Sangolli Rayanna
A statue of Sangolli Rayanna in Bengaluru
Born15 August 1798
Died26 January 1831 (aged 33)
Nandagad, Belgavi
Burial placeNandagad, Belgavi
Other namesRayanna Bharamappa Rogannavar
OccupationMilitary commander

Sangolli Rayanna (15 August 1798 – 26 January 1831) was an Indian military leader. Born in Sangolli, Belgavi in [Halumatha Kuruba gowda] family, he served as a senior commander in the military of the princely state of Kittur during the early 19th century, when the state was ruled by Kittur Chennamma. After Chennamma lead a failed rebellion against the British East India Company (EIC) in response to the EIC's doctrine of lapse in 1824, Rayanna continued to resist Company rule in India.when rayanna fought against the British they called it's a bedar rebellion. After leading another uprising against EIC authority, he was ultimately captured by the British and executed by hanging in 1831. Rayanna's life was the subject of the Kannada-language films Kranthiveera Sangolli Rayanna (1967) and Krantiveera Sangolli Rayanna (2012).[1][2]

Early life

The tree where Rayanna was hanged by the British

Sangolli Rayanna was born on 15 August 1798 in Sangolli, Belgavi into a Kuruba family. At some point in his life, he enlisted in the military of the princely state of Kittur, rising to the position of a senior commander. In 1824, Kittur Chennamma, the ruler of Kittur, rose in rebellion against Company rule in India in response to the British East India Company's (EIC) doctrine of lapse. Rayanna fought in the rebellion and was arrested by British forces, who eventually released him.[3]

Insurgency and death

Incensed by the EIC's confiscation of the majority of his lands (as punishment for participating in the 1824 rebellion) and heavy taxation of the remainder, Rayanna continued to oppose British domination in the region, planning to install Shivalingappa, the adopted son of Chennamma, as the new ruler of Kittur. Lacking the resources to raise a regular army, he recruited forces among the local peasantry, who were similarly discontented with the EIC, and started in an insurgency against the British in 1829. His insurgents targeted EIC administration buildings, British forces and local treasuries, all the while constantly remaining on the move as to avoid being attacked by a larger enemy force. Rayanna used taxes gained from local landlords and the loot gained from plundering treasuries to fund his insurgency. He was assisted by Siddi leader Gajaveera during his insurgency.[4]

In April 1830, Rayanna was finally captured alongside Shivalingappa by the British, who tried him in a court of law and sentenced him to death.[5] On 26 January 1831, at the age of thirty-three, he was executed by hanging by the British authorities from a banyan tree near the village of Nandagad.[6][1] After his death, he was buried near Nangadad. A close associate of Rayanna, Sangolli Bichugatti Channabasappa, planted a banyan sapling on his grave, which remains there to this day; a stambha was also installed near his grave. The government of Karnataka named a school, rock garden and museum after Rayanna in the 21st century.[7]


The Gee Gee songs (Ballad) are heroic folklore verses composed in North Karnataka[8] and several such songs are sung about Kittur Chennamma, Sangolli Rayanna and other figures of pre-independence Karnataka.[9] A life size bronze statue of Sangolli Rayanna, riding a horse with open Sword in right hand, was installed near Railway station of Bengaluru.[10] The main railway station of Bengaluru City has been renamed as "Krantiveera Sangolli Rayanna Bengaluru Junction Railway station"(KSR Bengaluru JN.) in 2015.[11] However the station officially renamed and notified as "Krantivira Sangolli Rayanna Bengaluru Junction Railway Station"(KSR Bengaluru JN.) on 3 February 2016[12] In 2012, a film was produced on his life history.[13] was the subject of another Kannada-language motion picture Kraanthiveera Sangolli Rayanna (Revolutionary Hero Sangolli Rayanna), directed by Naganna and starring Darshan, Jaya Prada and Nikita Thukral.[13]


  1. ^ a b "Celebrating the life and times of Sangolli Rayanna". The Hindu. 24 January 2017.
  2. ^ "Celebrating the life and times of Sangolli Rayanna". New Indian Express. 6 December 2016.
  3. ^ "Sangolli Rayanna and the rise of caste heroes". The New Indian Express. 6 December 2016.
  4. ^ Ali, Shanti Sadiq (1996). The African dispersal in the Deccan : from medieval to modern times. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan. p. 232. ISBN 9788125004851.
  5. ^ Gopalakrishnan (2007). Gopalakrishnan, Subramanian (ed.). The South Indian rebellions: before and after 1800 (1st ed.). Chennai: Palaniappa Brothers. p. 103. ISBN 9788183795005.
  6. ^ R P, Sambasadashiva Reddy. "Miscellany". Deccan Herald, Bangalore. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  7. ^ Pramoda (9 August 2018). "ಪೂರ್ಣವಾಗದ ಸಂಗೊಳ್ಳಿ ರಾಯಣ್ಣ ಪ್ರಾಧಿಕಾರ". Vijaya Karnataka. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  8. ^ Khajane, Muralidhara (8 April 2008). "We've come for your vote..." The Hindu. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  9. ^ Datta, Amaresh, ed. (1988). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: devraj to jyoti, Volume 2. New Dehi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 1293. ISBN 9788126011940.
  10. ^ "Sangolli Rayanna statue unveiled in City, at last". Deccan Herald, Newspaper. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  11. ^ "Bengaluru railway station to be named after Sangolli Rayanna". Deccan Harald, Newspaper. 1 May 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  12. ^ "South Central Railway".
  13. ^ a b Khajane, Muralidhara (31 October 2012). "Rajyotsava release for Sangolli Rayanna". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 November 2012.