The Lord Sandys
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
12 February 1742 – 12 December 1743
MonarchGeorge II
Prime MinisterThe Earl of Wilmington
Hon. Henry Pelham
Preceded bySir Robert Walpole
Succeeded byHon. Henry Pelham
Personal details
Born(1695-08-10)10 August 1695
Died21 April 1770(1770-04-21) (aged 74)
Highgate Hill
NationalityBritish
Political partyWhig
Spouse(s)Letitia Tipping
Alma materNew College, Oxford

Samuel Sandys, 1st Baron Sandys PC (/ˈsændz/; 10 August 1695 – 21 April 1770), was a British Whig politician who represented Worcester in the House of Commons from 1718 until 1743, when he was created Baron Sandys. He held numerous posts in the government of the United Kingdom, namely Chancellor of the Exchequer, Leader of the House of Commons, Cofferer of the Household and First Lord of Trade. He was also a justice in eyre.[1]

Early life

Sandys was the eldest son of Edwin Sandys MP (himself a descendant of Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York), and his wife Alice, daughter of Sir James Rushout Bt MP.[2]

He was educated at New College, Oxford, matriculating in 1711 aged 16.[3] He left Oxford in 1715 without graduating, and embarked on a Grand Tour of Continental Europe.[4]

Opposition

In 1718, at the age of 22, Sandys was elected MP for Worcester, as a Whig. He represented the seat for 25 years.

Initially a supporter of Robert Walpole's government, in 1725 Sandys and his uncle Sir John Rushout went into opposition with William Pulteney. Sandys was seen as second-in-command to Pulteney, the leader of the Patriot Whigs.[2]

In February 1730 Sandys introduced the Pension Bill, to bar from sitting in the House of Commons anyone with any pensions or offices held in trust for them from the Crown. The bill passed through the House of Commons but was rejected by the House of Lords; he reintroduced the bill several times in subsequent sessions, with the same result. Sandys opposed the government's economic policy: in 1733 he opposed both the motion to take £500,000 from the sinking fund and the Excise Bill to tax tobacco and wine imports; in February 1736 he called attention to the increase of the national debt.[1]

On 13 February 1741, Sandys moved a motion to call upon King George II to dismiss Walpole. The Tories did not support the motion, which was defeated by 290 votes to 106;[1] the Tory Jacobite William Shippen commented of Walpole and the opposition Whigs that "Robin and I are two honest men: he is for King George and I for King James, but those men in long cravats only desire places under either one or the other".[5]

Chancellor of the Exchequer

This impression that senior opposition Whigs were motivated by self-advancement rather than by opposition to the government gained substance when Walpole fell in February 1742. Pulteney (created Earl of Bath that year) brokered a deal with the Court, without consulting opposition parties. The new ministry led by Lord Wilmington was a continuation of Walpole's ministry with few personnel changes, but with Sandys appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Sir John Rushout and Phillips Gybbon appointed Lords of the Treasury.[2]

Pulteney and Sandys supported the appointment of a secret committee to investigate Walpole's conduct in office; Sandys was elected a member of the committee. They opposed the repeal of the Septennial Act 1716, and objected to the rejection by the Lords of the Indemnification Bill to recompense witnesses against Walpole. In December 1742 Sandys opposed a Place Bill (to limit the capacity of parliamentarians to hold other paid positions, especially in the military), although he had proposed several such bills when in opposition.[1][2]

Wilmington died in July 1743, succeeded as First Lord of the Treasury by Henry Pelham. On 12 December 1743, Pelham took the Chancellorship himself.

Later career

Sandys was compensated with a peerage, being created Baron Sandys on 20 December 1743, and appointment as Cofferer of the Household. He later held office as Speaker of the House of Lords in the Pitt–Devonshire ministry (November 1756 – July 1757), and as First Lord of Trade under Lords Newcastle and Bute (March 1761 – February 1763).[2]

Sandys died on 21 April 1770, from injuries sustained when his post chaise overturned on Highgate Hill.[2]

Family

On 9 June 1725 Sandys married Letitia, eldest daughter and co-heiress of Sir Thomas Tipping Bt MP and his wife Anne Cheke. They had seven sons and three daughters:[6][7]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Barker, G. F. R. (1897). "Sandys, Samuel" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 50. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sedgwick, Romney R. "SANDYS, Samuel (1695-1770), of Ombersley, Worcs". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  3. ^ Foster, Joseph (1891). Alumni Oxonienses: Sandys, Samuel. p. 1310. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  4. ^ Davis, Martin (2017). Samuel 1st Baron Sandys of Ombersley, 1695–1770. Sandys of Ombersley: Fragments of nine lives. 1. p. 8. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  5. ^ Seccombe, Thomas (1897). "Shippen, William" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 52. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  6. ^ Davis, Martin (2017). Samuel 1st Baron Sandys of Ombersley, 1695–1770. Sandys of Ombersley: Fragments of nine lives. 1. pp. 24–28. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  7. ^ Fielding, John (1790). Fielding's New Peerage of England, Scotland and Ireland. p. 110. Retrieved 30 September 2019.

Bibliography

Parliament of Great Britain Preceded bySamuel Swift Thomas Wylde Member of Parliament for Worcester 1718–1743 With: Thomas Wylde 1718–1727Sir Richard Lane 1727–1734Richard Lockwood 1734–1740Thomas Winnington 1741–1743 Succeeded byThomas Winnington Sir Henry Harpur, Bt Political offices Preceded bySir Robert Walpole Chancellor of the Exchequer 1742–1743 Succeeded byHenry Pelham Leader of the House of Commons 1742–1743 Preceded byThomas Winnington Cofferer of the Household 1744 Succeeded byEdmund Waller Preceded byThe Earl of Halifax First Lord of Trade 1761–1763 Succeeded byCharles Townshend Legal offices Preceded byThe Duke of Leeds Justice in Eyresouth of Trent 1756 Succeeded byThe Earl of Breadalbane Preceded byThe Lord Edgcumbe Justice in Eyrenorth of Trent 1759–1761 Succeeded byThe Duke of Leeds Peerage of Great Britain New creation Baron Sandys 2nd creation1743–1770 Succeeded byEdwin Sandys