In astrophysics and particle physics, self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) is an alternative class of dark matter particles which have strong interactions, in contrast to the standard cold dark matter model (CDM). SIDM was postulated in 2000[1] as a solution to the core-cusp[2][3][4] problem. In the simplest models of DM self-interactions, a Yukawa-type potential and a force carrier φ mediates between two dark matter particles.[5] On galactic scales, DM self-interaction leads to energy and momentum exchange between DM particles. Over cosmological time scales this results in isothermal cores in the central region of dark matter haloes.

If the self-interacting dark matter is in hydrostatic equilibrium, its pressure and density follow:

where and are the gravitational potential of the dark matter and a baryon respectively. The equation naturally correlates the dark matter distribution to that of the baryonic matter distribution. With this correlation, the self-interacting dark matter can explain phenomena such as the Tully–Fisher relation.

Self-interacting dark matter has also been postulated as an explanation for the DAMA annual modulation signal.[6][7][8] Moreover, it is shown that it can serve the seed of supermassive black holes at high redshift.[9] SIDM may have originated in a so-called "Dark Big Bang"[10]

See also


  1. ^ Spergel, David N.; Steinhardt, Paul J. (April 2000). "Observational Evidence for Self-Interacting Cold Dark Matter". Physical Review Letters. 84 (17): 3760–3763. arXiv:astro-ph/9909386. Bibcode:2000PhRvL..84.3760S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.3760. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 11019199. S2CID 6669358.
  2. ^ Moore, Ben (August 1994). "Evidence against dissipation-less dark matter from observations of galaxy haloes". Nature. 370 (6491): 629–631. Bibcode:1994Natur.370..629M. doi:10.1038/370629a0. ISSN 0028-0836. S2CID 4325561.
  3. ^ Oh, Se-Heon; de Blok, W. J. G.; Walter, Fabian; Brinks, Elias; Kennicutt, Robert C. (December 2008). "High-Resolution Dark Matter Density Profiles of THINGS Dwarf Galaxies: Correcting for Noncircular Motions". The Astronomical Journal. 136 (6): 2761–2781. arXiv:0810.2119. Bibcode:2008AJ....136.2761O. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/136/6/2761. ISSN 0004-6256.
  4. ^ Oh, Se-Heon; Hunter, Deidre A.; Brinks, Elias; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Rupen, Michael P.; Young, Lisa M.; Simpson, Caroline E.; Johnson, Megan C.; Herrmann, Kimberly A. (June 2015). "High-resolution Mass Models of Dwarf Galaxies from LITTLE THINGS". The Astronomical Journal. 149 (6): 180. arXiv:1502.01281. Bibcode:2015AJ....149..180O. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/149/6/180. ISSN 0004-6256.
  5. ^ Loeb, Abraham; Weiner, Neal (April 2011). "Cores in Dwarf Galaxies from Dark Matter with a Yukawa Potential". Physical Review Letters. 106 (17): 171302. arXiv:1011.6374. Bibcode:2011PhRvL.106q1302L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.171302. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 21635025.
  6. ^ Mitra, Saibal (15 June 2005). "Has DAMA detected self-interacting dark matter?". Physical Review D. 71 (12): 121302. arXiv:astro-ph/0409121. Bibcode:2005PhRvD..71l1302M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.71.121302. S2CID 31554326.
  7. ^ Moskowitz, Clara (20 April 2015). "Dark Matter May Feel a "Dark Force" That the Rest of the Universe Does Not". Scientific American.
  8. ^ Richard Massey; et al. (June 2015). "The behaviour of dark matter associated with four bright cluster galaxies in the 10 kpc core of Abell 3827". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 449 (4P): 3393–3406. arXiv:1504.03388. Bibcode:2015MNRAS.449.3393M. doi:10.1093/mnras/stv467. commentary The Possible First Signs of Self-interacting Dark Matter
  9. ^ Feng, W.-X.; Yu, H.-B.; Zhong, Y.-M. (2021). "Seeding Supermassive Black Holes with Self-interacting Dark Matter: A Unified Scenario with Baryons". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 914 (2): L26. arXiv:2010.15132. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ac04b0. "How a supermassive black hole originates: Study points to a seed black hole produced by a dark matter halo collapse." ScienceDaily, 16 June 2021.
  10. ^ "Dancing in the dark". The Economist. 9 March 2024.

Further reading