Same-sex marriage is legal in the Mexican state of Aguascalientes. On 2 April 2019, the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation ruled that articles of the state's Civil Code that banned same-sex marriages violated Articles 1 and 4 of the Constitution of Mexico. The ruling came into effect upon publication in the Official Gazette of the Federation on 16 August 2019.

Legal history

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Same-sex unions performed in Mexican states
  Same-sex marriages performed.*
Stripes: Proportion of municipal coverage.
  Civil unions performed; marriage by amparo only.
  Marriage not performed (except by amparo) despite Supreme Court order.
  Marriage accessible by amparo or by traveling out of state.
*Legislation is not equal in all states. See details.

Background

A civil union bill was first proposed in Aguascalientes in 2010 by Deputy Nora Ruvalcaba Gámez. The measure would have established a legal institution with several of the rights, benefits, obligations and responsibilities of marriage. Opposition from the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the National Action Party (PAN) crippled its passage in Congress.[1]

In September 2014, Deputy Cuauhtemoc Escobedo Tejad from the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) announced that Governor Carlos Lozano de la Torre would introduce a civil union bill and possibly a same-sex marriage bill to the Congress of Aguascalientes. Escobeda Tejada further announced that if the Governor did not introduce a bill, he would do so himself.[2] On 4 November 2014, Escobedo Tejada presented a civil union proposal to Congress, defining the civil partnership as "living together, forming a heritage, having children if they wish, and dealing with situations that arise for a couple." A citizens' initiative on same-sex marriage had been introduced to Congress a few weeks prior to his bill.[3] Debate on three initiatives with different schemes for marriage and civil unions began on 21 November 2014.[4]

On 15 June 2016, Martha Márquez Alvarado, a congresswoman from the National Action Party, indicated that she was preparing another civil union proposal and would present it to Congress when ready.[5] In April 2017, the State Human Rights Commission announced they would introduce a new same-sex marriage bill,[6] and in October 2017 another marriage bill was introduced to Congress by PRD Deputy Josefina Moreno Pérez.[7][8]

In April 2018, the National Action Party, which holds a majority of seats in the Congress of Aguascalientes, announced it would oppose all the proposed same-sex marriage and civil union bills, and would not allow legislative hearings on the issue.[9]

Injunctions and court challenges

Further information: Same-sex marriage in Mexico § México Igualitario Project

A decision of the Mexican Supreme Court on 12 June 2015 resulted in a ruling which found that state bans on same-sex marriage are unconstitutional nationwide. The court's ruling is considered a "jurisprudential thesis" and did not invalidate any state laws, meaning same-sex couples denied the right to wed would still have to seek individual injunctions (amparo) in court. The ruling standardized the procedures for judges and courts throughout Mexico to approve all applications for same-sex marriages and made the approval mandatory.

In May 2014, couple Manuel Gutiérrez Flores and Javier Rodrígueza Rivero requested an injunction against the Civil Registry in Aguascalientes City after it had rejected their request for a marriage license. The couple contested the constitutionality of articles 143, 144 and 313bis of the Civil Code.[10][11] Article 143 defined marriage as "the union of one man and one woman", and article 313bis similarly defined concubinage as between "one man and one woman". Article 144 characterized marriage as an institution whose purpose was "perpetuating the species". The injunction was approved by the courts on 29 August 2014,[12] and the couple married on 3 September 2014.[13]

A lesbian couple, Susana Ortega Guzmán and Mariana Martín Aguirre, applied for an injunction in May 2014 and received a favorable verdict on 2 September 2014.[14][15] They married on 21 August 2015.[16]

On 1 September 2014, Julián Elizalde Peña, coordinator of the organization Colectivo SerGay de Aguascalientes, announced that a third injunction had been requested.[17] On 13 October 2014, Elizalde Peña announced that two more injunctions were pending.[18][19] In December 2016, another same-sex couple was granted an injunction to marry,[20] and another was granted by the Fourth District Court to a lesbian couple on 25 January 2017.[21] In late November 2017, four more injunctions were approved by the courts.[22]

By December 2017, 14 same-sex couples had married in the state.[23] That number increased to 23 in 2018.[24]

Action of unconstitutionality (2018/19)

In 2018, the National Human Rights Commission filed an action of unconstitutionality (acción de inconstitucionalidad; docketed 40/2018) against articles 143, 144 and 313bis of the Civil Code. The Congress of Aguascalientes had recently amended state family law but while doing so did not repeal the state's ban on same-sex marriage. The Commission took this opportunity to file the action of unconstitutionality.

On 2 April 2019, the full bench of the Mexican Supreme Court unanimously declared that the three articles in question were void and unconstitutional, holding that banning same-sex couples from marrying violates Articles 1 and 4 of the Constitution of Mexico.[25][26][27][28] The court further ruled that section 1 of article 73 of the Law on the Security of Social Services for Public Servants (Spanish: Ley de Seguridad de Servicios Sociales para los Servidores Públicos) was unconstitutional in limiting social security and health services to opposite-sex married or cohabiting couples.[29]

The ruling came into effect once Congress was officially notified and upon publication in the Official Gazette of the Federation (Diario Oficial de la Federación) on 16 August 2019.[30] Prior to this date, the Civil Registry had already begun processing marriage applications from same-sex couples and issuing marriage certificates. A couple applied to marry the same day as the ruling was handed down, and wed shortly thereafter.[31] On 6 April 2019, a same-sex couple, together for 11 years, wed in a Masonic ceremony.[32]

Marriage statistics

The following table shows the number of same-sex marriages performed in Aguascalientes since legalization in 2019, as reported by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography.[33]

Number of marriages performed in Aguascalientes
Year Same-sex Opposite-sex Total % same-sex
Female Male Total
2019 44 29 73 6,852 6,925 1.05%

Public opinion

A 2017 opinion poll conducted by Gabinete de Comunicación Estratégica found that 50% of Aguascalientes residents supported same-sex marriage. 45% were opposed.[34]

According to a 2018 survey by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography, 36% of the Aguascalientes public opposed same-sex marriage.[35]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Propondrán para Aguascalientes ley de sociedades de convivencia". lja.mx (in Spanish). 3 February 2010.
  2. ^ Itzel Acero (2015-02-17). "Se debe legislar en cuanto a las sociedades de convivencia y matrimonio igualitario". LJA.mx. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
  3. ^ "Presentará PRD iniciativa de unión civil para parejas del mismo sexo". Galatvaguascalientes.tv. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
  4. ^ Carlos Alonso López (2014-11-18). "Tiene el Poder Legislativo tres iniciativas sobre matrimonio igualitario". LJA.mx. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
  5. ^ Huerta, Alejandra (15 June 2016). "Prepara PAN figura alternativa a matrimonios igualitarios". La Jornada Aguascalientes.
  6. ^ (in Spanish) Presentará Cedha nueva propuesta de matrimonio igualitario al Congreso
  7. ^ (in Spanish) Matrimonio igualitario será dictaminado por la legislatura actual
  8. ^ (in Spanish) Asegura PRD que sí se legislará matrimonio igualitario
  9. ^ (in Spanish) PAN SIGUE OPONIÉNDOSE A LOS DERECHOS DE LA COMUNIDAD LGBT DE AGUASCALIENTES
  10. ^ Itzel Acero (2014-05-16). "Anuncian la primera solicitud de matrimonio igualitario en Aguascalientes &#124". LJA.mx. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
  11. ^ "Interponen amparo para primer matrimonio gay en Aguascalientes &#124" (in Spanish). Imagen.com.mx. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
  12. ^ "Obtiene pareja gay amparo federal". Ultra.com.mx. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
  13. ^ 04 Sep, 2014 Print this article Font size -16+ (17 October 2013). "Ya se Podrá Realizar la Primera Boda Homosexual en Aguascalientes". La voz de la nacion. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  14. ^ "Interponen amparo para primer matrimonio gay en Aguascalientes" (in Spanish). Excelsior.com.mx. 2014-05-15. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
  15. ^ "Realizarían en octubre doble boda 'gay' en Querétaro". Edomex.quadratin.com.mx. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
  16. ^ "Pareja gay contrae matrimonio un año después de solicitarlo". Proceso (in Spanish). 21 August 2015.
  17. ^ "Matrimonio gay Será un Hecho en el Estado: Colectivo SerGay | Página 24". Pagina24.com.mx. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
  18. ^ "Confía comunidad gay de Aguascalientes en la viabilidad de matrimonios entre parejas del mismo sexo". Aguasdigital. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
  19. ^ "El Registro Civil ha recibido 9 solicitudes de matrimonio gay". El Heraldo - Noticias de Aguascalientes. 30 May 2016.
  20. ^ (in Spanish) Se suma otro amparo sobre matrimonio igualitario a juzgado de distrito
  21. ^ (in Spanish) Pareja homosexual de Aguascalientes gana amparo para contraer matrimonio
  22. ^ Crece el número de amparos para matrimonios igualitarios
  23. ^ (in Spanish) SOCIEDAD Y JUSTICIARegistro Civil casó a ocho parejas del mismo sexo en 2017
  24. ^ "EN 2018 SE CASARON 23 PAREJAS DEL MISMO SEXO EN AGUASCALIENTES". La Jornada Aguascalientes (in Spanish). 5 February 2019.
  25. ^ "La Corte invalida definición del matrimonio en Aguascalientes; protege a uniones igualitarias". Proceso.com.mx (in Spanish). 2 April 2019.
  26. ^ "Suprema Corte declara inconstitucional negar matrimonio gay en Aguascalientes". Desatre.mx (in Spanish). 3 April 2019.
  27. ^ "Celebra CNDH resolución de la SCJN para permitir el matrimonio igualitario y para garantizar los derechos de personas trabajadoras en activo y pensionadas, y de quienese viven con discapacidad en el Estado de Aguascalientes" (PDF) (in Spanish). Comisión National de los Derechos Humanos. 3 April 2019.
  28. ^ (in Spanish) ACCIÓN DE INCONSTITUCIONALIDAD 40/2018, Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación
  29. ^ (in Spanish) Invalida Corte mandatos de ley de seguridad social de Aguascalientes
  30. ^ "SENTENCIA dictada por el Tribunal Pleno de la Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación en la Acción de Inconstitucionalidad 40/2018, así como los Votos Concurrente formulado por el Ministro José Fernando Franco González Salas, Particular formulado por el Ministro Juan Luis González Alcántara Carrancá y Particulares y Concurrentes formulados por el Ministro Presidente Arturo Zaldívar Lelo de Larrea, así como Voto Aclaratorio formulado por el Ministro Alfredo Gutiérrez Ortiz Mena". Official Gazette of the Federation (in Spanish). 16 August 2019.
  31. ^ Cynthia Andrade (10 April 2019). "Aprueban el primer matrimonio igualitario en Aguascalientes sin necesidad de amparo". Newsweek (in Spanish).
  32. ^ Carlos Olvera Zurita (7 April 2019). "En Aguascalientes, Se Registra Primer Matrimonio Entre Varones Aceptado Por Una Logia Masónica". La Jornada Aguascalientes (in Spanish).
  33. ^ "Matrimonios, Entidad y municipio de registro, Sexo, Sexo". INEGI (in Spanish).
  34. ^ (in Spanish) Encuesta nacional 2017, Gabinete de Comunicación Estratégica
  35. ^ (in Spanish) #Data | ¿Quién está en contra del matrimonio gay?