Sex segregation refers to the physical and spatial separation of humans by sex in public or private places. In public places, women are forced to wear the burqa at all times, because, according to one Taliban spokesman, "the face of a woman is a source of corruption" for men not related to them (Non-Mahram).[1]

Mughal Empire (1526–1857)

ِDuring Babur ruling, Bagh e Zanana (Persian: باغ زنانه) was founded in Kabul by one of royal women called Shahrbanoo (Persian: شهربانو). The garden was reconstructed by Abdur Rahman Khan in 19th century.[2]

Taliban (1996–2001)

During the rule of the first Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (1996–2001), the Taliban issued edicts which forbade Afghan women from being educated, such edicts forced girls and women to leave schools and colleges.[3][4] The Golden Needle Sewing School was an underground school for women in Herat, Afghanistan, during the first rule of the Taliban. Because women were not allowed to be educated under the strict interpretation of Islamic law which was introduced by the Taliban, women writers who were members of the Herat Literary Circle set up a group which it called the Sewing Circles of Herat, which founded the Golden Needle Sewing School in or around 1996.[5]

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (2004-2021)

During Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (2004-2021), a huge number of Afghan men didn't have any contact with females other than their own family until going to university. This caused that men not look women as their friends thus usually tended to show impolite behaviours from themselves. So that each day thousands of women suffered from insults in streets allover Afghanistan.[6] During this period, gender segregation in Afghanistan’s schools forced the strained Ministry of Education, which was already short on supplies, funding, and teachers, to recreate the system for each gender.[7]

Baghe-Sharara (Persian: باغ شهرآرا) was a women-only park in Kabul during Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. It is the ancient garden constructed by Babur. No men was allowed to enter because it was a women-only space.[8] This garden was reconstructed by financial supports from US, Italy and Switzerland and yearly on March 8 programs specific to women were held there.[9] As well as, women specific markets were held inside the garden.[10] There were English and sewing classes. The shops selling products, the counselling center, the classes etc were all run by women.[11]

Taliban (2021-now)

Immediately after 2021 Taliban offensive all universities became sex-segregated all over the country.[12] The last time the Taliban was in power, girls and women were forbidden from pursuing an education.[13]

Since March 2022, Taliban started to segregate all amusement parks and resorts by sex. Ministry for the Propagation of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (Afghanistan) stated that in Kabul males can go to amusement parks on Wednesdays, Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays while females can go to amusement parks on Sundays, Mondays and Tuesdays. This ministry added no one is allowed to complain emphasizing that men are not allowed to enter parks on women's days.[14] [15]

Following Taliban ruling, since 2023 men are not permitted to dine with family members in family restaurants in Herat province.[16]

See also


  1. ^ Gohari, M. J. (1999). "Women and the Taliban Rule". The Taliban: Ascent to Power. Karachi: Oxford University Press. pp. 108–110. ISBN 0-19-579560-1.
  2. ^ "باغ تاریخی 'شهر آرای' کابل پس از بازسازی گشایش یافت". BBC Persian. 10 November 2010.
  3. ^ "Women in Afghanistan: the back story". Amnesty International. 25 November 2014. Archived from the original on 14 June 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  4. ^ "Report on the Taliban's War Against Women". U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. 17 November 2001. Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  5. ^ Synovitz, Ron. "Afghanistan: Author Awaits Happy Ending To 'Sewing Circles Of Herat'", Radio Free Europe, March 31, 2004, accessed 29 July 2010. Also see Lamb, Christina. "Woman poet 'slain for her verse'", The Sunday Times, November 13, 2005.
  6. ^ "خیابان آزاری در افغانستان؛ مشکلی که روز به روز جدی تر می شود" (in Persian). BBC Persian. BBC Persian. 18 April 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  7. ^ "Afghanistan's 'Separate but Equal' Education System". The Diplomat. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  8. ^ "باغ شهر آرا: ورود آقایان ممنوع". Kabul Municipality (in Persian).
  9. ^ "بازگشایی نخستین باغ زنانه در کابل" (in Persian). Payam Aftab News Network. October 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  10. ^ "باغ زنانه؛ محل تفریحی و آموزشی زنان" (in Persian). The Kelid Group. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  11. ^ "At the Garden, Unveiled by Maya Jayapal".
  12. ^ "Taliban impose gender segregation at universities in Afghanistan". 12 September 2021. Daily Sabah. 12 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  13. ^ "Taliban: Afghan Women Must Study in Gender-Segregated Universities". The Slate. 12 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  14. ^ "به دستور طالبان فعالیت پارک های تفریحی کابل براساس تفکیک جنسیتی شد" (in Persian). Raha Press. 27 March 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  15. ^ "دستور جدید طلبان: تفکیک جنسیتی پارک‌ها در افغانستان؛ چهار روز مردانه، سه روز زنانه" (in Persian). Azjomle. 27 March 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  16. ^ "Taliban's new rule: Men, women not allowed to sit together at restaurants". Hindustan Times. 14 May 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2023.