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Samaritan Aramaic
ארמית Arāmît
Pronunciation[arɑmiθ], [arɑmit],
[ɑrɑmɑjɑ], [ɔrɔmɔjɔ]
RegionIsrael and Palestine, predominantly in Samaria and Holon.
Extinctby 12th century; liturgical use[1]
Samaritan alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-2sam
ISO 639-3sam
Glottologsama1314


This article contains Hebrew text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Hebrew letters.

Samaritan Aramaic, or Samaritan, was the dialect of Aramaic used by the Samaritans in their sacred and scholarly literature. This should not be confused with the Samaritan Hebrew language of the Scriptures. Samaritan Aramaic ceased to be a spoken language some time between the 10th and the 12th centuries.

In form it resembles the Aramaic of the Targumim, and is written in the Samaritan alphabet.

Important works written in Samaritan include the translation of the Samaritan Pentateuch in the form of the targum paraphrased version. There are also legal, exegetical and liturgical texts, though later works of the same kind were often written in Arabic.

Sample

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Exodus XX.1-6:

  1. Umellel Elâ'e yet kel milleyya aalen l'mimar.
  2. Ana Šema Eluek deppiqtek men ara d'Miṣrem mibbet av'doothah.
  3. La ya'i lakk elah ahkharin, bar minah.
  4. La tewed lakh tsilam v'khal d'mu debšumeyya milleilah wedbaraa millera wedbameyya mil'ra l'ar'ah.
  5. La tisgad l'hon v'la tifli'khinon arei anah ala anaki Šema elaak el kana mas'ar khoveih awaan al b'nin m'rahdin al dahr t'leethai v'ah; dahr r'vee'ai l'sahnai kad mašl'meen b'nayah l'meekhtei bathar avahth'hohn.
  6. Wabed teivoo l'al'fei dahreen l'rahkhamai welnateri fiqqudi.[citation needed]

Notice the similarities with Judeo-Aramaic as found in Targum Onqelos to this same passage (some expressions below are paraphrased, not literally translated):

  1. Umalleil Adonai yat kol pitgamayya ha'illein lemeimar
    וּמַלֵּיל יְיָ יָת כָּל פִּתְגָמַיָּא הָאִלֵּין לְמֵימַר
  2. Ana Adonai elahach de'appeiktach me'ar'a deMiṣrayim mibbeit avduta
    אֲנָא יְיָ אֱלָהָךְ דְּאַפֵּיקְתָּךְ מֵאַרְעָא דְּמִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עַבְדוּתָא
  3. La yihvei lach elah achoran, bar minni
    לָא יִהְוֵי לָךְ אֱלָהּ אָחֳרָן, בָּר מִנִּי
  4. La ta'aveid lach ṣeilam vechol demu devišmayya mille'eila vediv'ar'a millera vedivmayya millera le'ar'a
    לָא תַּעֲבֵיד לָךְ צֵילַם וְכָל דְּמוּ דְּבִשְׁמַיָּא מִלְּעֵילָא וְדִבְאַרְעָא מִלְּרַע וְדִבְמַיָּא מִלְּרַע לְאַרְעָא
  5. La tisgod lehon vela tiflechinnin arei ana adonai elahach el kanna mas'ar chovei avahan al benin maradin al dar telitai ve'al dar revi'ai lesane'ai kad mašlemin benayya lemichtei batar avahatehon
    לָא תִּסְגּוֹד לְהוֹן וְלָא תִּפְלְחִנִּין אֲרֵי אֲנָא יְיָ אֱלָהָךְ אֵל קַנָּא מַסְעַר חוֹבֵי אֲבָהָן עַל בְּנִין מָרָדִין עַל דָּר תְּלִיתַאי וְעַל דָּר רְבִיעַאי לְסָנְאָי כַּד מַשְׁלְמִין בְּנַיָּא לְמִחְטֵי בָּתַר אֲבָהָתְהוֹן
  6. Ve'aveid teivu le'alfei darin lerachamai ulenaterei pikkodai
    וְעָבֵיד טֵיבוּ לְאַלְפֵי דָּרִין לְרָחֲמַי וּלְנָטְרֵי פִּקּוֹדָי

See also

Bibliography

References

  1. ^ Samaritan Aramaic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)