|Shaozhou Tuhua, Yuebei Tuhua|
|(undated figure of 1 million)|
|ISO 639-3||None (|
Shaozhou Tuhua (traditional: 韶州土話; simplified: 韶州土话 Sháozhōu Tǔhuà "Shaoguan Tuhua"), or simply Tuhua, is an unclassified Chinese variety spoken in the northern region of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, China. It is mutually unintelligible with Xiang, Cantonese, and Mandarin.
Some scholars consider it to be an extension of Ping Chinese (Pinghua) in Guangxi. Others consider it to have a foundation in Song dynasty-era Middle Gan, mixed with Hakka, Cantonese, and Southwestern Mandarin.
Chen (2012) notes that the Shaoguan Tuhua of Shibei (石陂, in Zhenjiang District) shares many similarities with the Hakka of Qujiang District, due to intensive contact.
Shaozhou Tuhua is also known as Yuebei Tuhua (粤北土话, "Northern Guangxi/Guangdong Tuhua"), and as Shīpóhuà (虱婆话, "Shipo dialect"), Shīnǎhuà (虱乸话, "Shina dialect"), or Shīpóshēng (虱婆声, "Shipo accent") in its own region. It is also known as Pingdi Yaohua (平地瑶话, "Lowland Yao dialect"), locally Piongtuojo or Piongtoajeu; "Yao" here might be a cultural designation, as only half of the one million speakers are classified as ethnic Yao.[full citation needed]
Li & Zhuang (2009) cover the following dialects of Shaoguan Tuhua.
Zhang Shuangqing (2004) covers five dialects of Lianzhou Tuhua (连州土话).
Tuhua is retreating before Cantonese and Hakka and is found in rural dialect islands in the northern Guangdong counties of Lechang, Renhua, Ruyuan Yao Autonomous County, Qujiang, Nanxiong, Zhenjiang, Wujiang (parts of Shaoguan prefecture-level city), and Lianzhou and Liannan Yao Autonomous County in Qingyuan prefecture-level city.