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Cyrillic letter Sha
Cyrillic letter Sha - uppercase and lowercase.svg
Phonetic usage:[ʂ], [ʃ]
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА́А̀БВГҐ
ДЂЃЕЀЁЄ
ЖЗЗ́ЅИІЇ
И́ЍЙЈКЛЉ
МНЊОŌПР
СС́ТЋЌУӮ
ЎФХЦЧЏШ
ЩЪЫЬЭЮЯ
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̄А̊А̃ӒӒ̄Ӕ
ӘӘ́Ә̃ӚВ̌ҒГ̑
Г̣Г̌ҔӺҒ̌ӶД̣
Д̆ӖЕ̄Е̃Ё̄Є̈Ӂ
ҖӜҘӞЗ̌З̱З̣
ԐԐ̈ӠӢИ̃ҊӤ
ҚӃҠҞҜК̣Ԛ
ӅԮԒӍӉҢԨ
ӇҤО́О̀О̆О̂О̃
ӦӦ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆Ӫ
ҨԤР̌ҎҪС̣С̱
Т̌Т̣ҬУ̃ӰӰ́Ӳ
ҮҮ́ҰХ̣Х̱Х̮Х̑
ҲӼӾҺҺ̈ԦҴ
ҶӴӋҸҼҾЫ̆
Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆Э̄Э̇Ӭ
Ӭ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̈́Ю̄Я̆
Я̄Я̈ԜӀ
Archaic letters
ҀѺ
ОУѠѼѾ
ѢѤѦ
ѪѨѬѮ
ѰѲѴѶԘ
ԀԔԖԠԢ
Ҧ
ԂԄԈԊԌ
ԎԆԞ
ԪԬГ̧Г̄

Sha (Ш ш; italics: Ш ш) is a letter of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic scripts. It commonly represents the voiceless postalveolar fricative /ʃ/. More precisely, the sound in Russian denoted by ш is commonly transcribed as a palatoalveolar fricative but is actually a voiceless retroflex fricative. It is used in every variation of the Cyrillic alphabet for Slavic and non-Slavic languages.[citation needed]

In English, Sha is romanized as sh or as š, the latter being the equivalent letter in the Latin alphabets of Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Latvian and Lithuanian.

History

Sha has its earliest origins in Phoenician Shin and is linked closely to Shin's Greek equivalent: Sigma (Σ, σ, ς). (The similar form of the modern Hebrew Shin (ש), which is probably where the Cyrillic letter was actually derived from,[contradictory] derives from the same Proto-Canaanite source). Sha already possessed its current form in Saints Cyril and Methodius's Glagolitic alphabet. Most Cyrillic letter-forms were derived from the Greek, but as there was no Greek sign for the Sha sound (modern Greek uses simply "Σ/σ/ς" to spell the sh-sound in foreign words and names), Glagolitic Sha was adopted unchanged. There is also a possibility that Sha was taken from the Coptic alphabet, which is the same as the Greek alphabet but with a few letters added at the end, including one called "shai" (Ϣϣ) which somewhat resembles both sha and shcha (Щ, щ) in appearance.

Use in mathematics

The Cyrillic letter Ш is internationally used in mathematics for several concepts:

In algebraic geometry, the Tate–Shafarevich group of an Abelian variety A over a field K is denoted Ш(A/K), a notation first suggested by J. W. S. Cassels. (Previously it had been denoted TS.) Presumably the choice comes from the first letter of Шафаре́вич = Shafarevich.

In a different mathematical context, some authors allude to the shape of the letter Sha when they use the term Shah function for what is otherwise called a Dirac comb.

The shuffle product is often denoted by ш.[1]

Related letters

Computing codes

Character information
Preview Ш ш
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHA CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1064 U+0428 1096 U+0448
UTF-8 208 168 D0 A8 209 136 D1 88
Numeric character reference Ш Ш ш ш
Named character reference Ш ш
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 251 FB 219 DB
Code page 855 246 F6 245 F5
Code page 866 152 98 232 E8
Windows-1251 216 D8 248 F8
ISO-8859-5 200 C8 232 E8
Macintosh Cyrillic 152 98 248 F8

References

  1. ^ "Unicode Character 'SHUFFLE PRODUCT' (U+29E2)".