King Sejong
朝鮮 世宗
조선 세종
Sejong the Great Bronze statue 02.JPG
Bronze statue of Sejong the Great, Deoksu palace
Crown Prince of Joseon
Tenure15 July 1418 – 19 September 1418
PredecessorCrown Prince Yi Je
SuccessorCrown Prince Yi Hyang
King of Joseon
Reign19 September 1418 – 8 April 1450
CoronationGeunjeongjeon Hall, Gyeongbok Palace, Hanseong, Kingdom of Joseon
PredecessorTaejong of Joseon
SuccessorMunjong of Joseon
RegentTaejong of Joseon as King Emeritus (1418 – 1422)
Munjong of Joseon as Crown Prince (1444 – 1450)
Born15 May 1397
Hanseong, Kingdom of Joseon[1]
Died8 April 1450(1450-04-08) (aged 52)
Yeongyeong Palace, Hanseong, Kingdom of Joseon[2]
Burial
Yeongneung Tombs, Yeoju, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
ConsortQueen Soheon
IssueMunjong of Joseon
Sejo of Joseon
Posthumous name
King Jangheon Yeongmun Yemu Inseong Myeonghyo the Great
장헌영문예무인성명효대왕
莊憲英文睿武仁聖明孝大王
Temple name
Sejong (세종, 世宗)
ClanJeonju Yi clan
DynastyHouse of Yi
FatherTaejong of Joseon
MotherQueen Wongyeong of the Yeoheung Min clan
ReligionNeo-confucianism, later Korean Buddhism
Korean name
Sejong (Chinese characters).svg
"Sejong" in Hanja
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationSejongdaewang
McCune–ReischauerSejongdaewang
Birth name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationIdo
McCune–ReischauerIdo
Childhood name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationWonjeong
McCune–ReischauerWŏnjŏng

Sejong the Great (세종대왕, Korean pronunciation: [se̞(ː)dzo̞ŋ de̞waŋ]; 15 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) was the fourth ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He was the third son of King Taejong and Queen Wongyeong, and was designated as Crown Prince after his older brother, Grand Prince Yangnyeong, was stripped of his title. He ascended to the throne in 1418, but during the first four years of his reign, Taejong governed as regent and executed Sejong's father-in-law, Shim On, and his close associates.

Sejong reinforced Korean Confucian and Neo-Confucian policies, and enacted major legal amendments (공법; 貢法). He personally created and promulgated the Korean alphabet Hangul,[3][4] encouraged advancements of science and technology, and introduced measures to stimulate economic growth. He dispatched military campaigns to the north and instituted the Samin policy (사민정책; 徙民政策) to attract new settlers to the region. To the south, he helped subjugate Japanese pirates, during the Ōei Invasion. He is regarded as one of the greatest kings in the history of Korea.

After his father's death, he governed as the sole monarch from 1422 to 1450, although after 1439 he became increasingly ill,[5] and starting from 1442, his son, Crown Prince Yi Hyang (the future King Munjong), acted as regent.

Name

Although the appellation "the Great" (대왕大王) was given posthumously to almost every ruler of Goryeo and Joseon, this title is usually associated with Gwanggaeto and Sejong.[citation needed]

Early life

Sejong was born as Yi Do on April 10, 1397,[6] with his birthday later adjusted to May 15, after Korea's adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1896. 15 May is the officially recognized birthday of King Sejong, and is celebrated along with National Teachers Day in South Korea.[7]

Sejong was the third son of King Taejong.[8] When he was twelve, he became Grand Prince Chungnyeong (충녕대군). As a young prince, Sejong was favored by King Taejong over his two older brothers.

As the third son of Taejong, Sejong's ascension to the throne was unique. Taejong's eldest son, Yangnyeong (양녕대군), was named heir apparent in 1404. However, Yangnyeong's free spirited nature as well as his preference for hunting and leisure activities resulted in his removal from the position of heir apparent in June 1418. Though it is said that Yangnyeong abdicated in favor of his younger brother, there are no definitive records regarding Yangnyeong's removal. Taejong's second son Grand Prince Hyoryeong became a monk upon the elevation of his younger brother Sejong.[9]

Following the removal of Yangnyeong as heir apparent, Taejong moved quickly to secure his youngest son's position as heir apparent. The government was purged of officials who disagreed with the removal of Yangnyeong. In August 1418, Taejong abdicated in favour of Sejong. However, even in retirement Taejong continued to influence government policy. Sejong's surprising political skill and creativity did not become apparent until after Taejong's death in 1422.[9]

While making Hangul, Sejong slowly lost his sight. However, King Sejong continued to study and create Hangul, and until shortly before his death, he devoted himself to Hangul and passed away.

Governance

Religion

King Sejong reorganized the Korean government by appointing people from different social classes as civil servants.[citation needed] Furthermore, he performed official government events according to Confucianism, and he encouraged people to behave according to the teachings of Confucianism.[citation needed] As a result, Confucianism became the social norm of Korea at the time.[citation needed]

He suppressed Buddhism by banning outside Buddhist monks from entering Seoul and reduced the seven schools of Buddhism down to two, Seon and Gyo, drastically reducing the power and wealth of the Buddhist hierarchy.[10]

During the Goryeo dynasty, Buddhist monks wielded a strong influence in politics and the economy. With the dominant powers of the Joseon dynasty now being devout Confucianists who viewed Buddhism as a false philosophy, many officials accused the temples and monks of being corrupted by power and money. This strengthened the opposition to Buddhism within the Joseon government. One of the key factors to the suppression of Buddhism was Sejong's reform of the land system, where temple lands were seized and redistributed for development. Because of this, Buddhist temples and monks lost large amounts of economic influence and power.[11][12]

In 1427, Sejong also ordered a decree against the Huihui (Korean Muslim) community that had held special status and stipends since the Yuan dynasty. The Huihui were forced to abandon their headgear, to close down their "ceremonial hall" (mosque in the city of Kaesong) and worship like everyone else. No further mention of Muslims exist during the era of the Joseon.[13]

Economic Influence

In the early years of the Joseon Dynasty Korea's economy was based on a barter system with cloth, grain, and cotton being the most common forms of currency. In 1423 under King Sejong’s rule the government attempted to develop a national currency modeled off of the Chinese Kaiyuan Tongbao. The Joseon Dynasty’s Joseon Tongbo was a bronze coin, backed by a silver standard, with 150 coins being equal to 600 grams of silver. Production of the Joseon Tongbo ceased in 1425 as they were expensive to produce, with the exchange rate falling to less than the intrinsic value of the coin.[14]

Foreign policy

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He collaborated closely with the Chinese Ming Dynasty. In relationship with Jurchen people, he installed 10 military posts, 4 counties and 6 garrisons (hangul: 사군육진 hanja: 四郡六鎭), in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

He opened three ports to trade with Japan. However, he also launched the Ōei Invasion to crush Japanese pirates (Wokou) in the East China Sea.

Military

King Sejong was an effective military planner. He created various military regulations to strengthen the safety of his kingdom,[15] supported the advancement of Korean military technology, including cannon development. Different kinds of mortars and fire arrows were tested as well as the use of gunpowder.[citation needed]

In May 1419, King Sejong, under the advice and guidance of his father Taejong, embarked upon the Gihae Eastern Expedition, the ultimate goal of this military expedition to remove the nuisance of Japanese pirates who had been operating out of Tsushima Island. During the expedition, 245 Japanese were killed, and another 110 were captured in combat, while 180 Korean soldiers were killed. 146 Chinese and 8 Korean kidnapped were liberated by this expedition. In September 1419 a truce was made and the Korean army returned to Korea, but the Treaty of Gyehae was signed in 1443, in which the Daimyo of Tsushima promised to pay tribute to the King of Joseon; in return, the Joseon court rewarded the Sō clan with preferential rights regarding trade between Japan and Korea.[16]

In 1433, Sejong sent Kim Jongseo (hangul: 김종서, hanja: 金宗瑞), a prominent general, north to destroy the Jurchens (later known as the Manchus). Kim's military campaign captured several castles, pushed north, and expanded Korean territory, to the Songhua River.[17][18][19] 4 counties and 6 garrisons were established to safeguard the people from the Jurchens.

Science, technology, and agriculture

A modern reconstruction and scaled down model of Jang Yeong-sil's self-striking water clock.
A modern reconstruction and scaled down model of Jang Yeong-sil's self-striking water clock.

In 1420 King Sejong's love for science lead him to create an institute within Gyeongbokgung palace known as the (집현전 Jade Hall) or Hall of Worthies. The institute was responsible for conducting scientific research with the purpose of advancing Korean technology. The Hall of Worthies was meant to be a collection of Korea's best and brightest thinkers, with the government offering grants and scholarships to encourage young scholars to attend.[20][21]

Sejong promoted the sciences.[22][23] He wanted to help farmers so he decided to create a farmer's handbook. The book—the Nongsa jikseol (hangul: 농사직설, hanja: 農事直說)—contained information about the different farming techniques that he told scientists to gather in different regions of Korea.[24] These techniques were needed in order to maintain the newly adopted methods of intensive, continuous cultivation in Korean agriculture.[24]

One of his close associates was the great Korean inventor Jang Yeong-sil (hangul: 장영실, hanja: 蔣英實). Jang was naturally a creative and smart thinker as a young person. Sejong noticed Jang's skill and immediately called him to his court in Seoul. Upon giving Jang a government position and funding for his inventions, officials protested, believing a person from the lower classes should not rise to power among nobles. Sejong instead believed Jang merited support because of his ability. Jang created new significant designs for water clocks, armillary spheres, and sundials.[25]

In 1442, Jang made one of the world's first standardized rain gauges named Cheugugi.[26] This model has not survived, since the oldest existing Korean rain gauge is one made in 1770, during the reign period of King Yeongjo. According to the Daily Records of the Royal Secretariat (hangul: 승정원일기;hanja: 承政院日記), King Yeongjo wanted to revive the glorious times of King Sejong the Great, and so read chronicles of Sejong's era. When he came across mention of a rain gauge, King Yeongjo ordered a reproduction. Since there is a mark of the Qing Dynasty ruler Qianlong (r. 1735–1796) of China, dated 1770,[27] this Korean-designed rain gauge is sometimes misunderstood as having been imported from China.

In 1434 Jang Yeong-sil tasked by King Sejong invented the Gabinja (갑인자, 甲寅字) printing press. The printing press was said to be twice as fast as the previous model and composed copper-zinc and lead-tin alloys.[28]

Korean celestial globe first made by the scientist Jang Yeong-Sil during the Chosŏn Dynasty under the reign of King Sejong
Korean celestial globe first made by the scientist Jang Yeong-Sil during the Chosŏn Dynasty under the reign of King Sejong

Sejong also wanted to reform the Korean calendar system, which was at the time based upon the longitude of the Chinese capital.[24] Sejong had his astronomers create a calendar with the Joseon capital of Seoul as the primary meridian.[24] This new system allowed Korean astronomers to accurately predict the timing of solar and lunar eclipses.[24][29]

In the realm of traditional Korean medicine, two important treatises were written during his reign. These were the Hyangyak jipseongbang and the Euibang yuchwi, which historian Kim Yongsik says represents "Koreans' efforts to develop their own system of medical knowledge, distinct from that of China."[24]

Humanitarianism

In 1426, Sejong the Great enacted a law that granted government nobi women 100 days of maternity leave after childbirth, which, in 1430, was lengthened by one month before childbirth. In 1434, Sejong also granted the husbands 30 days of paternity leave.[30]

In order to provide equality and fairness in taxation for the common people, Sejong the Great issued a royal decree to administer a nationwide public opinion poll regarding a new tax system called Gongbeop in 1430. Over the course of 5 months, the poll surveyed 172,806 people, of which approximately 57% responded with approval for the proposed reform.[31][32]

Sejong depended on the agricultural produce of Joseon's farmers, so he allowed them to pay more or less tax according to fluctuations of economic prosperity or hard times.[citation needed] Because of this, farmers could worry less about tax quotas and work instead at surviving and selling their crops. Once the palace had a significant surplus of food, King Sejong then distributed food to poor peasants or farmers who needed it.[citation needed]

Literature

In 1429 Nongsa-jikseol (hangul: 농사직설, hanja: 農事直說, "Explanations of Agriculture") was compiled. It was the first book about Korean farming, dealing with agricultural subjects such as planting, harvesting, and soil treatment.

Sejong was also a writer. He composed the famous Yongbi Eocheon Ga ("Songs of Flying Dragons", 1445), Seokbo Sangjeol ("Episodes from the Life of Buddha", July 1447), Worin Cheon-gang Jigok ("Songs of the Moon Shining on a Thousand Rivers", July 1447), and the reference Dongguk Jeong-un ("Dictionary of Proper Sino-Korean Pronunciation", September 1447).

Contributions to the Arts

One of Sejong’s closest friends and mentors was the 15th century Korean musician Bak Yeon. Together they composed over two hundred musical arrangements. Sejong’s independent musical compositions include the Chongdaeop (Great Achievements), Potaepyong (Preservation of Peace), Pongraeui (Phoenix), and Yominrak (A Joy to Share with the People). Yominrak continues to be a standard piece played by modern traditional Korean orchestras, while Chongdaeop and Potaepyong are played at memorial ceremonies honoring the Kings of the Joseon Dynasty today.[33]

In 1418 under the reign of King Sejong, Koreanscholars developed the (편경 編磬) Pyeongyeong, a lithophone modeled off of the Chinese Bianqing. The Pyeongyeong is a percussion instrument consisting of two rows of 8 pumice slabs hung on a decorative wooden frame with a 16-tone range and struck with an Ox Horn mallet. The Pyeongyeong was manufactured using pumice mined from the Kyonggi Province and used primarily for ceremonial rights.[34][35]

Hangul

See also: Hunmin Jeongeum and Hangul

Hunmin Jeongeum Eonhae

King Sejong the Great profoundly affected Korean history with his personal creation and introduction of hangul, the native phonetic writing system for the Korean language.[4][36] Although it is widely assumed that King Sejong ordered the Hall of Worthies to invent Hangul, contemporary records such as the Veritable Records of King Sejong and Jeong Inji's preface to the Hunminjeongeum Haerye emphasize that he invented it himself.[37]

Before the creation of Hangul, people in Korea (known as Joseon at the time) primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside phonetic writing systems based on Chinese script that predated Hangul by hundreds of years, including idu, hyangchal, gugyeol, and gakpil.[38][39][40][41] However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages,[42] and the large number of characters that needed to be learned, there was much difficulty in learning how to write using Chinese characters for the lower classes, who often lacked the privilege of education. To assuage this problem, King Sejong created the unique alphabet known as Hangul to promote literacy among the common people.[43] His intention was to establish a cultural identity for Korea through its unique script.[citation needed]

Hangul was completed in 1443 and published in 1446 along with a 33-page manual titled Hunmin Jeong-eum, explaining what the letters are as well as the philosophical theories and motives behind them.[44] The Hunmin Jeong-eum purported that anyone could learn Hangul in a matter of days. People previously unfamiliar with Hangul can typically pronounce Korean script accurately after only a few hours of study.

King Sejong faced backlash from the noble class as many disapproved of the idea of a common language, with some openly opposing its creation. Many within the noble class believed that giving the peasants the ability to read and write would allow them to find and abuse loopholes within the law. Others felt that Hangul would threaten their families’ positions in court by creating a larger pool of civil servants. The Korean elite continued to use Chinese Hanja long after Sejong’s death in 1450.[45] Hangul was often treated with contempt by those in power and received criticism in the form of nicknames, including Eonmun (meaning Vulgar Script), Amkeul (meaning Woman’s Script), and Ahaekkeul (meaning Children’s Script).

Despite this, Hangul gained popularity among women and fiction writers. In 1504 the study and publication of Hangul was banned by King Yeonsangun.[46] The spread and preservation of Hangul can be largely attributed to three main factors, books published for women, its use by Buddhist monks,[47] and the introduction of Christianity in Korea in 1602.[48] Hangul was brought into the mainstream of Korean culture in the 16th century, due to a renaissance in Korean literature and poetry. Hangul continued to gain popularity well into the 17th century, and gained wider use after a period of Korean Nationalism in the 19th century. In 1849 Hangul was adopted as Korea’s national writing system, and saw its first use in official government documents. After the annexation of Korea by Japanese forces Hangul was outlawed again until the liberation of Korea in 1945.[49][50]

Death

The tomb of Sejong the Great located in Yeoju, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea.
The tomb of Sejong the Great located in Yeoju, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea.

Sejong was blinded years later by diabetes complications that eventually took his life in 1450.[citation needed] He was buried at the Yeong Mausoleum (영릉; 英陵). His successor was his first son, Munjong. Sejong judged that his sickly son, Munjong, was unlikely to live long and on his deathbed asked the Hall of Worthies scholars to look after his young grandson, Danjong.[citation needed] As predicted, Munjong died two years after his succession, and political stability enjoyed under Sejong disintegrated when Danjong became the sixth king of Joseon at the age of twelve.[citation needed] Eventually, Sejong's second son, Sejo, usurped the throne from Danjong in 1455. When the six martyred ministers were implicated in a plot to restore Danjong to throne, Sejo abolished the Hall of Worthies, and executed Danjong and several ministers who served during Sejong's reign.[citation needed]

Family

  1. Queen Soheon of the Cheongsong Sim clan (12 October 1395 – 19 April 1446) (소헌왕후 심씨)[51][52]
    1. Princess Jeongso (1412 – 1424) (정소공주), first daughter[53]
    2. Yi Hyang, King Munjong (15 November 1414 – 1 June 1452) (왕세자 향), first son
    3. Princess Jeongui (1415 – 11 February 1477) (정의공주), second daughter[54]
    4. Yi Yu, King Sejo (2 November 1417 – 23 September 1468) (이유 수양대군), second son
    5. Yi Yong, Grand Prince Anpyeong (18 October 1418 – 18 November 1453) (이용 안평대군), third son
    6. Yi Gu, Grand Prince Imyeong (6 January 1420 – 21 January 1469) (이구 임영대군), fourth son
    7. Yi Yeo, Grand Prince Gwangpyeong (2 May 1425 – 7 December 1444) (이여 광평대군), fifth son
    8. Yi Yu, Grand Prince Geumseong (5 May 1426 – 7 November 1457) (이유 금성대군), seventh son
    9. Yi Im, Grand Prince Pyeongwon (18 November 1427 – 16 January 1445) (이임 평원대군), ninth son
    10. Yi Yeom, Grand Prince Yeongeung (23 May 1434 – 2 February 1467) (이염 영응대군), fifteenth son
  2. Royal Noble Consort Yeong of the Jinju Kang clan (영빈 강씨)[55]
    1. Yi Yeong, Prince Hwaui (1425 – 1460) (이영 화의군), sixth son
  3. Royal Noble Consort Shin of the Cheongju Kim clan (1406 – 4 September 1464) (신빈 김씨)[56][57]
    1. Third daughter (? - 1426)
    2. Yi Jeung, Prince Gyeyang (1427 – 16 August 1464) (이증 계양군), eighth son[58]
    3. Yi Gong, Prince Uichang (1428 – 1460) (이공 의창군), tenth son
    4. Fifth daughter (? – 1429)
    5. Yi Chim, Prince Milseong (1430 – 1479) (이침 밀성군), twelfth son
    6. Yi Yeon, Prince Ikhyeon (1431 – 1463) (이연 익현군), fourteenth son
    7. Yi Dang, Prince Yeonghae (1435 – 1477) (이당 영해군), seventeenth son
    8. Yi Geo, Prince Damyang (1439 – August 1450) (이거 담양군), eighteenth son
  4. Royal Noble Consort Hye of the Cheongju Yang clan (? – 9 November 1455) (혜빈 양씨)[59][60]
    1. Yi Eo, Prince Hannam (5 October 1429 – 29 June 1459) (이어 한남군), eleventh son
    2. Yi Hyeon, Prince Suchun (1431 – 1455) (이현 수춘군), thirteenth son
    3. Yi Jeon, Prince Yeongpung (17 September 1434 – 22 July 1456) (이전 영풍군), sixteenth son
  5. Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Miryang Park clan (귀인 박씨)[61]
  6. Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Jeonju Choi clan (귀인 최씨)[62]
  7. Royal Consort Sug-ui of the Jo clan (숙의 조씨)
  8. Royal Consort So-yong of the Hong clan (? – 4 February 1452) (소용 홍씨)
  9. Royal Consort Sug-won of the Yi clan (숙원 이씨)
    1. Princess Jeongan (1438 – 1461) (정안옹주), seventh daughter[63]
  10. Consort Sang-chim of the Song clan (1396 – 1463) (상침 송씨)
    1. Princess Jeonghyeon (1425 – 1480) (정현옹주), fourth daughter[64]
  11. Consort Sa-gi of the Cha clan (? – 10 July 1444) (사기 차씨)
    1. Sixth daughter (1430 – 1431)
  12. Lady Sangsik of the Hwang clan (상식 황씨)
  13. Lady Jeonchan of the Park clan (전찬 박씨)

Legacy

Statue and museum exhibit

Main article: Statue of King Sejong (Gwanghwamun)

A 9.5-meter-high (31 ft) bronze statue of King Sejong was placed in 2009 on a concrete pedestal on the boulevard of Gwanghwamun Square and directly in front of the Sejong Center for the Performing Arts in Seoul.[65] The sculptor was Kim Young-won.[66] The pedestal contains one of several entrances to the 3,200 square meter, underground museum exhibit entitled "The Story of King Sejong".[67][68] It was dedicated on Hangul Day in celebration of the 563rd anniversary of the invention of the Korean alphabet by King Sejong.[69]

Namesake from Sejong

The street Sejongno and the Sejong Centre for the Performing Arts, both located in central Seoul, are named after King Sejong.[70]

In early 2007, the Republic of Korea government decided to create a special administrative district from part of the present South Chungcheong Province, near what is presently Daejeon. The district was named Sejong Special Autonomous City.

Portrait in Korean currency

King Sejong the Great, as depicted on the Bank of Korea's 10,000 won banknote (Series VI).
King Sejong the Great, as depicted on the Bank of Korea's 10,000 won banknote (Series VI).

A portrait of Sejong is featured on the 10,000 won banknote of the South Korean won, along with various scientific tools invented under his reign.

In popular culture

Dramas and films

The life of Sejong was depicted in the KBS Korean historical drama King Sejong the Great in 2008.[71] Sejong is also depicted in the 2011 SBS drama Deep Rooted Tree and 2016 KBS1 drama Jang Yeong-sil.

Video games

See also

References

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  28. ^ "사용하고 있는 호스팅 서비스 이용기간이 만료되었습니다" (PDF).
  29. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20180629022148/http://www.reportnet.co.kr/knowledge/pop_preview.html?dn=2075262. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2008. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  30. ^ Yi, Pae-yong (2008). Women in Korean History 한국 역사 속의 여성들. Ewha Womans University Press. p. 267. ISBN 9788973007721.
  31. ^ 오기수. "세종대왕의 조세사상과 공법 연구 : 조세법 측면에서". NAVER Academic (in Korean). NAVER Corporation. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  32. ^ "한국 전통과학의 전성기, 세종 시대". YTN사이언스 (in Korean). YTN. 31 January 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  33. ^ "Korean Cultural Center of Chicago - Sejong the Great". 11 November 2013.
  34. ^ Yoo, Junehee; Rossing, Thomas D. (2006). "Acoustics of the Korean percussion instruments pyeongyeong and pyeonjong". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 120 (5): 3075. Bibcode:2006ASAJ..120.3075Y. doi:10.1121/1.4787397.
  35. ^ "편경 編磬 Pyeongyeong LITHOPHON - Korea Music".
  36. ^ Kim Jeong Su(1990), <<한글의 역사와 미래>>(History and Future of Hangul) ISBN 8930107230
  37. ^ "Want to know about Hangeul?". National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  38. ^ Hannas, Wm C. (1997). Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. University of Hawaii Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780824818920.
  39. ^ Chen, Jiangping (18 January 2016). Multilingual Access and Services for Digital Collections. ABC-CLIO. p. 66. ISBN 9781440839559.
  40. ^ "Invest Korea Journal". 23. Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency. 1 January 2005. They later devised three different systems for writing Korean with Chinese characters: Hyangchal, Gukyeol and Idu. These systems were similar to those developed later in Japan and were probably used as models by the Japanese. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  41. ^ "Korea Now". The Korea Herald. Vol. 29. 1 July 2000.
  42. ^ Hunmin Jeongeum Haerye, postface of Jeong Inji, p. 27a, translation from Gari K. Ledyard, The Korean Language Reform of 1446, p. 258
  43. ^ Koerner, E. F. K.; Asher, R. E. (28 June 2014). Concise History of the Language Sciences: From the Sumerians to the Cognitivists. Elsevier. p. 54. ISBN 9781483297545.
  44. ^ Korean Spirit and Culture Promotion Project. Fifty Wonders of Korea Volume I: Culture and Art. 2nd ed. Seoul: Samjung Munhwasa, 2009. 28-35.
  45. ^ "Sejong the Great".
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  47. ^ ":::::::: 알고 싶은 한글 ::::::::".
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  51. ^ Daughter of Sim On (심온, 1375 – 25 December 1418), Lord Anhyo (안효공), Internal Prince Cheongcheon (청천부원군); and Lady Sunheung, Princess Consort to the Internal Prince, of the Ahn clan (순흥부부인 안씨). Granddaughter of Sim Deok-bu (심덕부, 1328–1401)
  52. ^ Her uncle Sim Jong (Sim On's brother) is Taejo's son-in-law (created Prince Consort Cheongwon) thru his marriage to Princess Gyeongseon
  53. ^ Eldest offspring
  54. ^ Later married Ahn Maeng-dam (안맹담, ?–1469), son of Ahn Mang-ji (안망지); created Military Officer Yeonchang (연창위). Their 2 daughters eventually married the sons of Jeong In-ji and Han Hwak
  55. ^ Daughter of Kang Seok-deok (강석덕) and Lady Sim of the Cheongseong Sim clan (Sim On's 2nd daughter and Queen Soheon's younger sister), making her Queen Soheon's niece
  56. ^ Daughter of Kim Won (김원)
  57. ^ Originally a slave of Naeja Temple (내자사 內資寺), she became a palace girl in 1418, and served under Queen Wongyeong, and later under Queen Soheon
  58. ^ Later married Han Hwak's eldest daughter, Princess Consort Jeongseon, elder sister to the future Queen Sohye
  59. ^ Daughter of Yang Gyeong (양경) and Lady Lee (이씨). Granddaughter of Yang Cheom-sik (양첨식) and great-granddaughter of Yang Ji-su (양지수)
  60. ^ Given the temple name "Lady Minjeong" (민정) in 1791
  61. ^ Also known by her lesser title "Lady Jangui" (장의궁주), granted in 1424. Gwi-in status was granted in 1428.
  62. ^ Also known by her lesser title "Lady Myeongui" (명의궁주), granted in 1424. Gwi-in status was granted in 1428.
  63. ^ Later married Shim An-ui (심안의), created Military Officer Cheongseong (청성위).
  64. ^ Later married Yun Sa-ro (윤사로, 1423–1463), son of Yun Eun (윤은); created Internal Prince Yeongcheon (영천부원군).
  65. ^ "King Sejong Statue (세종대왕 동상) | Official Korea Tourism Organization". English.visitkorea.or.kr. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  66. ^ "King Sejong and General Lee Sun-shin to receive modeling fee :: Korea.net : The official website of the Republic of Korea". Korea.net. 9 December 2011. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  67. ^ "King Sejong Story (세종이야기) | Official Korea Tourism Organization". English.visitkorea.or.kr. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  68. ^ "Remembering Hangul". Joongnag Daily. 26 September 2009. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013.
  69. ^ "Statue of King Sejong is unveiled". Joongang Daily. October 10, 2009. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013.
  70. ^ "Tour Guide". Tourguide.vo.kr. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  71. ^ "▒▒ KBS대하드라마 대왕세종 ▒▒". Kbs.co.kr. Retrieved 22 February 2016.

Further reading

Sejong the Great House of YiBorn: 6 May 1397 Died: 18 May 1450 Regnal titles Preceded byTaejong King of Joseon 1418–1450with Taejong (1418–1422)Munjong (1442–1450) Succeeded byMunjong