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Selim I
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
16th century miniature of Selim I by Nakkaş Osman
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Padishah)
Reign24 April 1512 – 22 September 1520
PredecessorBayezid II
SuccessorSuleiman I
Ottoman caliph (Amir al-Mu'minin)
Reign22 January 1517 – 22 September 1520
PredecessorAl-Mutawakkil III
(Abbasid caliph)
SuccessorSuleiman I
Prince-Governor of Trebizond Sanjak
Reign1487–1510[1]
Born(1470-10-10)10 October 1470
Amasya, Ottoman Empire
Died22 September 1520(1520-09-22) (aged 49)
Çorlu, Ottoman Empire
Burial
Consorts
Issue
Among others
Names
سليم شاه بن بايزيد خان
Selīm şāh bin Bāyezīd Ḫān[2]
DynastyOttoman
FatherBayezid II
MotherGülbahar Hatun
ReligionSunni Islam
TughraSelim I's signature
Military career
Battles/warsOttoman-Persian Wars
  • Campaign of Trabzon (1505)
  • Battle of Erzincan (1507)
  • Campaign of Trabzon (1510)
  • Battle of Chaldiran
  • Capture of Bayburt (1514)
  • Siege of Kemah

Georgian campaign (1508)

Ottoman Civil War (1509–1513)

Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517)

Battle of Turnadağ

Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول; Turkish: I. Selim; 10 October 1470 – 22 September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute[3] (Turkish: Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.[4] Despite lasting only eight years, his reign is notable for the enormous expansion of the Empire, particularly his conquest between 1516 and 1517 of the entire Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, which included all of the Levant, Hejaz, Tihamah and Egypt itself. On the eve of his death in 1520, the Ottoman Empire spanned about 3.4 million km2 (1.3 million sq mi), having grown by seventy percent during Selim's reign.[4]

Selim I with a mace

Selim's conquest of the Middle Eastern heartlands of the Muslim world, and particularly his assumption of the role of guardian of the pilgrimage routes to Mecca and Medina, established the Ottoman Empire as the pre-eminent Muslim state. His conquests dramatically shifted the empire's geographical and cultural center of gravity away from the Balkans and toward the Middle East. By the eighteenth century, Selim's conquest of the Mamluk Sultanate had come to be romanticized as the moment when the Ottomans seized leadership over the rest of the Muslim world, and consequently Selim is popularly remembered as the first legitimate Ottoman Caliph, although stories of an official transfer of the caliphal office from the Mamluk Abbasid dynasty to the Ottomans were a later invention.[5]

Early life

Selim was born in Amasya on 10 October 1470 as the son of Şehzade Bayezid (later Bayezid II) during the reign of his grandfather Mehmed II. His mother was Ayşe Gülbahar Hatun, a Pontic Greek concubine, formerly confused with Ayşe Hatun, another consort of Bayezid and daughter of Alaüddevle Bozkurt Bey, the eleventh ruler of the Dulkadirids.[6][7][8]. In 1479 at the age of nine, he was sent by his grandfather to Istanbul to be circumcised along with his brothers. In 1481, his grandfather Mehmed II died and his father became Sultan Bayezid II. Six years later in 1487, he was sent by his father to Trabzon to serve there as governor.

Reign

Governor of Trabzon

During his reign as governor of Trabzon Selim had earned a great reputation among his military men for his confrontations with the Safavids, slave raids and a campaign in the Caucasus against Georgia.[9] In 1505 Selim routed a 3,000-strong Safavid army led by Shah Ismail's brother, massacring many and seizing their arms and munitions.[10] In 1507, after Shah Ismail marched through Ottoman lands to wage war against the Dulkadirids, Selim attacked Erzincan and defeated another Safavid army sent against him.[11] The following year he invaded the Caucasus, subdued western Georgia, brought the Imereti and Guria under Ottoman domination and seized a large number of slaves.[9][12][13][14] In 1510 he defeated the Safavids again in the Campaign of Trabzon.

Accession

By 1512 Şehzade Ahmed was the favorite candidate to succeed his father. Bayezid, who was reluctant to continue his rule over the empire, announced Ahmed as heir apparent to the throne. Angered by this announcement, Selim rebelled, and while he lost the first battle against his father's forces, Selim ultimately dethroned his father. Selim commanded 30,000 men, whereas his father led 40,000. Selim only escaped with 3,000 men. This marked the first time that an Ottoman prince openly rebelled against his father with an army of his own.[10] Selim ordered the exile of Bayezid to a distant "sanjak", Dimetoka (in the north-east of present-day Greece). Bayezid died immediately thereafter.[15] Selim put his brothers (Şehzade Ahmet and Şehzade Korkut) and nephews to death upon his accession. His nephew Şehzade Murad, son of the legal heir to the throne Şehzade Ahmed, fled to the neighboring Safavid Empire after his expected support failed to materialize.[16] This fratricidal policy was motivated by bouts of civil strife that had been sparked by the antagonism between Selim's father and his uncle, Cem Sultan, and between Selim himself and his brother Ahmet.

Alevi unrest

After many centuries of calm, the Alevi population was active while Selim I was the sultan, and they seem to have been backed by the Qizilbash of Iran.[citation needed]

Conquest of the Middle East

Safavid Empire

Main article: Battle of Chaldiran

Selim I at the Battle of Chaldiran: artwork at the Chehel Sotoun Pavilion in Isfahan

One of Selim's first challenges as sultan involved the growing tension between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire led by Shah Ismail, who had recently brought the Safavids to power and had switched the Persian state religion from Sunni Islam to adherence to the Twelver branch of Shia Islam. By 1510 Ismail had conquered the whole of Iran and Azerbaijan,[17] southern Dagestan (with its important city of Derbent), Mesopotamia, Armenia, Khorasan, Eastern Anatolia, and had made the Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti his vassals.[18][19] He was a great threat to his Sunni Muslim neighbors to the west. In 1511 Ismail had supported a pro-Shia/Safavid uprising in Anatolia, the Şahkulu Rebellion.

Early in his reign, Selim created a list of all Shiites ages 7 to 70 in a number of central Anatolian cities including Tokat, Sivas and Amasya. As Selim marched through these cities, his forces rounded up and executed all the Shiites they could find. Most of them were beheaded. The massacre was the largest in Ottoman history, until the end of the 19th century.[20]

In 1514 Selim I attacked Ismail's kingdom to stop the spread of Shiism into Ottoman dominions. Selim and Ismā'il had exchanged a series of belligerent letters prior to the attack. On his march to face Ismā'il, Selim had 50,000 Alevis massacred, seeing them as enemies of the Ottoman Empire.[21] Selim I defeated Ismā'il at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514.[22] Ismā'il's army was more mobile and his soldiers better prepared, but the Ottomans prevailed due in large part to their efficient modern army, possession of artillery, black powder and muskets. Ismā'il was wounded and almost captured in battle, and Selim I entered the Iranian capital of Tabriz in triumph on 5 September,[23] but did not linger. The Battle of Chaldiran was of historical significance: the reluctance of Shah Ismail to accept the advantages of modern firearms and the importance of artillery proved decisive.[24] After the battle, Selim, referring to Ismail, stated that his adversary was: "Always drunk to the point of losing his mind and totally neglectful of the affairs of the state".[25]

Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and the Arabian Peninsula

Main article: Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517)

Outline of the Ottoman Empire, from the Theatro d'el Orbe de la Tierra de Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp, 1602, updated from the 1570 edition

Sultan Selim then conquered the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, defeating the Mamluk Egyptians first at the Battle of Marj Dabiq (24 August 1516), and then at the Battle of Ridanieh (22 January 1517). This led to the Ottoman annexation of the entire sultanate, from Syria and Palestine in Sham, to Hejaz and Tihamah in the Arabian Peninsula, and ultimately Egypt itself. This permitted Selim to extend Ottoman power to the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina, hitherto under Egyptian rule. Rather than style himself the Ḥākimü'l-Ḥaremeyn, or The Ruler of The Two Holy Cities, he accepted the more pious title Ḫādimü'l-Ḥaremeyn, or The Servant of The Two Holy Cities.[15][26]

The last Abbasid caliph, al-Mutawakkil III, was residing in Cairo as a Mamluk puppet at the time of the Ottoman conquest. He was subsequently sent into exile in Istanbul. In the eighteenth century, a story emerged claiming that he had officially transferred his title to the Caliphate to Selim at the time of the conquest. In fact, Selim did not make any claim to exercise the sacred authority of the office of caliph, and the notion of an official transfer was a later invention.[5]

After conquering Damascus in 1516, Selim ordered the restoration of the tomb of Ibn Arabi (d. 1240), a famous Sufi master who was highly revered among Ottoman Sufis.[27]

Death

A painting depicting Selim I during the Egypt campaign, located in Army Museum, Istanbul
Selim I on his deathbed
The türbe of Selim I in his mosque

A planned campaign westward was cut short when Selim was overwhelmed by sickness and subsequently died in the ninth year of his reign aged 49. Officially, it is said that Selim succumbed to a mistreated carbuncle. Some historians, however, suggest that he died of cancer or that his physician poisoned him.[28] Other historians have noted that Selim's death coincided with a period of plague in the empire, and have added that several sources imply that Selim himself suffered from the disease.

On 22 September 1520 Selim I's eight-year reign came to an end. Selim died and was brought to Istanbul, so he could be buried in Yavuz Selim Mosque which sultan Suleiman I commissioned in loving memory of his father. Selim I had conquered and unified the Islamic holy lands. Protecting the lands in Europe, he gave priority to the East, as he believed the real danger came from there.[29][30]

Personality

Yavuz Selim Mosque was commissioned by the Ottoman sultan Suleiman I in memory of his father Selim I who died in 1520. The architect was Alaüddin (Acem Alisi).[31]
Selim I
Selim I by an unknown European painter
16th-century miniature of Selim I
Selim I and Piri Mehmed Pasha
Selim I by Aşık Çelebi

By most accounts, Selim had a fiery temper and had very high expectations of those below him. Several of his viziers were executed for various reasons. A famous anecdote relates how another vizier playfully asked the Sultan for some preliminary notice of his doom so that he might have time to put his affairs in order. The Sultan laughed and replied that indeed he had been thinking of having the vizier killed, but had no one fit to take his place, otherwise he would gladly oblige. A popular Ottoman curse was, "May you be a vizier of Selim's," as a reference to the number of viziers he had executed.[32]

Selim was one of the Empire's most successful and respected rulers, being energetic and hardworking. During his short eight years of ruling, he accomplished momentous success. Despite the length of his reign, many historians agree that Selim prepared the Ottoman Empire to reach its zenith under the reign of his son and successor, Suleiman the Magnificent.[33]

Selim was bilingual in Turkish and Persian, with the Ottoman literary critic Latifî (died 1582) noting that he was "very fond of speaking Persian".[34][35] He was also a distinguished poet who wrote both Turkish and Persian verse[36] under the nickname Mahlas Selimi; collections of his Persian poetry are extant today.[33]

In a letter to his rival, while equating himself with Alexander, Selim compares his rival Ismail as "Darius of our days".[37] Paolo Giovio, in a work written for Charles V, says that Selim holds Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar in the highest esteem above all the generals of old.[38]

Foreign relations

Relations with Shah Ismail

While marching into Persia in 1514, Selim's troops suffered from the scorched-earth tactics of Shah Ismail. The sultan hoped to lure Ismail into an open battle before his troops starved to death, and began writing insulting letters to the Shah, accusing him of cowardice:

They, who by perjuries seize scepters ought not to skulk from danger, but their breast ought, like the shield, to be held out to encounter peril; they ought, like the helm, to affront the foeman's blow.

Ismail responded to Selim's third message, quoted above, by having an envoy deliver a letter accompanied by a box of opium. The Shah's letter insultingly implied that Selim's prose was the work of an unqualified writer on drugs. Selim was enraged by the Shah's denigration of his literary talent and ordered the Persian envoy to be torn to pieces.[39]

Outside of their military conflicts, Selim I and Shah Ismail clashed on the economic front as well. Opposed to Shah Ismail's adherence to the Shia sect of Islam (contrasting his Sunni beliefs), Selim I and his father before him "did not really accept his basic political and religious legitimacy,"[40] beginning the portrayal of the Safavids in Ottoman chronicles as kuffar.[41] After the Battle of Chaldiran, Selim I's minimal tolerance for Shah Ismail disintegrated, and he began a short era of closed borders with the Safavid Empire.

Selim I wanted to use the Ottoman Empire's central location to completely cut the ties between Shah Ismail's Safavid Empire and the rest of the world.[42] Even though the raw materials for important Ottoman silk production at that time came from Persia rather than developed within the Ottoman Empire itself,[43] he imposed a strict embargo on Iranian silk in an attempt to collapse their economy.[42] For a short amount of time, the silk resources were imported via the Mamluk territory of Aleppo, but by 1517, Selim I had conquered the Mamluk state and the trade fully came to a standstill.[44] So strict was this embargo that, "merchants who had been incautious enough not to immediately leave Ottoman territory when war was declared had their goods taken away and were imprisoned,"[44] and to emphasize frontier security, sancaks along the border between the two empires were given exclusively to Sunnis and those who did not have any relationship with the Safavid-sympathizing Kızılbaş.[45] Iranian merchants were barred from entering the borders of the Ottoman Empire under Selim I. Shah Ismail received revenue via customs duties, therefore after the war to demonstrate his commitment to their thorny rivalry, Selim I halted trade with the Safavids[44]—even at the expense of his empire's own silk industry and citizens.

This embargo and closed borders policy was reversed quickly by his son Suleyman I after Selim I's death in 1520.[44]

Relations with Babur

Babur's early relations with the Ottomans were poor because Selim I provided Babur's Uzbek rival Ubaydullah Khan with powerful matchlocks and cannons.[46] In 1507, when ordered to accept Selim I as his rightful suzerain, Babur refused and gathered Qizilbash servicemen in order to counter the forces of Ubaydullah Khan during the Battle of Ghazdewan in 1512. In 1513, Selim I reconciled with Babur (fearing that he would join the Safavids), dispatched Ustad Ali Quli and Mustafa Rumi, and many other Ottoman Turks, in order to assist Babur in his conquests; this particular assistance proved to be the basis of future Mughal-Ottoman relations.[46] From them, he also adopted the tactic of using matchlocks and cannons in field (rather than only in sieges), which would give him an important advantage in India.[47]

Family

Consorts

Selim I had two known consorts:

Sons

Selim I had at least six sons:

Daughters

Selim I had at least nine daughters:[54]

Legacy

Popular culture

See also

References

  1. ^ Hanefi Bostan, XV–XVI. Asırlarda Trabzon Sancağında Sosyal ve İktisadi Hayat, p. 67
  2. ^ Ölçer, Cüneyt (1989). "Ottoman coinage during the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim I, son of Bayezıd II".
  3. ^ Mansel, Philip (2011). Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453–1924. John Murray Press. p. PT42. ISBN 978-1848546479.
  4. ^ a b Ágoston, Gábor (2009). "Selim I". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters (eds.). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Facts On File. pp. 511–513. ISBN 978-0816062591.
  5. ^ a b Finkel, Caroline (2005). Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1923. New York: Basic Books. pp. 110–111. ISBN 978-0-465-02396-7.
  6. ^ Necdet Sakaoğlu [in Turkish] (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak publications. p. 136. ISBN 978-975-329-623-6.
  7. ^ Alderson, Anthony Dolphin (1956). The Structure of the Ottoman Dynasty. Clarendon Press.
  8. ^ Leslie P. Peirce (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press. pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-0-19-508677-5.
  9. ^ a b Baer, Marc David (2021). The Ottomans: Khans, Caesars and Caliphs. John Murray Press. ISBN 978-1473695726.
  10. ^ a b Mikhail (2020).
  11. ^ The Last Muslim Conquest: The Ottoman Empire and Its Wars in Europe. Gábor Ágoston. Princeton University Press.
  12. ^ p. 21: 1509 nolu Rize şeriyye sicili ışığında Rizede sosyal hayat. Ü Erkan. 2007.
  13. ^ p. 19: Gürcistanın yeni jeopolitiği. C Küçükali. 2015.
  14. ^ From Dynastic Principality to Imperial District: The Incorporation of Guria Into the Russian Empire to 1856. Kenneth Church. University of Michigan, 2001
  15. ^ a b The Classical Age, 1453–1600 Retrieved on 16 September 2007
  16. ^ Savory (2007), p. 40.
  17. ^ BBC, (LINK)
  18. ^ "History of Iran: Safavid Empire 1502–1736". Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  19. ^ Rayfield, Donald (2013). Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1780230702. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
  20. ^ Mikhail (2020), pp. 258–259.
  21. ^ Karagoz (2017), p. 72.
  22. ^ Michael Axworthy Iran: Empire of the Mind (Penguin, 2008) p. 133
  23. ^ Housley, Norman (1992). The Later Crusades, 1274–1580: From Lyons to Alcazar. Oxford University Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0198221364. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  24. ^ "Morgan, David. Shah Isma'il and the Establishment of Shi'ism". Coursesa.matrix.msu.edu. Archived from the original on 25 April 2001. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  25. ^ Matthee, Rudolph P. The pursuit of pleasure: drugs and stimulants in Iranian history, 1500–1900. p. 77.
  26. ^ Yavuz Sultan Selim Government Archived 29 September 2007 at archive.today Retrieved on 16 September 2007
  27. ^ Burak, Guy (2015). The Second Formation of Islamic Law: The Ḥanafī School in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-107-09027-9.
  28. ^ Byfeld, Ted, ed. (2010). A Century of Giants. A.D. 1500 to 1600: in an age of spiritual genius, western Christendom shatters. The Society to Explore and Record Christian History. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-9689873-9-1.
  29. ^ Varlık, Nükhet (2015). Plague and Empire in the Early Modern Mediterranean World: The Ottoman Experience, 1347–1600. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN 9781107013384.
  30. ^ Gündoğdu, Raşit (2017). Sultans of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul: Rumuz Publishing. pp. 262–263. ISBN 9786055112158.
  31. ^ Necipoğlu (2005), pp. 93–94.
  32. ^ Dash, Mike. "The Ottoman Empire's Life-or-Death Race". Smithsonian Magazine.
  33. ^ a b Necdet Sakaoğlu, Bu Mülkün Sultanları, p. 127
  34. ^ Inan, Murat Umut (2019). "Imperial Ambitions, Mystical Aspirations: Persian Learning in the Ottoman World". In Green, Nile (ed.). The Persianate World: The Frontiers of a Eurasian Lingua Franca. University of California Press. p. 80.
  35. ^ Kia, Mana (2014). "Imagining Iran before Nationalism: Geocultural Meanings of Land in Azar's Atashkadeh". In Aghaie, Kamran Scot; Marashi, Afshin (eds.). Rethinking Iranian Nationalism and Modernity. University of Texas Press. pp. 110–111 (note 81).
  36. ^ Bertold Spuler, Persian Historiography and Geography, (Pustaka Nasional Pte Ltd, 2003), 68; "On the whole, the circumstance in Turkey took a similar course: in Anatolia, the Persian language had played a significant role as the carrier of civilization. [..]..where it was at time, to some extent, the language of diplomacy...However Persian maintained its position also during the early Ottoman period in the composition of histories and even Sultan Salim I, a bitter enemy of Iran and the Shi'ites, wrote poetry in Persian."
  37. ^ Karen M. Kern (2011). Imperial Citizen: Marriage and Citizenship in the Ottoman Frontier Provinces of Iraq. p. 39.
  38. ^ Donald Presgrave Little (1976). Essays on Islamic civilization presented to Niyazi Berkes. p. 227.
  39. ^ Crider, Elizabeth Fortuato (1969). The Foreign Relations of the Ottoman Empire Under Selim I, 1512–1520 (Master's Thesis). Ohio State University, 1969, p. 20. Retrieved on 12 April 2011
  40. ^ Floor, Herzig, Floor, Willem M, Herzig, Edmund, and Iran Heritage Foundation. Iran and the World in the Safavid Age. International Library of Iranian Studies; 2. London; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2012. Chapter 5: The Evolution of Ottoman-Iranian Diplomacy through the Safavid Era. p, 81.
  41. ^ Floor, Herzig, Floor, Willem M, Herzig, Edmund, and Iran Heritage Foundation. Iran and the World in the Safavid Age. International Library of Iranian Studies; 2. London; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2012. Chapter 5: The Evolution of Ottoman-Iranian Diplomacy through the Safavid Era. p. 82.
  42. ^ a b Küçükdağ, Yusuf. "Measures Taken by the Ottoman State against Shah İsmail's Attempts to Convert Anatolia to Shia." University of Gaziantep Journal of Social Sciences 7, no. 1 (2008). p. 12.
  43. ^ Floor, Herzig, Floor, Willem M, Herzig, Edmund, and Iran Heritage Foundation. Iran and the World in the Safavid Age. International Library of Iranian Studies; 2. London; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2012. Chapter 13: Trade between the Ottomans and Safavids: The Acem Tϋccari and others. p. 237.
  44. ^ a b c d Floor, Herzig, Floor, Willem M, Herzig, Edmund, and Iran Heritage Foundation. Iran and the World in the Safavid Age. International Library of Iranian Studies; 2. London; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2012. Chapter 13: Trade between the Ottomans and Safavids: The Acem Tϋccari and others. p. 238.
  45. ^ Küçükdağ, Yusuf. "Measures Taken by the Ottoman State against Shah İsmail's Attempts to Convert Anatolia to Shia." University of Gaziantep Journal of Social Sciences7, no. 1 (2008). p. 11.
  46. ^ a b Farooqi, Naimur Rahman (2008). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations between Mughal India and the Ottoman Empire, 1556–1748. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
  47. ^ Eraly, Abraham (2007), Emperors Of The Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Moghuls, Penguin Books Limited, pp. 27–29, ISBN 978-93-5118-093-7
  48. ^ Frantz, Sarah S. G.; Selinger, Eric Murphy (2014). New Approaches to Popular Romance Fiction: Critical Essays. McFarland. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-7864-8967-1.
  49. ^ Ilya V. Zaytsev, The Structure of the Giray Dynasty (15th-16th centuries): Matrimonial and Kinship Relations of the Crimean Khans in Elena Vladimirovna Boĭkova, R. B. Rybakov (ed.), Kinship in the Altaic World: Proceedings of the 48th Permanent International Altaistic Conference, Moscow 10–15 July 2005, p. 341
  50. ^ Şen, Zafer. Yavuz Sultan Selim'in Trabzon'da Medfun Bilinmeyen Kızı Kamer Sultan ve oğlu Şehzade Salih.
  51. ^ a b c Keskin, Özkan Özer (2018). "Başlangıcından 19. yüzyıla kadar Trabzon Gülbahar Hatun vakfı". Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. p. 29.
  52. ^ a b c Bostan, M. Hanefi (1 May 2019). "Yavuz Sultan Selim'in Şehzâdelik Dönemi (1487-1512)". Türk Kültürü İncelemeleri Dergisi (in Turkish): 1–86.
  53. ^ a b c Usta, Veysel (21 March 2019). "Şehzade Süleyman'ın (Kanuni) Travzon'da Doğduğu Ev Meselesi". Karadeniz İncelemeleri Dergisi. 13 (26). Karadeniz Incelemeleri Dergisi: 397–414. doi:10.18220/kid.562304. ISSN 2146-4642.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h A. D. Alderson (1956). The Structure of the Ottoman Dynasty. Government of India: Department of Archaeology. p. Table XXIX. Selim I and his family.
  55. ^ Turan, Ebru (2009). "The Marriage of Ibrahim Pasha (c. 1495–1536): The Rise of Sultan Süleyman's Favorite to the Grand Vizierate and the Politics of the Elites in the Early Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Empire". Turcica. 41: 3–36. doi:10.2143/TURC.41.0.2049287.
    • Şahin, Kaya (2013). Empire and Power in the reign of Süleyman: Narrating the Sixteenth-Century Ottoman World. Cambridge University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-107-03442-6.
    • Peirce, Leslie (2017). Empress of the East: How a European Slave Girl Became Queen of the Ottoman Empire. Basic Books. p. 157. Muhsine, granddaughter of an illustrious statesman, is now largely accepted as Ibrahim's wife.
  56. ^ a b c Turan, Ebru (2009). The marriage of Ibrahim Pasha (c. 1495–1536) – The rise of Sultan Süleyman's favourite to the grand vizierate and the politics of the elites in the early sixteenth-century Ottoman Empire. pp. 14, 25.
  57. ^ a b c Gök, İlhan (2014). II. Bâyezîd Dönemi İn'âmât Defteri ve Ceyb-i Hümayun Masraf Defteri (Thesis). pp. 1464, 1465, 1469.
  58. ^ Türe, D.F.; Türe, F. (2011). Women’s Memory: The Problem of Sources. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4438-3265-6.
  59. ^ Ayvansarayî, H.H.; Crane, H. (2000). The Garden of the Mosques: Hafiz Hüseyin Al-Ayvansarayî's Guide to the Muslim Monuments of Ottoman Istanbul. Brill Book Archive Part 1. Brill. p. 175. ISBN 978-90-04-11242-1.
  60. ^ Haskan, Mehmet Nermi (2008). Eyüp Sultan Tarihi, Vol. 2. Eyüp Belediyesi Kültür Yayınları. p. 535. ISBN 978-9-756-08704-6.
  61. ^ Haskan, Mehmet Nermi (2008). Eyüp Sultan Tarihi, Vol. 2. Eyüp Belediyesi Kültür Yayınları. p. 535. ISBN 978-9-756-08704-6.
  62. ^ "Selim I – Assassin's Creed: Revelations Wiki Guide – IGN".
  63. ^ "The Magnificent Century (TV Series 2011–2014)". IMDb.

Bibliography

Further reading

Selim I House of OsmanBorn: 1470/1 Died: 22 September 1520 Regnal titles Preceded byBayezid II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire 25 April 1512 – 22 September 1520 Succeeded bySuleiman I Sunni Islam titles Preceded byal-Mutawakkil IIIas Caliph of Cairo 1st Caliph of the Ottoman dynasty 1517–1520 Succeeded bySuleiman I