Sadri
Nagpuri
Native toIndia
RegionWest Central Chota Nagpur (Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Bihar), West Bengal, Assam
EthnicityNagpuria
Native speakers
5.1 million (2011 census)[1][2][3]
L2 speakers: 7.0 million (2007)
Devanagari
Kaithi (historical)
Official status
Official language in
 India
Language codes
ISO 639-3sck
Glottologsada1242
Sadri speaking region.png
Sadri-speaking region in India
A Sadri speaker speaking three languages, recorded in China.

Sadri (also known as Nagpuri) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Bihar. It is primarily spoken in west and central Chota Nagpur plateau region.[2][5]

It is native language of the Sadan, the Indo-Aryan ethnic group of Chota Nagpur plateau.[5] In addition to native speakers, it is also used as lingua franca by many tribal groups such as Kurukh, a Dravidian ethnic group and Kharia, Munda, the Munda Austro-asiatic ethnic groups and a number of speakers of these tribal groups have adopted it as their first language.[5] It is also used as a lingua franca among Tea-garden community of Assam, West Bengal and Bangladesh who were taken as a labourers to work in tea gardens during British Period.[5][1] According to the 2011 Census, It is spoken by 5.1 million people as first language. Around 7 million speak it as their second language based on study in 2007.[2]

Etymology

The origin of Sadani/Sadri and other related terms is somewhat obscure. Probably the term "Sadan" derive from nisaada, referring to an ethnic group of North India. [5] The name Nagpur is the region ruled by Nagvanshi, later named as Chota Nagpur by British. The language spoken in the region was known as Nagpuri.[6] In literary tradition, the language is known as Nagpuri.[7]

Nagpuri language writers and poets are in favour of using Nagpuri as the name of the language. There is an opposition against the use of the word Sadri and giving two name Sadan/Sadri and Nagpuria to single language in the upcoming Indian census.[8][9][10]

Classification

In 1903, Sir George Abraham Grierson had classified Nagpuri as Nagpuria dialect of Bhojpuri language in his Survey "Linguistic Survey of India".

1903 Linguistic map of East Chota Nagpur, by G.A. Grierson
1903 Linguistic map of East Chota Nagpur, by G.A. Grierson

Nagpuri have been placed in Bihari group of Indo-Aryan languages.[5][11] There are different opinion among linguist about origin of Nagpuri language. According to professor Keshri Kumar Singh, Nagpuri is descendant of Magadhi Prakrit in his book "Nagpuri bhasa ebam Sahitya". According to Dr. Sravan Kumar Goswami, Nagpuri had evolved from Ardhamagadhi Prakrit.[12] Recent study demonstrate that Indo-Aryan languages of Chota Nagpur plateau called Sadani languages are distinct languages and are closely related to each other than any other languages. Nagpuri language spoken in different districts such as Ranchi, Gumla, Simdega and Garhwa varies with each other.[7]

Geographical Distribution

Nagpuri language is mainly spoken in western Chota Nagpur Plateau region in following, details geographical distribution of language is tabulated below;

Geographical distribution of Sadri language
State Jharkhand Chhattisgarh Odisha Bihar
District Chatra Jashpur Sundergarh district Aurangabad
Palamu Balrampur Gaya district
Latehar
Garhwa Sarguja
Hazaribagh
Lohardaga
Gumla
Ranchi
Simdega
Khunti
West Singhbhum

It is also spoken by some Tea garden community in Tea garden area of Bangladesh, West Bengal and Assam who were taken as labourer to work in Tea garden during British Rule.[3]

Script

The early inscription found in the region are in Brahmi script. The Saridkel Brahmi Inscription from Khunti district is from 3rd century BCE. Several inscription of forts, temples and land grants found from 9th century such as from Mahamaya temple of Hapamuni built by Gajghat Rai, Nagfeni, Navratangarh fort of Gumla district, Boreya and Jagannath temple of Ranchi district. Some Buddhist inscription are undated such as from Khalari and Jonha Falls.[13] Inscription of modern period are in Devnagari script. Most nagpuri poetry have been written in Devnagari and Kaithi script during 17th century. In present mostly Devnagari script is used in literature.[14]

Status

Historically Nagpuri was language and lingua-franca in the region. It was court language during reign of Nagvanshi dynasty.[14] Nagpuri is accorded as additional official language in Indian state of Jharkhand.[4] There is demand to include Nagpuri in Eighth schedule.[15][16][17] Some academics oppose inclusion of Hindi dialects in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution as full-fledged Indian languages. According to them recognition of Hindi dialects as separate languages would deprive Hindi of millions of its speakers and eventually no Hindi will be left.[18]

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ɳ) ŋ
Stop/
Affricate
voiceless p t ʈ k
aspirated ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
breathy ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
Fricative s h
Tap ɾ
Lateral l
Approximant ʋ j

Vowels

Oral vowel sounds
Front Central Back
High i ʊ ʊː
Mid ɛ ɛː (ə əː) ʌ ʌː ɔ ɔː
Low a
Nasal vowel sounds
Front Central Back
High ĩ ʊ̃
Mid ɛ̃ ʌ̃ ɔ̃
Low ã
Diphthongs
Front Central Back
High ʊi̯
Mid ɛi̯, ɛʊ̯ [əɪ̯] ʌɛ̯, ʌ̃ɛ̯̃, ʌi̯, ʌʊ̯ ɔɛ̯, ɔ̃ɛ̯̃, ɔi̯, ɔ̃ĩ̯
Low aɛ̯, ãɛ̯̃, aɪ̯, aʊ̯, ãʊ̯̃

Literature

Nagpuri language is rich in folk tales, folk songs and riddles. Literature in Nagpuri language started around 17th century. Nagvanshi king Raghunath Shah and King of Ramgarh, Dalel Singh were poet. These poems were composed in Devnagari script and Kaithi script.[14][20] Some Nagpuri peot were Hanuman Singh, Jaigovind Mishra, Barju Ram, Ghasiram Mahli, Das Mahli, Mahant Ghasi and Kanchan.[21] "Nagvanshavali" written by Beniram Mehta is a historical work in nagpuri language. Great poet Ghasiram Mahli had written several works including "Nagvanashavali", "Durgasaptasati", "Barahamasa", "Vivha Parichhan" etc. There were also great writer like Pradumn Das and Rudra Singh.[22] It is believed that, the prose writing in nagpuri language started by Christian missionaries. E.H.Whitley wrote Notes on the Ganwari dialect of Lohardaga, Chhota Nagpur in 1896, which considered the start of writing prose in nagpuri language.[23] Some Nagpuri language writers and poet in modern period are Praful Kumar Rai, Sahani Upendra Pal Singh, Shiv Avtar Choudhary, Lal Ranvijay Nath Shahdeo, Bisheshwar Prasad Keshari and Girdhari Ram Gonjhu.[12]

Nagpuri, taught at Ranchi University and other universities of Jharkhand.[24] Monthly Nagpuri magazines Gotiya and Johar Sahiya have been published in Ranchi.[25][26] Several magazines have been also published in Assam, West Bengal's Tarai and Dooars district.[27][3]

Some poets, writers and their works in nagpuri language are as follows:[23]

Author Works
Beniram Mahata Nagvanshavali
Ghasiram Mahli Nagpuri Fag Satak, Lalana Ranjana, Durga Saptasati, Nagvanshavali Jhumar
Kanchan Sudama Charitra, Krishna Charitra, Mahabharat, Lanka Kand, Usha Haran
Drugpal Ram Deogharia Nal Charita, Korambe Upakhyan
Dhaniram Bakshi Jitiya Kahani, Fogli budhia kar Kahani, Narad Moh Lila, Karam Mahatmay, Sri Krishna Charit
E.H Whitley Notes on Ganwari dialects of Lohardaga, Chotanagpur (grammar), 1896
Konrad Bookout Grammar of the Nagpuria Sadani language
Bisheshwar Prasad Keshari Nerua Lota urf Sanskritit Abdharna (nibandh), Thakur Vishwanath Sahi, Kanti
Girdhari Ram Gonjhu Marang Gomke Jaipal Singh Munda, Maharaja Madra Munda
Praful Kumar Rai Son Jhair (collection of stories)
Naimuddin Mirdaha Menjur Painkh
Baraik Iswari Prasad Singh Kaka kar Kahani
Kali Kumar Suman Khukhri Rugda

Sample phrases

English Nagpuri Nagpuri (Devanagari)
What is your name? Tor naam ka heke? तोर नाम का हेके ?
How are you ? Toen kaisan aahis? तोयं कसैन आहीस्?
I am fine. Moen thik aahon मोएं ठीक आहों।
What? Ka? का?
Who? Ke? के?
Why? Kale? काले?
How? Kaisan? कसैन?
Which? Kon? कोन?
Come here. Hian aao हीयां आओ
I am going to home. Moen ghar jat hon मोएं घर जात हों।
I have eaten. Moen kha hon मोएं खा हों।
I will go. Moen Jamu मोएं जामु।
We go. Hame jaeil हामे जाइल।
You go. Toen jais तोयं जाइस्।
You are writing. Toen likhathis तोयं लिखतहिस्।
You will come. Toen aabe तोयं आबे।
We are writing. Hame likhathi हामे लीखतही।
We have written. Hame likh hi हामे लीख ही।
He/She come. Oo aawela उ आवेला।
He/She is going. Oo jat he उ जात हे।
He/She was coming. Oo aawat rahe उ आवत रहे।
He/She will play. Oo kheli उ खेली।
They have eaten bread. Ooman roti kha haen उमन रोटी खा हयं।
They went. Ooman gelaen उमन गेलयं।
They will go home. Ooman ghar jabaen उमन घर जाबयं।

Relations

Father Abba, Baba आबा, बाबा
Mother Maa, Aayo मा, आयो
Brother Bhai भाइ
Sister Bahin बहीन
Paternal uncle Kaka काका
Paternal aunt Kaki काकी
Maternal uncle Mama मामा
Maternal aunt Mami मामी
friend Sang(male), Sangi(female) संग(पुरूष), संगी(स्त्री)
brother of sister-in-law and brother-in-law Sangat(for female), Yaar(for male) संगात, यार
sister of sister-in-law and brother-in-law Sangatin संगातीन

Alternate names

Alternate names of dialects include: Sadani, Sadana, Sadati, Sadari, Sadhan, Sadna, Sadrik, Santri, Siddri, Sradri, Sadhari, Sadan, Nagpuria, Nagpuri, Chota Nagpuri, Dikku Kaji, Gawari, Ganwari, Goari, Gauuari, Jharkhandhi.[28][29][30]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  2. ^ a b c "Sadri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  3. ^ a b c "Sadri - the Language of Jharkhand". Archived from the original on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  4. ^ a b "Jharkhand gives second language status to Magahi, Angika, Bhojpuri and Maithili". avenuemail. 11 March 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Sadani / Sadri" (PDF). southasiabibliography.de.
  6. ^ Sir John Houlton, Bihar, the Heart of India, pp. 127–128, Orient Longmans, 1949.
  7. ^ a b Paudyal, Netra P.; Peterson, John (1 September 2020). "How one language became four: the impact of different contact-scenarios between "Sadani" and the tribal languages of Jharkhand". Journal of South Asian Languages and Linguistics. 7 (2): 275–306. doi:10.1515/jsall-2021-2028. ISSN 2196-078X.
  8. ^ "नागपुरी भाषा को दो अलग कोड देने पर नाराजगी". Hindustan. 11 July 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  9. ^ "भाषाई जनगणना में नागपुरी को बांटने की साजिश का विरोध". Hindustan. 29 August 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  10. ^ "झारखंड में नागपुरी के साथ जुल्म हो रहा है : मधु मंसुरी". Dainik Jagran. 15 May 2022. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  11. ^ Lal, Mohan (1992). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Sasay to Zorgot. ISBN 9788126012213.
  12. ^ a b Ranjan, Manish (19 August 2002). Jharkhand Samanya Gyan. ISBN 9789351867982.
  13. ^ Lalit Aditya (October 2018). "Inscriptions in Jharkhand: A Preliminary Study". Retrieved 30 August 2022.
  14. ^ a b c "Giant new chapter for Nagpuri poetry". telegraphindia. 5 November 2012.
  15. ^ "Requests to include 38 languages in Constitution pending: Govt". thehindu. 1 December 2009.
  16. ^ "38 languages stake claim to be in Eighth schedule". dailyexcelsior. 16 August 2013.
  17. ^ "'नागपुरी पझरा' संवाद कार्यक्रम में उठी नागपुरी भाषा को 8वीं अनुसूची में शामिल करने की मांग". prabhatkhabar.
  18. ^ "Don't add Hindi dialects in Eighth Schedule, say academics". thehindu. 20 January 2017.
  19. ^ Peterson, John; Baraik, Sunil (2021). A grammar of Chotanagpuri Sadri: An Indo-Aryan Lingua Franca of Eastern Central India.
  20. ^ "Bid to save language treasure by Dr Keshri". dailypioneer. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  21. ^ "नागपुरी राग-रागिनियों को संरक्षित कर रहे महावीर नायक". prabhatkhabar. 4 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  22. ^ Ranjan, Manish (January 2016). Jharkhand Samanya Gyan 2016. ISBN 9789351866848.
  23. ^ a b Dr. Manish Ranjan (2021). JPSC Mains Paper-III History and Geography (Hindi): Dr. Manish Ranjan (IAS). Prabhat Prakashan. ISBN 978-9390906833.
  24. ^ "RU gold medallist to promote Nagpuri lang". timesofindia. 21 January 2016.
  25. ^ "Nagpuri call for culture". telegraphindia. 25 July 2008.
  26. ^ "JOHAR SAHIYA". newspapers.
  27. ^ "New insight into tea community of Assam". thethumbprintmag. 25 May 2015.
  28. ^ "Sadri (Language code 'sck')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  29. ^ "Oraon Sadri (Language code 'sdr')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  30. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: sck". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 31 August 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.