Sailing
at the Games of the II Olympiad
Regatta at Sainte-Adresse.JPG
An impression of yacht racing (1867) by Monet
North of Le Havre
Metropolitan Museum of Art
VenuesMeulan
Le Havre
Dates20 May 1900 (1900-05-20) – 27 May 1900 (1900-05-27) (Meulan)
1 August 1900 (1900-08-01) – 5 August 1900 (1900-08-05) (Le Havre)
Competitorsabout 150
(including 1 woman) from 6 nations
Boats64
1908 →

Sailing/Yachting made its first appearance as an Olympic sport at the 1900 Summer Olympics after competitions were cancelled at the 1896 Olympics. With the exception of 1904, sailing was thereafter always a part of the Olympic program. The sailing program in 1900 consisted of a total of eight sailing classes. For six classes, the races were scheduled from 20 – 27 May at the river Seine around Meulan, and a series of three races was held for the largest classes from 1–5 August on the North Atlantic off the coast of Le Havre. Approximately 150 sailors in 64 boats (the numbers of boats and competitors are not reliable, as in the official report some figures of the World exhibition and the Olympic Games are mixed) from 6 nations competed, including 1 woman, Hélène de Pourtalès, who won a gold medal in the 1 to 2 ton.[1]

Venues

During the early years of the Olympic movement there were no strict rules for the assignment of venues. For the Olympic sailing in 1900 the organizers decided to combine the Olympic sailing for the smaller yachts with the regattas of the Exposition Universelle on the river Seine near Meulan. For the larger yachts an Olympic regatta was held at Le Havre.

Meulan

Cercle de la Voile de Paris
Bassin Olympique
de Meulan Les Mureaux
Club House de Cercle de la Voile de Paris à Meulan.jpg
Burgee of Cercle de la Voile de Paris.svg

Burgee of the Cercle de la Voile de Paris
General information
StatusCompleted
TypeClub House
Address30, quai Albert Glandaz
Town or city78130 Les Mureaux
Country France
Coordinates49°00′1″N 1°54′54″E / 49.00028°N 1.91500°E / 49.00028; 1.91500
ElevationSealevel
OwnerCercle de la Voile de Paris

During the Olympic regattas of the Exposition Universelle of 1900 there were more than 100 yachts racing from Paris, Rouen, Cannes, Nantes and Arcachon and yachts from England, Germany, the United States and Holland. The Bassin Olympique was the river Seine near the Cercle de la Voile de Paris that served as the Olympic harbor.

The race conditions at Meulan during the Olympic regatta were not ideal. A light breeze could hardly make the sailing interesting. Since the river Seine mainly runs from east to west, the light north-easterly breeze was partly blocked by buildings or trees on the river bank, thus heavily influencing the regatta.

Le Havre

During the second part of the Olympic regatta the Atlantic Ocean was used for the races of the 10 – 20 ton and the 20+ ton yachts. The conditions during the regatta were so good that the 10 – 20 Ton class was able to sail the complete 22 nautical mile triangular course. The premises of the Société des Régates du Havre were used as Olympic harbor.

La Société des Régates du Havre
Le Havre
General information
StatusDestroyed
TypeClub House
Country France
Coordinates49°29′30″N 0°5′45″E / 49.49167°N 0.09583°E / 49.49167; 0.09583
ElevationSealevel
OwnerLa Société des Régates du Havre

Course areas

Since there were two venues there were two course areas. One the river Seine near Meulan. Here the organization could set courses of 8, 15 and 19 kilometres (4.3, 8.1 and 10.3 nmi). The other course area was on the North Atlantic off the coats of Le Havre. Here courses could be set up to 40 nautical miles (74 km).

1900 Olympic Course Areas
Course area Meulan
Course area Le Havre

Participating nations

6 nations sent sailors. Several teams had crews from multiple countries, and in one case, they won a gold medal. This team, of the United Kingdom and France, is attributed as a mixed team.

Map of Participating Sailing Countries at the 1900 Summer Olympics● Green = Participating for the first time
Map of Participating Sailing Countries at the 1900 Summer Olympics
Green = Participating for the first time
 France (FRA)  Germany (GER)  Great Britain (GBR)  Netherlands (NED)
 Switzerland (SUI)  United States (USA)  Mixed team (ZZX)

Classes (equipment)

Sailing during the turn of the century was not as well defined as it became later during the 20th century. Racing rules were mostly defined by local yacht clubs or in some cases by a National Yachting Federation. Also, boats were not standardized to what are now called One Design or One Builder classes. Therefore, many handicap systems or systems that put yachts into different categories were used. In 1892, Auguste Godinet developed a formula that placed different boats in different Ton categories. This rule was adopted by the Union des yachts français and later by several other National Yachting Federations such as the Société Nautique de Genève. For the sailing at the 1900 Olympics this rule was chosen to determine the tonnage of a yacht.

For the smallest class, 0 – ½ Ton, among others, Larks were used. These Larks, copies of the Davis Lark and of the Sorceress designed by Linton Hope, became famous One Designs in France (Monotype de Chatou at the beginning of the 20th century.

The Olympics were open for the following classes:

Class Type Venue Event Sailors First OG Olympics so far
Open Class Undefined Meulan
Cercle noir 100%.svg
Unknown 1900 1
0 – ½ Ton Undefined Meulan
Cercle noir 100%.svg
Unknown 1900 1
0 – ½ Ton Undefined Meulan
Cercle noir 100%.svg
Unknown 1900 2
½ – 1 Ton Undefined Meulan
Cercle noir 100%.svg
Unknown 1900 1
½ – 1 Ton Undefined Meulan
Cercle noir 100%.svg
Unknown 1900 2
1 – 2 Ton Undefined Meulan
Cercle noir 100%.svg
Unknown 1900 1
1 – 2 Ton Undefined Meulan
Cercle noir 100%.svg
Unknown 1900 2
2 – 3 Ton Undefined Meulan
Cercle noir 100%.svg
Unknown 1900 1
2 – 3 Ton Undefined Meulan
Cercle noir 100%.svg
Unknown 1900 2
3 – 10 Ton Undefined Meulan
Cercle noir 100%.svg
Unknown 1900 1
3 – 10 Ton Undefined Meulan
Cercle noir 100%.svg
Unknown 1900 2
10 – 20 Ton Undefined Le Havre
Cercle noir 100%.svg
Unknown 1900 1
20+ Ton Undefined Le Havre
Cercle noir 100%.svg
Unknown 1900 1
Legend:
Cercle noir 100%.svg
= Mixed gender event

Race schedule

 ●  Meulan competition  ●  Le Havre competition
1900 May August
20
Sun
21
Mon
22
Tue
23
Wed
24
Thu
25
Fri
26
Sat
27
Thu
1
Fri
2
Sat
3
Sun
4
Mon
5
Tue
6
Wed
Sailing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 No
wind
1 1 1 1
Total gold medals 1 3 3 4 1 1

Medal summary

The results of the individual races are known; however, in the past there has not been consensus on which races were considered "Olympic" and thus who the Olympic medalists were. The Official Report,[2] International Olympic Committee (IOC),[3] International Sailing Federation (ISAF)[4] and Sports Reference[5] present different medalists. The IOC has never decided which events were "Olympic" and which were not.[6] Occasionally, sources differ on the nationality of competitors (such as H. MacHenry, alternately listed as French or American). For example, the medalists in the 3 – 10 Ton races are shown in the various sources as:

Report Race Gold Silver Bronze
Official Report[2] Race 1 Henri Gilardoni (FRA) Henri Smulders (NED) Maurice Gufflet (FRA)
Race 2 Howard Taylor (GBR) Maurice Gufflet (FRA) H. MacHenry (FRA)
IOC[3] and ISAF[4] Race 2 Howard Taylor (GBR) Maurice Gufflet (FRA) H. MacHenry (FRA)
Sports Reference[5] Race 1 Henri Gilardoni (FRA) Henri Smulders (NED) Maurice Gufflet (FRA)
Race 2 Howard Taylor (GBR) Maurice Gufflet (FRA) H. MacHenry (USA)

In all classes at Meulan except the Open class, there were two distinct "finals." Boats were assigned time handicaps according to their weight within each class and prizes were handed out to the winners of each race. The IOC initially recognized the winner of the first race in each class as Olympic champion except in the case of the 10 – 20 ton class, which was decided on aggregate time over three races. However, currently the participants of both first and second races in three classes (0 – 0.5t, 1 – 2t and 2 – 3t) are present in the IOC database[7] as medalists. That is, the second race in each of these three classes is recognized by the IOC and for each of these events two gold, two silver, and two bronze medals were retrospectively awarded by the IOC. In the 3 – 10 Ton race, however, only the second race winners are listed with Olympic medals.

The data below notes all races and medalists of the regattas of the Games of the second Olympiad, as well as of the Exposition Universelle and counts all winners as medalists, because the IOC website currently affirms a total of 95 medal events in the Games.[8]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Open class
details
 Great Britain (GBR)
Lorne Currie
John Gretton
Linton Hope
Algernon Maudslay
 Germany (GER)
Paul Wiesner
Georg Naue
Heinrich Peters
Ottokar Weise
 France (FRA)
Émile Michelet
0 to .5 ton
Race 1
details[a]
 France (FRA)
Pierre Gervais
 France (FRA)
Texier (helmsman)
Texier (crew)
Jean-Baptiste Charcot
Robert Linzeler
 France (FRA)
Henri Monnot
Léon Tellier
Gaston Cailleux
0 to .5 ton
Race 2
details
 France (FRA)
Émile Sacré
 France (FRA)
Texier (helmsman)
Texier (crew)
Jean-Baptiste Charcot
Robert Linzeler
 France (FRA)
Pierre Gervais
.5 to 1 ton
Race 1
details[a]
 Great Britain (GBR)
Lorne Currie
John Gretton
Linton Hope
Algernon Maudslay
 France (FRA)
Jules Valton
Félix Marcotte
William Martin
Jacques Baudrier
Jean Le Bret
 France (FRA)
Émile Michelet
Marcel Meran
.5 to 1 ton
Race 2
details
 France (FRA)
Louis Auguste-Dormeuil
 France (FRA)
Émile Michelet
Marcel Meran
 France (FRA)
Jules Valton
Félix Marcotte
William Martin
Jacques Baudrier
Jean Le Bret
1 to 2 ton
Race 1
details[a]
 Switzerland (SUI)
Hermann de Pourtalès
Hélène de Pourtalès
Bernard de Pourtalès
 France (FRA)
François Vilamitjana
Auguste Albert
Albert Duval
Charles Hugo
 France (FRA)
Jacques Baudrier
Lucien Baudrier
Dubosq
Édouard Mantois
1 to 2 ton
Race 2
details
 Germany (GER)
Paul Wiesner
Georg Naue
Heinrich Peters
Ottokar Weise
 Switzerland (SUI)
Hermann de Pourtalès
Hélène de Pourtalès
Bernard de Pourtalès
 France (FRA)
François Vilamitjana
Auguste Albert
Albert Duval
Charles Hugo
2 to 3 ton
Race 1
details[a]
 Mixed team (ZZX)
 William Exshaw (GBR)
 Frédéric Blanchy (FRA)
 Jacques Le Lavasseur (FRA)
 France (FRA)
Léon Susse
Jacques Doucet
Auguste Godinet
Henri Mialaret
 France (FRA)
Ferdinand Schlatter
de Cottignon
Émile Jean-Fontaine
2 to 3 ton
Race 2
details
 Mixed team (ZZX)
 William Exshaw (GBR)
 Frédéric Blanchy (FRA)
 Jacques Le Lavasseur (FRA)
 France (FRA)
Léon Susse
Jacques Doucet
Auguste Godinet
Henri Mialaret
 France (FRA)
Auguste Donny
3 to 10 ton
Race 1
details[a]
 France (FRA)
Henri Gilardoni
 Netherlands (NED)
Henri Smulders
Chris Hooykaas
Arie van der Velden
 France (FRA)
Maurice Gufflet
A. Dubois
J. Dubois
Robert Gufflet
Charles Guiraist
3 to 10 ton
Race 2
details
 Great Britain (GBR)
Howard Taylor
Edward Hore
Harry Jefferson
 France (FRA)
Maurice Gufflet
A. Dubois
J. Dubois
Robert Gufflet
Charles Guiraist
 United States (USA)
H. MacHenry (USA)[b]
10 to 20 ton
details
 France (FRA)
Émile Billard
Paul Perquer
 France (FRA)
Jean, duc Decazes
 Great Britain (GBR)
Edward Hore
20+ ton
details
 Great Britain (GBR)
Cecil Quentin
 Great Britain (GBR)
Selwin Calverley
 United States (USA)
Harry Van Bergen
  1. ^ a b c d e Two races in this class are recognized by the IOC. Thus, for this event, two gold, two silver, and two bronze medals were retrospectively awarded.[8][9]
  2. ^ John Howard Taylor (GBR) is sometimes mentioned as a crewman, but is only known to have designed boat Frimousse, not sailed it.[10]

Medal table

All races now considered official Olympic events, as IOC website affirms 95 total medal events.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 France (FRA)591024
2 Great Britain (GBR)4116
3 Mixed team (ZZX)2002
4 Germany (GER)1102
 Switzerland (SUI)1102
6 Netherlands (NED)0101
7 United States (USA)0022
Totals (7 entries)13131339

Notes

There was some discussion[where?] about the validity of the Olympic status of Sailing at the 1900 Summer Olympics. Ian Buchanan, first president of the International Society of Olympic Historians, stated, "Given the possible awarding of cash prizes, the "Olympic status" of this sport in 1900 must be in question. It is not exactly certain if the prizes were cash or "objets d’art" of the values listed, thus, for now, I have retained yachting as an Olympic sport in 1900."[11]

Other information

During the sailing regattas at the 1900 Summer Olympics among others the following persons were competing (or owning yachts) in the various classes:

Further reading

References

  1. ^ "Sailing at the 1900 Summer Olympics". Olympedia.org. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Exposition Universelle Internationale de 1900, Concours D'Exercices Physiques et de Sports" (PDF) (in French). Imprimerie Nationale (LA84). 1901. pp. 399–430. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  3. ^ a b "Official website of the Olympic Movement: Olympics Search all results & Olympic medalists". IOC. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  4. ^ a b "Fleet racing - Open - 3 - 10 Ton Under the Thames Measurement Rule". International Sailing Federation. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Sports Reference – Sailing at the 1900 Paris Summer Games: Mixed 3-10 Ton". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  6. ^ Lennartz, Karl; Teutenberg, Walter (1995). Olympische Spiele 1900 in Paris. Kassel, Germany: Agon-Sportverlag. p. 147. ISBN 3-928562-20-7. In many works, it is read that the IOC later met to decide which events were Olympic and which were not. This is not correct and no decision has ever been made. No discussion of this item can be found in the account of any Session.
  7. ^ "Paris 1900: Sailing". IOC. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  8. ^ a b "Paris 1900". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
  9. ^ Mallon, Bill (1998). The 1900 Olympic Games, Results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-4064-1.
  10. ^ "Olimpedia - 3-10 Ton Race Two, Open". Olimpedia. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  11. ^ "Sailing at the 1900 Paris Summer Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  12. ^ "The Countess de Pourtales – After all the first modern female Olympic starter" (PDF). International Society of Olympic Historians. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.