Members of the National Guard guard the inauguration on January 20.
Members of the National Guard guard the inauguration on January 20.

The storming of the United States Capitol on January 6, 2021 raised concerns about the security of the inauguration of Joe Biden two weeks later on January 20, 2021.[1][2] The inauguration, like all ceremonies since the first inauguration of George W. Bush in 2001, was designated a National Special Security Event (NSSE); however, on this occasion, the week preceding it was included in preparations.[3] Biden chose not to move the ceremony indoors, indicating that he believed a public, outdoor ceremony was necessary to demonstrate strength.[4] Former Homeland Security Advisor Lisa Monaco advised the Biden team on security-related matters for the ceremony.[5]

Secret Service

The inaugural platform from behind riot barriers, eight days before the inauguration
The inaugural platform from behind riot barriers, eight days before the inauguration

Following the attack and reports of subsequent threats to disrupt Biden's inauguration and incite nationwide unrest, the Secret Service launched a security operation that surpassed any in modern U.S. history[1] with the aim of avoiding a repeat of the deadly Capitol riot.[6][7] On January 11, Trump approved a request for an emergency declaration in Washington, D.C., allowing federal assistance through FEMA to help secure the event.[8] On January 14, a thirteen-page "joint threat assessment" was issued by the FBI, Department of Homeland Security, and other federal and local agencies, identifying domestic extremist groups as "the most likely threat" to the inauguration, followed by foreign influence operations to inflame tensions and drone attacks.[9][10] Separately, the FBI warned that far-right extremists had discussed impersonating National Guard members to infiltrate the ceremony,[11] though later vetting of troops only led to the removal of twelve members from duty for presenting various potential "security liabilities".[12][13]

On the same day, the Secret Service established a Multi-Agency Command Center (MACC) to coordinate inauguration security—established six days earlier than planned—composed of agents and representatives from many government agencies (such as the FBI, U.S. Marshals Service, Defense Department, Park Police, and D.C. Metro Police) and private companies (including a gas company, CSX railroad, and Amtrak).[1] At the request of D.C. Metro Police, the Marshals Service assisted with inauguration security, and planned to deputize up to 4,000 local law enforcement officers from across the nation to assist.[6] Mesh fencing and barriers that were previously installed for the construction of the inaugural stage were torn down in the riot,[1][14] and rehearsals for the ceremony, originally set for January 17, were postponed until January 19, citing security concerns.[5] "Non-scalable" seven foot-high crowd control barriers with razor wire atop them and jersey barriers were installed around the perimeter of the Capitol grounds to prevent disruptions during the ceremony and deconstruction of the platform.[15]

Operation Capitol Response

The activation of National Guard forces into D.C. was a logistically challenging operation, with members arriving from all 50 states, three territories, and the District of Columbia itself.[16][17][18] Commanded by Major General William J. Walker of the D.C. National Guard, troops were assigned various duties, including traffic and crowd control and grounds patrol.[19][20] Arriving troops were required to undergo COVID-19 questionnaire screenings, but few were required to take COVID-19 tests for clearance to join the mission.[21]

National Guard troops in D.C.
Date National Guard troops

on duty in DC (est.)

Jan. 14 7,000[22]
Jan. 16 (morning) 10,000[23]
Jan. 17 (morning) 16,500[18]
Jan. 18 (evening) 21,500[19]
Jan. 19 (morning) 25,000[24]
NJ National Guard Troops deployed inside the Capitol, pictured during the swearing-in on January 12th
Due to lack of cots, troops inside the Capitol had to sleep on the floor, attracting significant media attention[25]

National Guard forces increased steadily in the days leading up to the inauguration,[23] and the authorized maximum of 25,000 troops was reached on the eve of Inauguration Day—three times the number activated for recent ceremonies.[24] The total number of troops in the city may have been the highest since the American Civil War—comparable to that during Abraham Lincoln's first inauguration, which also featured an increased military presence—and surpassed the 13,000 guardsmen deployed during the 1968 riots.[26] Thousands rested in Emancipation Hall of the Capitol Visitor Center,[27] but their lax adherence to COVID-19 guidelines, such as remaining distant from each other and wearing facial coverings, led to nearly 250 members contracting the disease.[21] While most state governors and adjutant generals agreed to requests from the Defense Department officials to send additional troops, some governors declined, desiring to retain capability to defend their own state capitols.[16]

Active-duty operations

In addition to the National Guard troops, the Defense Department assigned an estimated 2,750 active-duty personnel in support of inaugural operations; about 2,000 to perform ceremonial duties (military bands, color guards, salute-gun battery, sentries, and ushers) and the remaining 750 in specialized units (including CBRN defenses, bomb squads, logistics and communications personnel, and medical personnel).[12] Aircraft and watercraft, including U.S. Coast Guard cutters and U.S. Air Force fighter jets, patrolled the water and air.[12]

Aviation security, travel restrictions and site closures

Security-related site restrictions in and around the National Mall, Southwest D.C., Capitol Hill, and downtown Washington, D.C. on Inauguration Day
Security-related site restrictions in and around the National Mall, Southwest D.C., Capitol Hill, and downtown Washington, D.C. on Inauguration Day

Ahead of the inauguration, the Transportation Security Administration increased aviation security at the three D.C.-area airports, increasing the use of random gate screenings, explosive detection dogs, and federal air marshals.[26][10] Washington, D.C.-area airspace (which is ordinarily highly restricted) was even more tightly controlled.[12][28]

Organizers and officials made an unprecedented effort to deter people from visiting Washington, D.C. during the week of the inauguration over concerns of political violence. Efforts included:

Incidents prior to inauguration

Soldiers with the Virginia National Guard on January 16
Armoured FMTV trucks of the National Guard on a road block on January 18

On January 15, Capitol Police arrested a 31-year-old man claiming to be a private security guard from Front Royal, Virginia, who attempted to access a restricted area on the Capitol grounds carrying an "unauthorized" inauguration credential. After inspection, he was charged with carrying an unregistered pistol, more than 500 rounds of unregistered ammunition, and two dozen shotgun shells.[43] He stated that he had forgotten to remove the weapons from his vehicle before arriving in D.C. and used the credential he was granted.[43] He was not found to be tied to extremism, but was instructed not to visit the city during the inaugural events except for court proceedings.[43]

On January 17, a 22-year-old avowed Trump supporter from Gordonsville, Virginia, was arrested near the Capitol complex; he was charged with carrying an unlicensed Glock 22 handgun, three high-capacity magazines, and 37 rounds of unregistered ammunition.[44] In a separate incident the same day, a 63-year-old woman from Stratford, Connecticut claiming to be a law enforcement officer and "a part of the presidential cabinet" was stopped by Capitol Police at a checkpoint near Union Station.[45] She fled from police, was arrested, underwent a psychiatric examination,[45] and was subsequently charged with impersonating, failing to obey, and fleeing an officer.[44] Also on January 17, Couy Griffin, an Otero County, New Mexico county commissioner and founder of the "Cowboys for Trump" group, was arrested in D.C. Griffin had participated in the storming of the Capitol and vowed to return to the city to hold a rally that would end with "blood running out of" the Capitol.[46] Griffin was charged with knowingly entering or remaining in a restricted building without lawful authority.[46]

On January 18, the Capitol complex, where a dress rehearsal for the ceremony was due to take place, was evacuated due to a fire at a homeless encampment outside in the 100 block of H Street SE, to which D.C. Fire and EMS responded.[47] A public address system alerted people on the Capitol grounds,[48][49] and members of Congress were advised to shelter-in-place via email.[50] A military band and individuals standing in as participants in the inaugural ceremony were forced to evacuate the inaugural platform.[51][49] The small fire was promptly extinguished and caused one non-life-threatening injury.[52] The blaze produced a cloud of smoke that was visible over the Capitol.[49]

Inauguration Day and aftermath

There were no sightings of pro-Trump crowds at Biden's inauguration,[53] which was reported as being "quiet and calm".[54][55] The U.S. Supreme Court received a bomb threat, which caused the building to be cleared and investigated.[56]

Removal of the fencing

The network of various barriers and fencing in the streets was subsequently removed.[57] However, the 7 foot riot fence on the Capitol grounds was slated to remain in place for at least 30 days.[58] Acting U.S. Capitol Police chief Yogananda Pittman said that permanent fencing was needed around the U.S. Capitol.[59] This idea was controversial, and DC Mayor Muriel Bowser and some politicians in both parties objected.[60] Dissatisfaction was expressed with the perception of the Capitol as not "open to the people".[61] The fence and tight security around the U.S. Capitol building caused problems for the government of the District of Columbia, who had trouble gaining entry to hand deliver their city bills to the U.S. Congress for approval.[62][63] Aspects of prolonged heightening of security have been characterized as security theater, by individual lawmakers and observers.[64][65] In July, it was announced that the riot fence is scheduled for rapid dismantling, with improved security conditions cited as a reason.[66]

However, in September, the fence was reinstalled as part of the preparations for the Justice for J6 rally.[67][68]

National Guard departures

In the early afternoon of January 21, the Capitol Police ordered all 3,500 members of the National Guard stationed in the Capitol and congressional office buildings to relocate to the Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary Building parking garage due to increased indoor foot traffic in hallways and open spaces as Congress reconvened.[69] The garage was lit and heated but lacked sufficient amenities for the thousands told to occupy the space.[69][70] The move was widely criticized by members of Congress and later reversed.[71] Yogananda Pittman, acting chief of the Capitol Police, shortened the troops' shifts so to reduce the need for sleeping accommodations within the Capitol.[71][70]

After the inauguration, the National Guard began to wind-down operations, checking-in equipment, arranging travel plans, and testing for COVID-19.[72] Most troops returned home within the following week, but approximately 7,000 remained through the end of the month to continue securing the city.[57][73] 5,000 members who patrolled the Capitol remained active until late March following concerns that unrest may arise during the second impeachment trial of Donald Trump, which began and concluded in February, and around Biden's first State of the Union address to a joint session of Congress.[74] This number was reduced to 2,200 by the end of March, and the National Guard security mission at the U.S. Capitol concluded on May 23.[75]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Leonnig, Carol D.; Demirjian, Karoun; Jouvenal, Justin; Miroff, Nick (January 12, 2021). "Secret Service launches massive security operation to protect Biden inauguration". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  2. ^ Carney, Jordain; Chalfant, Morgan (January 13, 2021). "Security concerns mount ahead of Biden inauguration". The Hill. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
  3. ^ Chalfont, Morgan (January 11, 2021). "DHS secretary says security measures tied to inauguration will begin Wednesday". The Hill. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  4. ^ John Wagner, Holding swearing-in outside sends important message, Biden officials say Archived January 20, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Washington Post (January 20, 2021).
  5. ^ a b c Pager, Tyler; Beavers, Olivia (January 14, 2021). "Biden team postpones inauguration rehearsal due to security threats". POLITICO. Archived from the original on January 15, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  6. ^ a b Ryan, Missy; Horton, Alex; Zapotosky, Matt; Lamothe, Dan (January 13, 2021). "Security footprint grows in nation's capital ahead of inauguration". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on January 15, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  7. ^ a b Edelman, Adam (January 11, 2021). "Biden plans 'America United' inauguration theme". NBC News. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  8. ^ Chalfont, Morgan (January 11, 2021). "Trump approves D.C. emergency declaration ahead of Biden inauguration". The Hill. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  9. ^ Levine, Mike (January 15, 2021). "Beyond domestic terrorists, officials eye foreign influence, drones as threats to Biden inauguration". ABC News. Archived from the original on January 17, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  10. ^ a b Kanno-Youngs, Zolan; Sullivan, Eileen; Schmitt, Eric (January 15, 2021). "New Warnings of Violence as Security Tightens for Inauguration". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 17, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  11. ^ Leonnig, Carol D.; Zapotosky, Matt (January 18, 2021). "QAnon adherents discussed posing as National Guard to try to infiltrate inauguration, according to FBI intelligence briefing". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on January 19, 2021. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  12. ^ a b c d Eric Schmitt & Helene Cooper,12 National Guard Members Removed From Inauguration Duties Amid Extremist Threats Archived January 20, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, New York Times (January 19, 2021).
  13. ^ Dan Lamothe, Paul Sonne & Alex Horton, Several members of the National Guard removed from inauguration duty Archived January 19, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Washington Post (January 19, 2020).
  14. ^ Srikanth, Anagha (January 14, 2021). "Here's the lineup for President-elect Biden's inauguration ceremonies". TheHill. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved January 14, 2021.
  15. ^ Katkov, Mark (January 7, 2021). "Army Secretary Says A 'Non-Scalable' 7-Foot Fence Is Going Up Around U.S. Capitol". NPR. Archived from the original on January 8, 2021. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  16. ^ a b Baldor, Lolita (January 16, 2021). "Guard troops pour into Washington as states answer the call". Associated Press. Archived from the original on January 17, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  17. ^ Martinez, Luis (January 16, 2021). "Inside look at how 25,000 National Guardsmen are arriving in Washington, DC". ABC News. Archived from the original on January 17, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  18. ^ a b "National Guard troops head to DC from as far away as Guam" (Press release). National Guard Bureau, United States Army. January 17, 2021. Archived from the original on January 18, 2021.
  19. ^ a b Martinez, Luis (January 18, 2021). "All armed National Guardsman on duty in DC vetted by FBI amid inauguration threats". ABC News. Archived from the original on January 19, 2021. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  20. ^ a b Kanno-Youngs, Zolan; Sullivan, Eileen; Schmitt, Eric (January 15, 2021). "New Warnings of Violence as Security Tightens for Inauguration". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 17, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  21. ^ a b Youssef, Nancy; Corse, Alexa (January 22, 2021). "Covid-19 Contracted by Scores of National Guard Members in Washington". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  22. ^ Liebermann, Oren; Kelly, Caroline; Perez, Evan; Sands, Geneva (January 15, 2021). "Pentagon authorizes 25,000 National Guard members for inauguration". CNN. Archived from the original on January 17, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  23. ^ a b Lamothe, Dan (January 17, 2021). "As troop levels swell in D.C., National Guard commander says he believes he has city officials' trust". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on January 19, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  24. ^ a b 'Not Taking Any Chances': 25K National Guard in DC on Eve of Inauguration Day Archived January 20, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, NBC Washington (January 19, 2021).
  25. ^ https://www.wusa9.com/article/news/nation-world/1-week-after-deadly-siege-national-guard-troops-fill-us-capitol-complex/507-8b236f87-3b9d-4959-9b61-eacbc26224a7
  26. ^ a b Schwartz, Matthew (January 16, 2021). "Up To 25,000 Troops Descend On Washington For Biden's Inauguration". NPR.org. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  27. ^ Ryan, Missy; Horton, Alex; Zapotosky, Matt; Lamothe, Dan (January 13, 2021). "Security footprint grows in nation's capital ahead of inauguration". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on January 15, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  28. ^ FLIGHT ADVISORY NATIONAL SPECIAL SECURITY EVENT 2021: Presidential Inauguration Events Archived January 16, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Federal Aviation Administration.
  29. ^ Edelman, Adam (January 11, 2021). "Biden plans 'America United' inauguration theme". NBC News. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  30. ^ Tierney, Lauren; Meko, Tim; Dormido, Hannah; Karklis, Laris; Fox, Joe (January 15, 2021). "Ahead of the inauguration, much of D.C. closed off like never before". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  31. ^ Davies, Emily; Jouvenal, Justin. "Entire National Mall to close on Inauguration Day". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved January 14, 2021.
  32. ^ Boykin, Nick (January 13, 2021). "Metro closing 13 stations ahead of Inauguration Day in DC". wusa9.com. Archived from the original on January 15, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  33. ^ George, Justin (January 13, 2021). "Metro to close 13 stations for a week amid threats of inauguration violence". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  34. ^ Moses, Lauren (January 15, 2021). "MARC Train suspends all services leading up to Inauguration, beginning Sunday". WBFF. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  35. ^ Blitz, Matt (January 15, 2021). "Four Bridges Connecting Va. to D.C. Will Be Closed Starting Tuesday". ARLnow. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  36. ^ Myers, Leah (January 16, 2021). "Amtrak issuing travel advisory in D.C. area for Biden's inauguration". New Haven, CT: WTNH. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  37. ^ Moshtaghian, Artemis (January 11, 2021). "US Postal Service removing mailboxes for security reasons ahead of inauguration". CNN. Archived from the original on January 17, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  38. ^ Davies, Emily; Brice-Saddler, Michael; Lang, Marissa; Jouvenal, Justin (January 13, 2021). "Airbnb to cancel all D.C. reservations during inauguration week as security in the city is tightened". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
  39. ^ Josephs, Leslie (January 14, 2021). "Airlines ban DC-bound travelers from checking firearms ahead of inauguration". CNBC. Archived from the original on January 15, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  40. ^ Cartagena, Rosa (January 13, 2021). "Hotel Workers' Union Calls for DC Hotels to Close During Inauguration, but That Seems Unlikely". Washingtonian. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
  41. ^ Reuters Staff (January 15, 2021). "Virginia-DC bridges to close to enhance Biden inauguration security". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  42. ^ Goncalves, Delia (January 19, 2021). "Secret Service reopens bridges connecting communities east of Anacostia River". wusa9.com. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  43. ^ a b c Contrera, Jessica; Leonnig, Carol D.; Mettler, Katie (January 16, 2021). "Va. man arrested at inauguration checkpoint says he was lost and didn't mean to bring gun, ammunition to D.C." Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  44. ^ a b Meckler, Laura (January 17, 2021). "Avowed Trump supporter arrested near Capitol for carrying gun; women charged with impersonating police". Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 18, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  45. ^ a b "Woman Arrested at Inauguration Checkpoint Said She Was Officer, Cabinet Member: Police". NBC4 Washington. January 17, 2021. Archived from the original on January 18, 2021. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  46. ^ a b Zilbermints, Regina (February 1, 2021). "Judge orders 'Cowboys for Trump' leader held without bail over Capitol riot charge". TheHill. Archived from the original on February 1, 2021. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
  47. ^ Quinn, Melissa; Becket, Stefan (January 18, 2021). "Live Updates: Nearby fire prompts brief security scare at Capitol". www.cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on January 18, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  48. ^ "Nearby Fire Triggers U.S. Capitol Lockdown, Inauguration Rehearsal Evacuation As Law Enforcement On High Alert". CBS Baltimore. CBS Baltimore. January 18, 2021. Archived from the original on January 18, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  49. ^ a b c Gstalter, Morgan (January 18, 2021). "Capitol put on lockdown after fire reported several blocks away". The Hill. Archived from the original on January 18, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  50. ^ Shabad, Rebecca (January 18, 2021). "'Small fire' prompts brief shutdown of Capitol, evacuation of inauguration rehearsal participants". NBC News. Archived from the original on January 18, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  51. ^ "Inauguration Rehearsal Evacuated, Capitol Shut Down After Fire in DC Homeless Camp". NBC4 Washington. January 18, 2021. Archived from the original on January 18, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  52. ^ de Vries, Karl (January 18, 2021). "Lockdown lifted at US Capitol Building after brief security scare". CNN. Archived from the original on January 18, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  53. ^ "No Large Protests In D.C. As President Biden Is Inaugurated". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 2021-01-20. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  54. ^ "Joe Biden's Quiet and Calm Inauguration Day". U.S. News and World Report. 2021-01-20. Archived from the original on 2021-02-02.
  55. ^ Athey, Philip (January 20, 2021). "The National Guard had a quiet day in DC standing post against threats they helped prevent". Army Times. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  56. ^ WGME (2021-01-20). "Handful of Trump supporters protest Biden's inauguration outside Maine State House". WGME. Archived from the original on 2021-02-06. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  57. ^ a b Davies, Emily; Brice-Saddler, Michael; Hermann, Peter (January 21, 2021). "The fortress around downtown D.C. is being dismantled. But heightened security may remain". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
  58. ^ "Acting Capitol Police Chief Calls For Permanent Perimeter Fencing". DCist. Archived from the original on 2021-01-30. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  59. ^ "After Riot, Acting Capitol Police Chief Calls For Permanent Fencing Around Complex". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 2021-02-02. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  60. ^ Daniella Diaz and Manu Raju. "Proposal to build permanent fence around the Capitol meets resistance". CNN. Archived from the original on 2021-02-02. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  61. ^ "Deadly breach could delay decisions about Capitol fencing". Associated Press. April 3, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  62. ^ "Capitol Building fence is blocking D.C. laws from approval". PBS NewsHour. 2021-02-01. Archived from the original on 2021-02-01. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  63. ^ Zauzmer, Julie. "The Capitol fence meant D.C. couldn't enact laws. Vice President Harris's office stepped in". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 2021-02-02. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  64. ^ "Push for permanent fencing at Capitol draws resistance". The Hill. 2021-01-30. Archived from the original on 2021-02-02. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  65. ^ "A fight over metal detectors reveals how broken Congress really is". Vox. 2021-01-13. Archived from the original on 2021-02-08. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  66. ^ Broadwater, Luke (July 7, 2021). "Six months after a pro-Trump mob stormed the Capitol in a deadly riot, the security fence constructed to fortify the complex in its aftermath is coming down". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  67. ^ Tucker, Eric; Balsamo, Michael; Mascaro, Lisa (September 9, 2021). "Police planning to reinstall Capitol fence ahead of rally". Associated Press.
  68. ^ Rupar, Aaron (2021-09-17). "The Justice for J6 rally is Trump supporters' latest attempt at revisionist history". Vox. Retrieved 2021-09-18.
  69. ^ a b Van Cleave, Kris (January 22, 2021). "Capitol Police reverse request that National Guard members guarding Capitol rest in parking garage". www.cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  70. ^ a b Seligman, Lara; Bertrand, Natasha; Desiderio, Andrew (January 21, 2021). "'We feel incredibly betrayed': Thousands of Guardsmen forced to vacate Capitol". POLITICO. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  71. ^ a b Liebermann, Oren; Klein, Betsy (January 22, 2021). "National Guard allowed back into Capitol complex after lawmakers erupt at banishment to parking garage". CNN. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  72. ^ Cox, Matthew (January 21, 2021). "Thousands of National Guard Troops to Begin Leaving DC This Weekend". Military.com. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  73. ^ Kenney, Caitlin (January 21, 2021). "15,000 National Guard troops in DC to return home soon". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  74. ^ Kaufman, Ellie (January 25, 2021). "Army confirms thousands of National Guard troops will remain in Washington into March". CNN. Archived from the original on January 29, 2021. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
  75. ^ Hughes, Whitney (May 23, 2021). "National Guard security mission at U.S. Capitol concludes". Army.mil. Retrieved July 3, 2021.