrier contained six new batteries for installation on the P6 truss, that was installed during two of the mission's spacewalks, as well as a spare space-to-ground antenna and a spare linear drive unit and pump module which was stored on an external stowage platform on the station's truss during one of the spacewalks.[NASA 1]

Two satellites were also carried by the orbiter, for deployment when the mission ended. The Dual Autonomous Global Positioning System On-Orbit Navigator Satellite, called DRAGONSAT, gathers data on autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking capabilities, and consists of two picosatellites, the AggieSat2, and PARADIGM (BEVO-1), which acquire GPS data from a device at NASA and send it to ground stations at Texas A&M University and the University of Texas at Austin.[NASA 1][17] After release, the two picosatellites remained attached for two orbits to collect GPS data, and separated during the third orbit.[NASA 1]

A second satellite, the Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment (ANDE-2), is part of a United States Department of Defense project flown by the Naval Research Laboratory to provide high-quality satellites, and will measure the density and composition of the low Earth orbit atmosphere while being tracked from the ground, to better predict the movement and decay of objects in orbit.[NASA 1][NASA 4] ANDE-2 consists of two spherical microsatellites, ANDE Active spacecraft (Castor) and the ANDE Passive spacecraft (Pollux), and will be tracked by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) network as well as the Space Surveillance Network (SSN).[NASA 1][NASA 4] One of the satellites, Pollux, is running Arduino libraries, with its payload programmed and built by students.

A set of experiments to be deployed on the ISS were carried by STS-127, including Dosimetry for Biological Experiments in Space (ESA), Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crew Member Immune Function, the student-made Image Reversal in Space (CSA/ISU), Nutritional Status Assessment (NASA), NASA Biological Specimen Repository and Tomatosphere-II (CSA).[NASA 1]

The STS-127 Official Flight Kit (OFK) included water samples from each of the five Great Lakes, a resin statue of a water droplet for the One Drop Foundation, and a copy of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony for the Montreal Symphony Orchestra, among other mementos.[18]

The docking module was also mounted with the DragonEye 3D Flash LIDAR ranging system manufactured by Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. The module was launched to test the docking system which will be used by the commercial SpaceX Dragon re-usable cargo carrier to send supplies to the ISS during the post-shuttle era. The Dragon spacecraft made its successful maiden flight in December 2010.[citation needed]

Location Cargo Mass
Bays 1–2 Orbiter Docking System
EMU 3003 / EMU 3018
SpaceX DragonEye LIDAR
1,800 kilograms (4,000 lb)
~260 kilograms (570 lb)
Bay 3P Shuttle Power
Distribution Unit (SPDU)
~17 kilograms (37 lb)
Bay 3S APC/SSPL
Dragonsat
51 kilograms (112 lb)
6 k
Bays 4–7 Kibō JEM Exposed Facility 3,820 kilograms (8,420 lb)
Bay 5P APC/ECSH ~33 kilograms (73 lb)
Bay 5S APC/PPSU 20 kilograms (44 lb)
Bay 6S APC/PPSU 20 kilograms (44 lb)
Bays 8–9 Kibō ELM Exposed Section 2,453 kilograms (5,408 lb)
Bay 11 ICC-VLD 3,946 kilograms (8,699 lb)
Bay 13P APC/ECSH ~33 kilograms (73 lb)
Bay 13S SPA/CAPE/ANDE-2
ICU container
ANDE Active satellite
ANDE Passive satellite
265 kilograms (584 lb)
54 kilograms (119 lb)
50 kilograms (110 lb)
25 kilograms (55 lb)
Starboard Sill Orbiter Boom Sensor System ~382 kilograms (842 lb)
Port Sill Canadarm 410 kilograms (900 lb)
Total: 13,645 kilograms (30,082 lb)

Mission milestones

Mission poster
Mission poster

The mission marked:[1]

Shuttle processing

Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A
Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A

Endeavour served as the STS-400 rescue vehicle for STS-125, and was prepared for a possible liftoff from Launch Pad 39B on May 15, 2009, four days after the launch of STS-125.[NASA 5][NASA 6] After Atlantis performed the late inspection and was cleared for re-entry, Endeavour was officially released from stand-by status on May 21, 2009, and preparations for STS-127 were initiated.[19]

Endeavour moved from Launch Pad 39B to 39A on May 31, 2009, in preparation for STS-127.[20][NASA 7] The crew of STS-127 arrived at Kennedy Space Center on June 2, 2009, for the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) that concluded with a full launch dress rehearsal.[NASA 7][21][non-primary source needed] The Flight Readiness Review (FRR), a meeting during which NASA managers assess mission preparations and officially set the launch date, concluded on June 3, 2009.[NASA 8] For the first time, live status updates about the FRR were published periodically during the meeting via NASA's Twitter stream.[NASA 8]

Launch attempts

Close-up view of the Ground Umbilical Carrier Plate on STS-127's external tank during the first maintenance effort
Close-up view of the Ground Umbilical Carrier Plate on STS-127's external tank during the first maintenance effort

The launch countdown began June 10, 2009, but on June 13, 2009, as tanking was underway, a gaseous hydrogen leak on a vent line near the Ground Umbilical Carrier Plate was observed, and the June 13, 2009, launch was scrubbed at 00:26 EDT. As liquid hydrogen fuel is pumped in, some of it boils off as the extremely cold liquid enters the warm external tank. The vent line valve controls the resulting buildup of gas pressure by allowing excess gas to escape into a ground-side vent line, which leads to a flare stack at a safe distance away from the pad. A similar leak situation was seen during the first launch attempt of STS-119. NASA managers met on June 14, 2009, and June 15, 2009, and evaluated the leak, discussed steps that had to be taken, and set a new launch date of June 17, 2009, at 05:40 EDT.[7][8]

A second launch attempt was made on June 17, 2009, for which NASA moved the planned launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to a new date. On June 17, 2009, loading of the shuttle's external tank with liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen was delayed three hours due to poor weather around the launch site, but tanking began once the weather cleared. Approximately two hours after tanking began, engineers saw leak indications in the GUCP similar to those seen during the first launch attempt. The launch was officially scrubbed at 01:55 EDT.[11]

Following the launch scrub, Chairman of NASA's Mission Management Team LeRoy Cain noted that engineers would work to understand the hydrogen leak issue and come up with a solution to the problem. Cain said managers were hopeful that the issue could be resolved in time for the next available launch opportunity on July 11, 2009.[22] Due to the delay of STS-127, managers noted that it was likely that the launch of STS-128 on August 7, 2009, would be pushed back slightly.[22]

Lightning strikes Endeavour's Launch Pad.
Lightning strikes Endeavour's Launch Pad.

On July 1, 2009, the shuttle managers conducted a new series of tanking tests to confirm a hypothesis that a misaligned vent port housing was the root cause of the leaks. The existing rigid seal was replaced with a flexible one in the hope that it would maintain a tight fix even under the cryogenic conditions that seem to cause the leak. The test was declared a success with no leaks detected on the GUCP. The mission was announced to be targeting an July 11, 2009, launch.[23][24] On the evening of July 10, 2009, the launch pad region was hit by eleven strikes of lightning, which pushed back the July 11, 2009, launch time by at least 24 hours. Two of the strikes were strong enough to trigger an evaluation by NASA engineers. The inspections revealed that no damage had been done to the Space Shuttle.[NASA 9]

NASA scrubbed Endeavour' July 12, 2009, launch attempt at T-minus 9 minutes and holding due to Cumulus clouds and lightning near the launch pad. During the final Go/No-Go polls, Mission Control in Houston declared a "No-Go" due to unacceptable weather forecast for a possible Return-To-Launch-Site (RTLS) abort, and planned for emergency scenarios when one or more engines shut down early leaving insufficient energy to reach the Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) sites. Similarly, during the July 13, 2009, attempt, RTLS weather was also "no go." Meanwhile, shuttle weather officer Kathy Winters informed the launch director, Pete Nickolenko, that the launch pad weather had changed to RED as the Phase-1 Lightning warning was issued for the Kennedy Space Center. The launch was scrubbed at T-minus 9 minutes and holding and was quickly reset for July 15, 2009 (a 48 hours scrub turn around) due to weather concerns on July 14, 2009, and the desire to replace the Tyvek covers over the forward Reaction Control System thrusters.[NASA 10]

Attempt Planned Result Turnaround Reason Decision point Weather go (%) Notes
1 13 Jun 2009, 7:17:19 am scrubbed technical 13 Jun 2009, 12:26 am 90%[25] gaseous hydrogen leak on a vent line near the Ground Umbilical Carrier Plate[7]
2 17 Jun 2009, 5:40:52 am scrubbed 3 days, 22 hours, 24 minutes technical 17 Jun 2009, 1:55 am 80%[26] leak persisted[11]
3 11 Jul 2009, 7:39:38 pm scrubbed 24 days, 13 hours, 59 minutes weather 40%[27] lightning strikes to launch pad[23]
4 12 Jul 2009, 7:13:55 pm scrubbed 0 days, 23 hours, 34 minutes weather  ​(T– 9:00 hold) 70%[28] RTLS concerns, cumulus clouds and lightning near launch pad[NASA 9]
5 13 Jul 2009, 6:51:24 pm scrubbed 0 days, 23 hours, 37 minutes weather  ​(T– 9:00 hold) 40%[29] Phase-1 Lightning warning at the launch site[NASA 10]
6 15 Jul 2009, 6:03:10 pm success 1 day, 23 hours, 12 minutes 60%[30]

Mission timeline

July 15 (Flight Day 1, Launch)

On July 15, 2009, at 18:03:10 EDT, the launch was finally successful.[31] Upon reviewing the launch video footage, imagery analysts noted eight or nine instances of foam shedding from the External Tank.[32] The pictures of the external tank taken when jettisoning showed loss of foam in the intertank ribbing.[33] The chairman of the Mission Management Team was not concerned and felt that the Space Shuttle would be cleared for re-entry on its return voyage—which it was a few days later.[34][35][NASA 11] The payload doors were opened after reaching orbit followed by deployment of the Ku band antenna and activation of the shuttle's mechanical arm.[36]

July 16 (Flight Day 2)

Julie Payette looks through an overhead window while operating controls on the aft flight deck of Endeavour during flight day two activities.
Julie Payette looks through an overhead window while operating controls on the aft flight deck of Endeavour during flight day two activities.

The thermal protection system was inspected with the Shuttle Robotic Arm/Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS) and the voluminous data downlinked for analysis. The orbital maneuvering system pods were inspected for tile damage or protruding tiles. The extravehicular mobility units were checked in addition to the rendezvous system tests and centerline camera installation. In preparation for the docking, the docking ring was extended.[36][NASA 12]

July 17 (Flight Day 3, ISS Docking)

The shuttle successfully docked with the station 220 miles (350 km) above the Earth, following rendezvous pitch maneuver (RPM) photography of Endeavour's thermal protection system by the Expedition 20 Crew.[37] During this procedure, the shuttle flips over on its back to the station so that the station crew can capture high resolution imagery of the underside of the shuttle. The docking happened on the ISS's PMA-2 (Pressurized Mating Adapter) on the Harmony module and the hatch was opened after leak checks. As part of the crew swap, station crew member Koichi Wakata was replaced with Tim Kopra. The two astronauts specially fitted seatliners were interchanged.[NASA 13] As part of preparation for EVA 1, astronauts Wolf and Kopra camped out in the Quest airlock. A quick review of the RPM imagery showed no serious concerns beyond two instances of coating loss. Further analysis of the imagery will be done. A boost of the station was completed with the shuttle's vernier thrusters to avoid a piece of space debris. The SRBs were retrieved and their camera imagery is expected to give more detail on the ET foam shedding.[15]

July 18 (Flight Day 4, EVA 1)

EVA 1 started with astronauts Dave Wolf and Tim Kopra switching their spacesuit power to internal battery at 16:19 UTC. Despite a communication problem with the spacewalkers, the Japanese Exposed Facility was successfully installed on the Japanese Experiment Module by means of a complex series of steps involving the robotic arms of both the station and the shuttle.[NASA 14] The JEF was first unberthed from the shuttle payload bay by the station arm, after which the shuttle arm took the load. The station arm was then moved to the worksite on Node-2 (Harmony), wherefrom it took the 4.1 ton facility back. The facility was then successfully latched on to the Experiment Module.[38][39][40] As part of the EVA, the spacewalkers successfully deployed the port Unpressurized Cargo Carrier Attach System (UCCAS), which could not be deployed during STS-119. During the prior mission, the deployment failed due to a jamming caused by a stuck detent pin. Engineers designed a custom tool to force the pin to release, which was used to deploy the mechanism.[41] Meanwhile, the shuttle managers announced that there would be no need for a focused inspection of the heat shield. The nose cap and wing leading-edge panels of the shuttle were cleared for entry as they were, but a reentry clearance was not given.[NASA 14] Beyond one impact site having a gouge, the rest of the impacts were found to be mostly a loss of coating.[42] The other activity scheduled for EVA 1, the deployment of a starboard side cargo carrier, was postponed for want of time.[41] A fuel cell issue found before launch was analyzed, though the cell continued to function as expected with no impact to the mission.[38]

July 19 (Flight Day 5)

ICC handoff by shuttle's robotic arm
ICC handoff by shuttle's robotic arm

The installation of the Integrated Cargo Carrier-Vertical Light Deployable (ICC-VLD) on the port side of the station was successfully completed with the use of both the shuttle and station robotic arms. The cargo pallet, containing spares and fresh batteries for the station, was lifted out of the shuttle bay by the shuttle arm and handed off to the station's Canadarm2, which maneuvered it to its position. The pallet's contents will be set up in upcoming EVAs. A malfunction in a new toilet in the Destiny laboratory caused the crew to use the one in the Russian segment while attempts were made to identify the fault. Meanwhile, the shuttle was cleared for reentry.[NASA 15][43][44][45]

July 20 (Flight Day 6, EVA 2)

Astronauts Wolf and Marshburn began EVA 2 at 15:27 UTC out of the Quest airlock. The EVA was to transfer the spare components brought by the shuttle from the ICC-VLD to External Stowage Platform-3. The spares were handled by Wolf riding the station's robotic arm to the P3 truss stowage platform where he and Marshburn attached them for long-term storage. The purpose of the spares was to provide redundancy to the station in the period following the shuttle's retirement. The spares unloaded include a Ku-Band Space-to-Ground antenna, a pump module for the coolant system and a drive unit for the station's robotic arm's mobile transporter. A planned installation of a camera on the Japanese Experiment Facility was postponed to a future EVA for want of time. Meanwhile, the malfunctioning toilet was set right with the replacement of internal parts and cleared for normal use after tests.[NASA 16][46][47][48]

July 21 (Flight Day 7)

Japanese logistics carrier(JLE) handoff from shuttle to station.
Japanese logistics carrier(JLE) handoff from shuttle to station.

In one of the more relaxed days, the Japanese logistics carrier was attached to the Japanese Exposed Facility. The cargo pallet was unberthed from the shuttle by the shuttle's robotic arm and handed to the station's robotic arm which then soft fixed it temporarily to the facility. After the experiments, containing an X-ray astronomy payload, a space environment monitor and a communications system, are installed the pallet will be returned to Earth by the shuttle.[NASA 17][49]

July 22 (Flight Day 8, EVA 3)

Cassidy works near the JEF during space walk 3.
Cassidy works near the JEF during space walk 3.

The spacewalk involving astronauts Wolf and Cassidy started at 14:32 UTC. As part of preparation for experiment installation on the Japanese external science deck, Cassidy removed the thermal covers off the experiment carrier. Meanwhile, Wolf removed obstructions, consisting of a steel handrail and an equipment installation socket, from the Harmony node to clear the way for an upcoming Japanese automated resupply ship. The other task for EVA 3, involving replacement of four of the six batteries in the P6 truss, did not go as planned. Each 170 kg (375 lb) battery was to be removed and placed in a temporary stowage platform while a new one is taken from the ICC-VLD and fixed. The old ones will be returned to Earth. When two new batteries had been installed and three old ones removed, the CO2 levels in Cassidy's suit showed an upward trend. Even though it never exceeded the safety limits, the EVA was called off with both astronauts returning into the station. This left one old battery in a temporary flexible stowage position. The rest of the batteries will be installed in a future EVA with the rest of the EVAs being under replanning.[NASA 18][50][51][52]

July 23 (Flight Day 9)

The Kibō robotic arm was inaugurated operationally with it being used to install experiments on to the Japanese exposed facility. The three experiments, transferred from the Japanese cargo pallet, consisted of Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image, Inter-orbit Communication System and Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload. As per the revised plan for EVA 4 astronauts Cassidy and Marshburn will replace the remaining four batteries on P6 and complete the already deferred installation of a camera on the Japanese experiment facility.[NASA 19][NASA 20][53]

July 24 (Flight Day 10, EVA 4)

The fourth spacewalk, by Cassidy and Marshburn, involved replacement of the final four of the six batteries on P6 truss integrated electronics assembly. After berthing the old batteries in the ICC-VLD, the cargo pallet was returned to the Endeavour's payload bay by the shuttle's robotic arm. The elevated levels of CO2 in Cassidy's suit during EVA 3 was attributed to the astronaut working at a fast pace.[NASA 21][54][55]

July 25 (Flight Day 11)

The crew of both the shuttle and station had a day off. The day was uneventful except for the station's American CO2 removal system shutting down without any immediate impact.[NASA 22][56][57]

July 26 (Flight Day 12)

The Japanese Exposed Section cargo carrier was berthed in Endeavour's payload bay by the shuttle's robotic arm after it was handed the pallet by the station's robotic arm. After this the crew of both the station and the shuttle held a joint news conference. Meanwhile, the malfunctioning American CO2 removal system has been transitioned to manual mode in order to keep it running.[NASA 23][58][59]

July 27 (Flight Day 13, EVA 5)

Marshburn and Cassidy during space walk 5
Marshburn and Cassidy during space walk 5

Cassidy and Marshburn started EVA 5 at 11:33 UTC when they switched their suit power to internal battery. For this spacewalk, the CO2 absorbent system in the suits were changed from Lithium Hydroxide to METOX due to problems with Cassidy's usage. Cassidy completed the reconfiguring of power channels in the Zenith 1 patch panel which are used for the control moment gyroscopes. Before the rewiring, two of the gyroscopes were fed by the same power channel. Since a failure of the channel can knock down two gyros and put the station in a degraded position the reconfiguration was made necessary. This rewiring made the two gyros to operate from separate power channels. Meanwhile, Marshburn secured some multi-layered insulation on the Dextre. Later both the spacewalkers installed video cameras on the front and back of the Japanese exposed facility which will be used in dockings of the Japanese cargo crafts and normal operation. The cameras flew up in launch configuration and now have been installed in an operational configuration, thus completing the JEF assembly. Meanwhile, due to Cassidy's METOX limitation, the deployment of the PAS was deferred to a future spacewalk. Instead some get ahead tasks were completed which included installation of handrails and a portable foot restraint.[NASA 24][60][61][62][63]

July 28 (Flight Day 14, ISS Undocking)

After a crew farewell Endeavour undocked from the ISS at 17:26 UTC. Unlike most other launches, hatch closure, which happened at 15:08 UTC, and undocking happened on the same day due to the extended delay in launching and the arrival of the Progress 34 cargo craft. After undocking Hurley began a fly around of the station giving the shuttle crew an opportunity to photograph the station's current configuration in all directions. Then a final separation burn was completed at 3:09 pm EDT.[NASA 25][64][65]

July 29 (Flight Day 15)

Image of orbital sunset taken from Endeavour one day before the shuttle landed
Image of orbital sunset taken from Endeavour one day before the shuttle landed

The OBSS was grappled by the shuttle's robotic arm and used to inspect Endeavour's thermal protection system for damage from orbital debris. The imagery will be analyzed to clear the shuttle for reentry.[NASA 26] Meanwhile, the foam loss on the external tank was initially attributed to substrate contamination ahead of the application of the foam.[66] Later during the processing of STS-128, voids in the foam was highlighted as a trigger for the shedding. The air trapped in the voids could have expanded due to the high temperatures generated during ascent thus breaking the foam.[67][68]

July 30 (Flight Day 16)

The crew checked out the shuttle's systems for the landing, and successfully deployed the DRAGONSat and ANDE-2 satellites. The shuttle was cleared for reentry, with the TPS imagery showing no concerns.[NASA 27][69][70] The shuttle tracked two chances of landing at KSC on July 31, and could land no later due to its limited carbon dioxide-scrubbing LiOH supply.[71]

July 31 (Flight Day 17, Landing)

After a 16-day mission, Endeavour landed successfully at Kennedy Space Center at 10:48 EDT on July 31, 2009. The landing had to be undertaken before August 1, due to CO2-scrubbing lithium hydroxide limitations. There were two opportunities to land on July 31, of which the first was ultimately utilized.[NASA 28][72]

EVAs

Five spacewalks were conducted during STS-127.[NASA 1]

EVA Spacewalkers Start (UTC) End (UTC) Duration
EVA 1 David A. Wolf
Timothy Kopra
July 18, 2009
16:19
July 18, 2009
20:51
5 hours, 32 minutes
JEF installed and P3 Nadir Unpressurized Cargo Carrier Attach System deployed. The S3 Zenith Outboard Payload Attachment System deployment was postponed due to time constraints.[NASA 1][NASA 14][38][41]
EVA 2 Wolf
Thomas H. Marshburn
July 20, 2009
15:27
July 20, 2009
22:20
6 hours, 53 minutes
Transferred Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) from the Shuttle Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) to the External Stowage Platform-3 (ESP3). Transferred materials included a spare high-gain antenna, cooling-system pump module and spare parts for the Mobile Servicing System. The JEF Visual Equipment (JEF-VE) installation on the forward section was postponed due to time constraints.[NASA 16][46][47]
EVA 3 Wolf
Christopher J. Cassidy
July 22, 2009
14:32
July 22, 2009
20:31
5 hours, 59 minutes
JPM preparation work, ICS-EF MLI, and P6 battery replacement (2 of 6 units).[NASA 1] EVA was cut short due to high levels of CO2 in Cassidy's suit.[NASA 18][50][51]
EVA 4 Cassidy
Marshburn
July 24, 2009
13:54
July 24, 2009
21:06
7 hours, 12 minutes
P6 battery replacement (final 4 of 6).[NASA 21][54][55]
EVA 5 Cassidy
Marshburn
July 27, 2009
11:33
July 27, 2009
16:27
4 hours, 54 minutes
SPDM thermal cover adjustment, Z1 patch panel reconfiguration, JEM visual equipment (JEM-VE) installation (forward and aft), and JEM-LTA reconfigurations. The S3 Nadir Payload Attachment System (outboard) deployment was postponed to a later mission.[NASA 24][60][61][62][NASA 29]

Wake-up calls

NASA began a tradition of playing music to astronauts during the Gemini program, and first used music to wake up a flight crew during Apollo 15. Each track is specially chosen, often by the astronauts' families, and usually has a special meaning to an individual member of the crew, or is applicable to their daily activities.[NASA 30][NASA 31]

Flight Day Song Artist Played for Links
Day 2 "These Are Days" 10,000 Maniacs Timothy Kopra WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 3 "Here Comes the Sun" The Beatles Mark Polansky WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 4 "Home" Marc Broussard David Wolf WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 5 "Learning to Fly" Tom Petty Christopher Cassidy WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 6 "Thunderbirds March" Barry Gray Julie Payette WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 7 "Life Is a Highway" Rascal Flatts Tom Marshburn WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 8 "Santa Monica" Everclear Douglas Hurley WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 9 "Tiny Dancer" Elton John Mark Polansky WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 10 "Wish You Were Here" Pink Floyd David Wolf WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 11 "In Your Eyes" Peter Gabriel Tom Marshburn WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 12 "Dixit Dominus" George Frederic Handel Julie Payette WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 13 "On the Sunny Side of the Street" Steve Tyrell Mark Polansky WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 14 "God Bless the U.S.A."[NASA 32] Lee Greenwood Chris Cassidy WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 15 "Yellow" Coldplay Doug Hurley WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 16 "I Got You Babe" Sonny & Cher Koichi Wakata WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT
Day 17 "Beautiful Day" U2 Tom Marshburn WAV MP3
TRANSCRIPT

See also

Media

References

Notes
Inline citations
  1. ^ a b c d e Harwood, William (June 1, 2009). "STS-127 Mission Quick-Look 1". CBS News. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d e McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
  3. ^ Boeing (June 6, 2009). "STS-127 Spaceflight Notepad" (PDF). Boeing. Retrieved June 12, 2009.
  4. ^ Klotz, Irene (June 12, 2009). "NASA fuels space shuttle Endeavour for launch". Reuters. Retrieved June 12, 2009.
  5. ^ "Mission STS-127". Canadian Space Agency. August 13, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  6. ^ Malik, Tariq (March 27, 2009). "Population in Space at Historic High: 13". Space.com. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  7. ^ a b c Bergin, Chris (June 13, 2009). "GUCP troubleshooting continues as MMT push for launch on June 17". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved June 13, 2009.
  8. ^ a b c Harwood, William (June 15, 2009). "NASA sets Wednesday launch date for shuttle Endeavour". CBS News. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
  9. ^ Harwood for CBS News, William (June 13, 2009). "Space shuttle Endeavour launch postponed by leak". SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  10. ^ Kenneth Chang (June 13, 2009). "Leak Halts Shuttle Launching". New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2009.
  11. ^ a b c Chris Bergin (June 17, 2009). "STS-127 suffers another GUCP leak after late tanking". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
  12. ^ Harwood, William (June 12, 2009). "STS-127 Launch Windows". CBS News. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  13. ^ "Shuttle Endeavour to lift off Saturday if weather co-operates". CBC News. July 10, 2009. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
  14. ^ "NASA delays space shuttle Endeavour launch 1 day". Houston Chronicle. 11 July 2009. Archived from the original on 21 July 2009. Retrieved 11 July 2009.
  15. ^ a b Harwood, William (July 17, 2009). "Shuttle Endeavour's heat shield appears to be fine". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  16. ^ Pearlman, Robert (June 12, 2009). "L+500 and counting: 500th person in space". collectspace.com. Retrieved June 12, 2009.
  17. ^ "Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite (DRAGONSat)". NASA. October 6, 2008. Archived from the original on June 12, 2009. Retrieved June 13, 2009.
  18. ^ Pearlman, Robert Z. "Great Lakes water returning to Earth with space shuttle crew". collectSPACE. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
  19. ^ Harwood for CBS News, William (May 21, 2009). "Iffy weather forecast for Friday's shuttle landing". SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved May 22, 2009.
  20. ^ Tariq Malik (June 1, 2009). "Endeavour moves to another launch pad". NBC News. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
  21. ^ Polansky, Mark (June 2, 2009). "Mark Polansky (Astro_127)". Twitter. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
  22. ^ a b William Harwood for CBS News (June 17, 2009). "Hydrogen leak scrubs shuttle Endeavour launch again". SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
  23. ^ a b William Harwood for CBS News (June 23, 2009). "Special space shuttle fueling test expected next week". SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved June 24, 2009.
  24. ^ Chris Bergin (July 1, 2009). "ET-131 Tanking Test success – STS-127 now officially tracking launch on July 11". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
  25. ^ "Countdown begins; weather improves to 90 percent 'go' for Saturday launch". CBS News. June 13, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  26. ^ "NASA clears shuttle for fueling". CBS News. June 16, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  27. ^ "Shuttle countdown on track; no technical issues with Endeavour; weather still 60 percent 'no-go'". CBS News. July 12, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  28. ^ "Hydrogen vent line working normally; no leaks". CBS News. July 12, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  29. ^ "Shuttle refueled for Monday launch try". CBS News. July 13, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  30. ^ "Shuttle Endeavour refueled for sixth launch try; fuel cell issue resolved". CBS News. July 15, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  31. ^ Chris Bergin. "Endeavour launches on sixth attempt to start STS-127 – UCCAS status". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  32. ^ Harwood, William. "Debris falls from tank". Spaceflightnow. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  33. ^ Harwood, William (July 16, 2009). "Strips of foam peeled away from Endeavour's fuel tank". Spaceflightnow. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  34. ^ "NASA spots debris strikes in Endeavour launch". CTV News. 16 July 2009. Archived from the original on 19 July 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  35. ^ "Damage eyed as shuttle heads toward space station". Yahoo news. Associated Press. July 15, 2009. Retrieved July 16, 2009.
  36. ^ a b Bergin, Chris (June 16, 2009). "STS-127: Foam loss observed on ET intertank images – FD2 inspections". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
  37. ^ Chris Bergin (July 17, 2009). "STS-127: Endeavour completes RPM and Docks with ISS – TPS latest". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  38. ^ a b c Chris Gebhardt (July 18, 2009). "STS-127 completes EVA-1 – Fuel Cell issue monitored by MMT". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
  39. ^ Harwood, William (July 18, 2009). "Crews to install station's external science deck today". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
  40. ^ Harwood, William (July 18, 2009). "External science deck hoisted out of shuttle payload bay". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
  41. ^ a b c Harwood, William (July 18, 2009). "Jammed payload bracket on station truss freed". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
  42. ^ Harwood, William (July 18, 2009). "Shuttle heat shield inspection finds no major issues". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
  43. ^ "Endeavour cleared for entry ahead of EVA-2 – ET-132 tests begin". NASAspaceflight.com. July 20, 2009. Retrieved July 20, 2009.
  44. ^ "Crew moves equipment, preps for next spacewalk". NASAspaceflight.com. July 19, 2009. Retrieved July 20, 2009.
  45. ^ "International Space Station's U.S. toilet malfunctions". NASAspaceflight.com. July 19, 2009. Retrieved July 20, 2009.
  46. ^ a b Harwood, William (July 20, 2009). "Spacewalk No. 2 ends". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
  47. ^ a b Harwood, William (July 20, 2009). "Spacewalkers to unload spare parts from carrier". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
  48. ^ Harwood, William (July 20, 2009). "Toilet repairs complete aboard the space station". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
  49. ^ Harwood, William (July 21, 2009). "Japanese experiments removed from the shuttle". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
  50. ^ a b Harwood, William (July 22, 2009). "Extensive spacewalk replanning underway". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
  51. ^ a b Justin Ray. "STS-127 Shuttle report". SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
  52. ^ Chris Gebhardt. "EVA-3 terminated due to LiOH concern – DAT present TPS clearance reports". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
  53. ^ "Station's outdoor science deck gets its first payloads". SpaceflightNow.com. July 23, 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
  54. ^ a b Harwood, William (July 24, 2009). "Spacewalkers give station's power grid fresh batteries". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 26, 2009.
  55. ^ a b Chris Bergin (July 24, 2009). "STS-127: EVA-4 completes Battery R&R – Progress M-67 launches to ISS". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved July 26, 2009.
  56. ^ Harwood, William (July 25, 2009). "Astronauts get the day off to rest after hectic pace". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 26, 2009.
  57. ^ Harwood, William (July 25, 2009). "Station's American CO2 removal system shuts down". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 26, 2009.
  58. ^ Harwood, William (July 26, 2009). "Skipper calls it 'extremely successful' mission so far". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 27, 2009.
  59. ^ Harwood, William (July 26, 2009). "Station's carbon dioxide scrubber back on line". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 27, 2009.
  60. ^ a b Harwood, William (July 27, 2009). "Endeavour crew taking fifth and final spacewalk". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
  61. ^ a b Harwood, William (July 27, 2009). "Endeavour crew completes fifth and final spacewalk". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
  62. ^ a b Chris Gebhardt (July 27, 2009). "STS-127 ends replanned EVA-5; Pad 39A ready to support Discovery". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
  63. ^ "Mission Status Center – July 27". SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 29, 2009.
  64. ^ Harwood, William (July 28, 2009). "Shuttle undocks and takes victory lap around station". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 29, 2009.
  65. ^ Harwood, William (July 28, 2009). "Shuttle and station crews bid each other farewell". CBS news. SpaceflightNow.com. Retrieved July 29, 2009.
  66. ^ Bergin, Chris (July 29, 2009). "Endeavour completes Late Inspections – Candidate found for ET-131 foam loss". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
  67. ^ Bergin, Chris (August 10, 2009). "STS-128: Managers head into FRR debate – Void in suspect IFR highlighted". nasaspaceflight.com. Retrieved August 28, 2009.
  68. ^ Harwood, William (August 7, 2009). "Engineers continue to assess shuttle fuel tank foam". spaceflightnow.com from CBS. Retrieved August 28, 2009.
  69. ^ Harwood, William (July 30, 2009). "Landing flight director hopeful about weather". SpaceflightNow.com from CBS news. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
  70. ^ "NRL's ANDE-2 Launches Aboard STS-127". redorbit.com. July 30, 2009. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
  71. ^ Bergin, Chris (July 30, 2009). "Endeavour tracking KSC return on Friday – TPS cleared for entry". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
  72. ^ Bergin, Chris (July 31, 2009). "LIVE: Endeavour lands back in Florida – debris noted during FCS checkout". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
NASA

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "STS-127 Press Kit" (PDF). NASA. June 6, 2009. Retrieved June 12, 2009.
  2. ^ "NASA's Shuttle and Rocket Launch Schedule". NASA. June 17, 2009. Retrieved June 17, 2009.
  3. ^ "NASA Assigns Crews for STS-127 and Expedition 19 Missions". NASA. February 11, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
  4. ^ a b Carey Noll for NASA. "ANDE (Castor and Pollux)". NASA. Archived from the original on June 12, 2009. Retrieved June 12, 2009.
  5. ^ "STS-125: Final Shuttle Mission to Hubble Space Telescope". NASA. December 4, 2008. Retrieved March 30, 2009.
  6. ^ "NASA Sets Launch Dates for Remaining Space Shuttle Missions". NASA. July 7, 2008. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
  7. ^ a b "NASA Updates Shuttle Endeavour's Move to Launch Pad, TCDT". NASA. May 28, 2009. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
  8. ^ a b "NASA Sets Briefing About Shuttle Endeavour's Readiness to Launch". NASA. May 29, 2009. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
  9. ^ a b "Launch of NASA's Space Shuttle Endeavour Postponed Until Sunday". NASA. July 11, 2009. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
  10. ^ a b "Endeavour's Launch "No Go" Due to Weather". NASA. July 12, 2009. Retrieved July 12, 2009.
  11. ^ "Launch and Landing". NASA. July 15, 2009. Retrieved July 16, 2009.
  12. ^ "STS-127 MCC Status Report #03". NASA. July 16, 2009. Retrieved July 16, 2009.
  13. ^ "STS-127 MCC Status Report #05". NASA. July 17, 2009. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
  14. ^ a b c "STS-127 MCC Status Report #07". NASA. July 18, 2009. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
  15. ^ "STS-127 MCC Status Report #09". NASA. July 19, 2009. Retrieved July 20, 2009.
  16. ^ a b "STS-127 MCC Status Report #11". NASA. July 20, 2009. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
  17. ^ "STS-127 MCC Status Report #13". NASA. July 21, 2009. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
  18. ^ a b "STS-127 MCC Status Report #15". NASA. July 22, 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
  19. ^ "STS-127 MCC Status Report #17". NASA. July 23, 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
  20. ^ "STS-127 MCC Status Report #16". NASA. July 23, 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
  21. ^ a b "STS-127 MCC Status Report #19". NASA. July 24, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2009.
  22. ^ "STS-127 MCC Status Report #21". NASA. July 25, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2009.
  23. ^ "STS-127 MCC Status Report #23". NASA. July 26, 2009. Retrieved July 27, 2009.
  24. ^ a b "STS-127 MCC Status Report #25". NASA. July 27, 2009. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
  25. ^ "STS-127 MCC Status Report #27". NASA. July 28, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2009.
  26. ^ "STS-127 MCC Status Report #29". NASA. July 29, 2009. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
  27. ^ "STS-127 MCC Status Report #31". NASA. July 30, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
  28. ^ "STS-127 MCC Status Report #32". NASA. July 31, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
  29. ^ "STS-127 FD12 Execute Package" (PDF). NASA. July 26, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
  30. ^ Fries, Colin (June 25, 2007). "Chronology of Wakeup Calls" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved August 13, 2007.
  31. ^ "STS-127 Wakeup Calls". NASA. May 11, 2009. Archived from the original on July 24, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
  32. ^ "STS-127 Wakeup Calls". NASA. Archived from the original on July 23, 2009. Retrieved July 28, 2009.