Sahaptian
Sħaptian
Geographic
distribution
Pacific Northwest
Linguistic classificationPlateau Penutian
  • Sahaptian
Subdivisions
Glottologsaha1239

Sahaptian (also Sahaptianic, Sahaptin, Shahaptian) is a two-language branch of the Plateau Penutian family spoken by Native American peoples in the Columbia Plateau region of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho in the northwestern United States.

The terms Sahaptian (the family) and Sahaptin (the language) have often been confused and used interchangeably in the literature.

Family division

Sahaptian includes two languages:

1. Nez Perce (Niimiʼipuutímt)
2. Sahaptin (Sħáptənəxw)

Nez Perce has two principle dialects, Upper and Lower. Sahaptin has somewhat greater internal diversity, with its main dialects being Umatilla and Yakima.

Nodel Rude's (2012) classification of Sahaptian is as follows.[1]

Proto-language

Proto-Sahaptian
Reconstruction ofSahaptian languages

Work on Proto-Sahaptian reconstruction has been undertaken by Noel Rude (2006,[2] 2012[1]).

Proto-Sahaptian consonants:[1]: 306 

Bilabial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Velar Uvular Glottal
plain lateral central plain labialized plain labialized
Stop/Affricate p t ƛ c č k q ʔ
Ejective ƛ̓ č k̓ʷ q̓ʷ
Fricative ł s š x x̣ʷ h
Sonorant plain m n l y w
glottalized

Proto-Sahaptian vowels:[1]: 293 

front central back
high i ɨ u
mid o
low æ ɑ

Bibliography

References

  1. ^ a b c d Rude, Noel. 2012. Reconstructing Proto-Sahaptian Sounds. In Papers for the 47th International Conference on Salish and neighbouring languages, 292-324. Working Papers in Linguistics (UBCWPL). Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
  2. ^ Rude, Noel. 2006. Proto-Sahaptian vocalism. In Papers for the 41st International Conference on Salish and neighbouring languages, 264-277. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.