Sadri
Nagpuri
सादरी (नागपुरी), ସାଦ୍ରୀ, সাদরি
Native toIndia
RegionWest Central Chota Nagpur (Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Bihar), West Bengal, Assam
EthnicityNagpuria
Native speakers
5.1 million (2011 census)[1][2][3]
(Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi) L2 speakers: 7.0 million (2007)
Devanagari
Kaithi (historical)
Odia
Bengali-Assamese
Latin
Official status
Official language in
 India
Language codes
ISO 639-3sck
Glottologsada1242
Sadri speaking region.png
Sadri-speaking region in India
A Sadri speaker speaking three languages, recorded in China.

Sadri (also known as Nagpuri) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Bihar. It is native language of the Sadan. In addition to native speakers, it is also used as lingua franca by many tribal groups such as Kharia, Munda and Kurukh, and a number of speakers of these tribal groups have adopted it as their first language. It is also used as a lingua franca among Tea-garden community of Assam, West Bengal and Bangladesh.[5][1] According to the 2011 Census, there were approximately 5,130,000 native speakers of the Nagpuri language, including 19,100 identifying as Gawari, 4,350,000 as "Sadan/Sadri" and 763,000 as "Nagpuria". Around 7 million people speak it as second language.[2]

Etymology

The origin of Sadani/Sadri and other related terms is somewhat obscure. Probably the term "Sadan" derive from nisaada, referring to an ethnic group of North India. [5] The name Nagpur is probably taken from Nagvanshi, who ruled in this part of the country.[6] In literary tradition, the language is known as Nagpuri.[7]

Classification

In 1903, Sir George Abraham Grierson had classified Nagpuri as Nagpuria dialect of Bhojpuri language in his Survey "Linguistic Survey of India".

1903 Linguistic map of East Chota Nagpur, by G.A. Grierson
1903 Linguistic map of East Chota Nagpur, by G.A. Grierson

Nagpuri have been placed in Bihari group of Indo-Aryan languages. There is no consensus about placement of Bihari languages in Indo Aryan language family. Some consider it as Eastern branch while other consider it as Central branch. According to Ethnologue, it is eastern branch.[5][8] There are different opinion among linguist about origin of Nagpuri language. According to professor Keshri Kumar Singh, Nagpuri is descendant of Magadhi Prakrit in his book "Nagpuri bhasa ebam Sahitya". According to Dr. Sravan Kumar Goswami, Nagpuri had evolved from Ardhamagadhi Prakrit.[9] Recent study demonstrate that Indo-Aryan languages of Chota Nagpur plateau called Sadani languages are distinct languages and are related to each other. Sadri language spoken in different districts such as Ranchi, Gumla, Simdega and Garhwa varies with each other.[7]

Geographical Distribution

Nagpuri language is mainly spoken in western Chota Nagpur Plateau region in following, details geographical distribution of language is tabulated below;

Geographical distribution of Sadri language
State Jharkhand Chhattisgarh Odisha Bihar
District Chatra Jashpur Sundergarh district Aurangabad
Palamu Balrampur Gaya district
Latehar
Garhwa Sarguja
Hazaribagh
Lohardaga
Gumla
Ranchi
Simdega
Khunti
West Singhbhum

It is also spoken by some Tea garden community in Tea garden area of Bangladesh, West Bengal and Assam who were taken as labourer to work in Tea garden during British Rule.[3]

It is spoken by 5 million as first language and 7 million as second language. Second language speaker are primarily tribal groups of the region who speaks Kurukh, Munda and Kharia language. They speak Sadri as lingua-franca for communication with different tribal groups and caste groups. In this process many have also adopted it as their first language.[2]

Status

Historically Nagpuri was lingua-franca in the region. It was court language during reign of Nagvanshi dynasty.[10] Nagpuri is accorded as additional official language in Indian state of Jharkhand.[4] There is demand to include Nagpuri in Eighth schedule.[11][12][13] Some academics oppose inclusion of Hindi dialects in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution as full-fledged Indian languages. According to them recognition of Hindi dialects as separate languages would deprive Hindi of millions of its speakers and eventually no Hindi will be left.[14]

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ɳ) ŋ
Stop/
Affricate
voiceless p t ʈ k
aspirated ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
breathy ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
Fricative s h
Tap ɾ
Lateral l
Approximant ʋ j

Vowels

Oral vowel sounds
Front Central Back
High i ʊ ʊː
Mid ɛ ɛː (ə əː) ʌ ʌː ɔ ɔː
Low a
Nasal vowel sounds
Front Central Back
High ĩ ʊ̃
Mid ɛ̃ ʌ̃ ɔ̃
Low ã
Diphthongs
Front Central Back
High ʊi̯
Mid ɛi̯, ɛʊ̯ [əɪ̯] ʌɛ̯, ʌ̃ɛ̯̃, ʌi̯, ʌʊ̯ ɔɛ̯, ɔ̃ɛ̯̃, ɔi̯, ɔ̃ĩ̯
Low aɛ̯, ãɛ̯̃, aɪ̯, aʊ̯, ãʊ̯̃

Literature

Literature in Nagpuri language started around 17th century. Nagvanshi king Raghunath Shah and King of Ramgarh, Dalel Singh were poet.[10][16] Some Nagpuri peot were Hanuman Singh, Jaigovind Mishra, Barju Ram, Ghasiram Mahli, Das Mahli, Mahant Ghasi and Kanchan.[17] "Nagvanshavali" written by Beniram Mehta is a historical work in Nagpuri language. Great poet Ghasiram Mahli had written several works including "Nagvanashavali", "Durgasaptasati", "Barahamasa", "Vivha Parichhan" etc. There were also great writer like Pradumn Das and Rudra Singh.[18] Some Nagpuri language writers and poet in modern period are Praful Kumar Rai, Sahani Upendra Pal Singh, Shiv Avtar Choudhary, Lal Ranvijay Nath Shahdeo, Bisheshwar Prasad Keshari and Girdhari Ram Gonjhu.[9]

Nagpuri, taught at Ranchi University and other universities of Jharkhand.[19] Monthly Nagpuri magazines Gotiya and Johar Sahiya have been published in Ranchi.[20][21] Several magazines have been also published in Assam, West Bengal's Tarai and Dooars district.[22][3]

Sample phrases

English Nagpuri Nagpuri (Devanagari)
What is your name? Tor naam ka heke? तोर नाम का हेके ?
How are you ? Toen kaisan aahis? तोयं कसैन आहीस्?
I am fine. Moen thik aahon मोएं ठीक आहों।
What? Ka? का?
Who? Ke? के?
Why? Kale? काले?
How? Kaisan? कसैन?
Which? Kon? कोन?
Come here. Hian aao हीयां आओ
I am going to home. Moen ghar jat hon मोएं घर जात हों।
I have eaten. Moen kha hon मोएं खा हों।
I will go. Moen Jamu मोएं जामु।
We go. Hame jaeil हामे जाइल।
You go. Toen jais तोयं जाइस्।
You are writing. Toen likhathis तोयं लिखतहिस्।
You will come. Toen aabe तोयं आबे।
We are writing. Hame likhathi हामे लीखतही।
We have written. Hame likh hi हामे लीख ही।
He/She come. Oo aawela उ आवेला।
He/She is going. Oo jat he उ जात हे।
He/She was coming. Oo aawat rahe उ आवत रहे।
He/She will play. Oo kheli उ खेली।
They have eaten bread. Ooman roti kha haen उमन रोटी खा हयं।
They went. Ooman gelaen उमन गेलयं।
They will go home. Ooman ghar jabaen उमन घर जाबयं।

Relations

Father Abba, Baba आबा, बाबा
Mother Maa, Aayo मा, आयो
Brother Bhai भाइ
Sister Bahin बहीन
Paternal uncle Kaka काका
Paternal aunt Kaki काकी
Maternal uncle Mama मामा
Maternal aunt Mami मामी
friend Sang(male), Sangi(female) संग(पुरूष), संगी(स्त्री)
brother of sister-in-law and brother-in-law Sangat(for female), Yaar(for male) संगात, यार
sister of sister-in-law and brother-in-law Sangatin संगातीन

Alternate names

Alternate names of dialects include: Sadani, Sadana, Sadati, Sadari, Sadhan, Sadna, Sadrik, Santri, Siddri, Sradri, Sadhari, Sadan, Nagpuria, Nagpuri, Chota Nagpuri, Dikku Kaji, Gawari, Ganwari, Goari, Gauuari, Jharkhandhi.[23][24][25]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  2. ^ a b c "Sadri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  3. ^ a b c "Sadri - the Language of Jharkhand". Archived from the original on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  4. ^ a b "Jharkhand gives second language status to Magahi, Angika, Bhojpuri and Maithili". avenuemail. 11 March 2018.
  5. ^ a b c "Sadani / Sadri" (PDF). southasiabibliography.de.
  6. ^ Sir John Houlton, Bihar, the Heart of India, pp. 127–128, Orient Longmans, 1949.
  7. ^ a b Paudyal, Netra P.; Peterson, John (1 September 2020). "How one language became four: the impact of different contact-scenarios between "Sadani" and the tribal languages of Jharkhand". Journal of South Asian Languages and Linguistics. 7 (2): 275–306. doi:10.1515/jsall-2021-2028. ISSN 2196-078X.
  8. ^ Lal, Mohan (1992). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Sasay to Zorgot. ISBN 9788126012213.
  9. ^ a b Ranjan, Manish (19 August 2002). Jharkhand Samanya Gyan. ISBN 9789351867982.
  10. ^ a b "Giant new chapter for Nagpuri poetry". telegraphindia. 5 November 2012.
  11. ^ "Requests to include 38 languages in Constitution pending: Govt". thehindu. 1 December 2009.
  12. ^ "38 languages stake claim to be in Eighth schedule". dailyexcelsior. 16 August 2013.
  13. ^ "'नागपुरी पझरा' संवाद कार्यक्रम में उठी नागपुरी भाषा को 8वीं अनुसूची में शामिल करने की मांग". prabhatkhabar.
  14. ^ "Don't add Hindi dialects in Eighth Schedule, say academics". thehindu. 20 January 2017.
  15. ^ Peterson, John; Baraik, Sunil (2021). A grammar of Chotanagpuri Sadri: An Indo-Aryan Lingua Franca of Eastern Central India.
  16. ^ "Bid to save language treasure by Dr Keshri". dailypioneer. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  17. ^ "नागपुरी राग-रागिनियों को संरक्षित कर रहे महावीर नायक". prabhatkhabar. 4 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  18. ^ Ranjan, Manish (January 2016). Jharkhand Samanya Gyan 2016. ISBN 9789351866848.
  19. ^ "RU gold medallist to promote Nagpuri lang". timesofindia. 21 January 2016.
  20. ^ "Nagpuri call for culture". telegraphindia. 25 July 2008.
  21. ^ "JOHAR SAHIYA". newspapers.
  22. ^ "New insight into tea community of Assam". thethumbprintmag. 25 May 2015.
  23. ^ "Sadri (Language code 'sck')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  24. ^ "Oraon Sadri (Language code 'sdr')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  25. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: sck". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 31 August 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.