Ville de Sherbrooke
From top, left to right: Downtown Sherbrooke, Wellington Street, Sherbrooke City Hall, Plymouth-Trinity United Church, clocktower at the Sherbrooke History Museum
From top, left to right: Downtown Sherbrooke, Wellington Street, Sherbrooke City Hall, Plymouth-Trinity United Church, clocktower at the Sherbrooke History Museum
Flag of Sherbrooke
Coat of arms of Sherbrooke
Official logo of Sherbrooke
Queen of the Eastern Townships
Sherbrooke is located in Southern Quebec
Location of Sherbrooke in Quebec
Sherbrooke is located in Quebec
Sherbrooke (Quebec)
Sherbrooke is located in Canada
Sherbrooke (Canada)
Coordinates: 45°24′N 71°54′W / 45.400°N 71.900°W / 45.400; -71.900Coordinates: 45°24′N 71°54′W / 45.400°N 71.900°W / 45.400; -71.900[1]
Country Canada
Province Quebec
Constituted1 January 2002
 • TypeSherbrooke City Council
 • MayorÉvelyne Beaudin
 • Federal ridingCompton—Stanstead / Sherbrooke
 • Prov. ridingRichmond / Saint-François / Sherbrooke
 • City367.10 km2 (141.74 sq mi)
 • Land353.40 km2 (136.45 sq mi)
 • Urban102.61 km2 (39.62 sq mi)
 • Metro1,458.10 km2 (562.98 sq mi)
Highest elevation
378 m (1,240 ft)
Lowest elevation
128 m (420 ft)
 • City172,950
 • Density489.4/km2 (1,268/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Urban density1,473.1/km2 (3,815/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density156/km2 (400/sq mi)
 • Pop 2016–2021
 • Dwellings
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Postal code(s)
Area code819

Route 112
Route 108
Route 143
Route 216
Route 220
Route 222
Telephone Exchanges-212 239 340 345-9 432 434 437 446 542 560 -6 569 570 - 4 575 577
NTS Map21E5 Sherbrooke
GDP (Sherbrooke CMA)CA$8.0 billion (2016)[6]
GDP per capita (Sherbrooke CMA)CA$37,797 (2016)

Sherbrooke (/ˈʃɜːrbrʊk/ SHUR-bruuk; Quebec French pronunciation [ʃɛʁbʁʊk]) is a city in southern Quebec, Canada. It is at the confluence of the Saint-François and Magog rivers in the heart of the Estrie administrative region. Sherbrooke is also the name of a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality (TE) and census division (CD) of Quebec, coextensive with the city of Sherbrooke. With 172,950 residents at the Canada 2021 Census,[3] It is the sixth largest city in the province and the 30th largest in Canada. The Sherbrooke Census Metropolitan Area had 227,398 inhabitants, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Quebec and 19th in Canada.

Sherbrooke is the primary economic, political, cultural and institutional centre of Estrie, and was known as the Queen of the Eastern Townships at the beginning of the 20th century.

There are eight institutions educating 40,000 students and employing 11,000 people, 3,700 of whom are professors, teachers and researchers. The direct economic impact of these institutions exceeds 1 billion dollars. The proportion of university students is 10.32 students per 100 inhabitants, giving Sherbrooke the largest concentration of students in Quebec.[7]

Sherbrooke rose as a manufacturing centre in the 1800s, and today the service sector is prominent.

The Sherbrooke region is surrounded by mountains, rivers and lakes. There are several ski hills nearby and various tourist attractions in regional flavour. Mont-Bellevue Park, a large park in the city, is used for downhill skiing.


The city was named in 1818 for John Coape Sherbrooke, a former Governor General of Canada.[8]


Sherbrooke in 1828
Sherbrooke in 1828

First Nations settled the region 8,000-3,000 years ago.[9] The Abenaki called it Ktinékétolékouac (The Large Forks),[10] or Shacewanteku (where one smokes).[1]

The first settler was the farmer Jean-Baptiste Nolain, in 1779.[1] The area was first surveyed in 1792.[11] Americans from Vermont built mills in the area in 1802. Gilbert Hyatt led a group of loyalists, who settled around 1803. He dammed the Magog River and a gristmill and a sawmill were soon built nearby. The settlement was then known as Hyatt's Mills.[12] The first immigrants from England arrived in 1815.[13]

Sherbrooke in 1889
Sherbrooke in 1889

The British American Land Company was formed in 1832[14] to acquire and develop almost 1,100,000 acres (1,719 sq mi; 4,452 km2) of Crown land and other lands in the area. It prioritized speculation over immigration.[15]

In 1852 a railway linked Montreal and Portland, Maine via Sherbrooke. By the 1890s there were rail connections to Boston, Halifax, and New York City.

Pictorial map of Sherbrooke from 1881, including a list of landmarks
Pictorial map of Sherbrooke from 1881, including a list of landmarks

Immigration from the rest of Quebec began in 1850, and by 1871 francophones were in the majority.[13]

By the turn of the 20th century, Sherbrooke was a thriving industrial city, with manufacturing benefiting from locally-produced hydroelectricity. From the 1950s, some the steel and textile industries declined, giving way to government services and education.

Dufferin Street, Sherbrooke, between 1903–1913
Dufferin Street, Sherbrooke, between 1903–1913

As part of the 2000–2006 municipal reorganization in Quebec, the city grew considerably on 1 January 2002, with the amalgamation of Sherbrooke, Ascot, Bromptonville, Deauville, Fleurimont, Lennoxville, Rock Forest, and Saint-Élie-d'Orford. Part of Stoke was also annexed to the newly expanded Sherbrooke.

In 2012, a local Vitamin production factory suffered an explosion, which killed 2, and injured 19, some severely. A large toxic cloud enveloped part of the city, raising health concerns.[16][17]


Located at the confluence of the Saint-François (St. Francis) and Magog rivers in the heart of the Eastern Townships and the Estrie administrative region. Sherbrooke is also the name of a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality (TE) and census division (CD) of Quebec, coextensive with the city of Sherbrooke. Its geographical code is 43.[vague]


Sherbrooke has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb), with long, cold, and snowy winters, warm summers, and short but crisp springs and autumns. Highs range from −5.8 °C (21.6 °F) in January to 24.6 °C (76.3 °F) in July. In an average year, there are 34 nights at or colder than −20 °C (−4 °F), and 6.5 nights at or colder than −30 °C (−22 °F); 4.1 days will see highs reaching 30 °C (86 °F).[18] Annual snowfall is large, averaging at 287 centimetres (113 in), sometimes falling in May and October. Precipitation is not sparse any time of the year, but is the greatest in summer and fall and at its least from January to April, totalling 1,100 millimetres (43.3 in) annually.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Sherbrooke was 36.7 °C (98 °F) on 1 & 2 July 1931.[19] The coldest temperature ever recorded was −41.2 °C (−42.2 °F) on 15 January 2004.[20]

Climate data for Sherbrooke Airport, 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1900−present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 17.4 17.1 27.0 31.5 38.3 43.9 46.5 43.4 38.7 31.8 26.3 19.0 46.5
Record high °C (°F) 15.0
Average high °C (°F) −5.8
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.9
Average low °C (°F) −17.9
Record low °C (°F) −41.2
Record low wind chill −47.2 −48 −42.4 −29.7 −12.8 −5.4 0.0 −4.7 −8.6 −16.7 −27.9 −48.3 −48.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 74.3
Average rainfall mm (inches) 17.3
Average snowfall cm (inches) 68.2
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 19.7 15.5 16.0 14.9 15.7 15.2 14.0 13.3 12.6 14.0 17.2 19.1 187.1
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 3.5 3.3 6.4 12.2 15.1 15.1 13.8 14.5 13.0 13.7 11.5 5.4 127.5
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 18.9 14.3 10.9 5.6 0.21 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.07 1.5 8.6 16.2 76.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 84.5 107.8 137.7 159.8 212.3 234.6 257.0 231.3 165.6 118.9 67.9 67.6 1,844.9
Percent possible sunshine 29.8 36.9 37.4 39.5 46.1 50.1 54.2 52.9 43.9 34.9 23.7 24.8 39.5
Source: Environment Canada[18][21][22][23][24]


Gordon Street
Gordon Street


The city includes several neighbourhoods:



In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Sherbrooke had a population of 172,950 living in 80,476 of its 86,019 total private dwellings, a change of 7.2% from its 2016 population of 161,323. With a land area of 353.4 km2 (136.4 sq mi), it had a population density of 489.4/km2 (1,267.5/sq mi) in 2021.[27]

Canada census – Sherbrooke community profile
Population172,950 (+7.2% from 2016)161,323 (+4.3% from 2011)154,601 (+4.9% from 2006)
Land area353.40 km2 (136.45 sq mi)353.76 km2 (136.59 sq mi)353.49 km2 (136.48 sq mi)
Population density489.4/km2 (1,268/sq mi)456.0/km2 (1,181/sq mi)437.4/km2 (1,133/sq mi)
Median age41.2 (M: 39.2, F: 42.8)40.5 (M: 38.5, F: 42.5)40.2 (M: 38.0, F: 42.3)
Total private dwellings86,01980,34175,880
Median household income$62,400$51,706$46,468
References: 2021[3] 2016[28] 2011[29] earlier[30][31]
Ethnic origin (2016)
Ethnic origin Population Percent
Canadian 106,695 68.3
French 42,315 27.1
Irish 8,855 5.7
North American Aboriginal 6,100 3.9
English 4,570 2.9
Québécois 3,750 2.4
Scottish 3,445 2.2
Italian 2,550 1.6
German 2,390 1.5

86.4% of Sherbrooke residents spoke French as a first language in 2021, while those whose mother tongue was English accounted for 3.9%. The next most common first languages were Spanish (2%), Arabic (1.3%) and Dari (0.7%)

As of 2016, approximately 88.8% of Sherbrooke residents were white, while 7.3% were visible minorities and 3.9% were aboriginal. The largest visible minority groups in Sherbrooke were Black (2.2%), Latin American (1.7%), Arab (1.2%), and West Asian (0.8%).

Census metropolitan area

Sherbrooke CMA
Sherbrooke CMA

The Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) comprises the cities of Sherbrooke, Magog and Waterville, the municipalities of Ascot Corner, Compton, Saint-Denis-de-Brompton, Stoke and Val-Joli; the township municipalities of Hatley and Orford; and the village municipality of North Hatley. The population in 2021 was 227,398. The median age was 43.

Approximately 90.3% of the greater Sherbrooke area residents were white, while 5.8% were visible minorities and 3.9% were Aboriginal.[32]

French was mother tongue to 87.3% of residents. The next most common mother tongues were English (4.5%), Spanish (1.6%), Arabic (1.0%) Dari (0.5%), Mandarin (0.2%), Portugese (0.2%) and Serbian (0.2%).[3]

About 78.4% of the population identified as Catholic in 2011 while 13.8% said they had no religious affiliation, 1.7% were Muslim 0.6% Anglican, 0.6% Baptists, 0.6% Eastern Orthodox and 0.5% United Church. Pentecostals, Hindus and Buddhists made up 0.2% of the population each.


Wellington Street North in downtown Sherbrooke
Wellington Street North in downtown Sherbrooke

Sherbrooke, which is the economic centre of Estrie, is a significant cultural, industrial, and academic hub in the province. The city is directly served by two railways: the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad and the Canadian Pacific Railway. Sherbrooke is also served by four highways as well as the regional airport named Sherbrooke Airport but located in the nearby city of Cookshire-Eaton. Sherbrooke Airport no longer offers scheduled passenger services as of March 2010.

According to data from the Institut de la statistique du Québec, average personal income per capita in the Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) of Sherbrooke amounted to Can$30,976 in 2010.[33] Estrie's GDP for the same year was $9.59 billion.[34]

Largest employers

As of 2010, the largest employers in Sherbrooke are Université de Sherbrooke (6,000 employees), Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke (5,511), Commission scolaire de la Région-de-Sherbrooke (3,050), Centre de santé et de services sociaux – Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Sherbrooke (2,650), City of Sherbrooke (1,913), Desjardins Group (1,713), Cégep de Sherbrooke (800), Centre Jeunesse de l'Estrie (527), Nordia Inc. (500), Canada Post (497), Kruger Inc. - Publication papers business unit (455), Bishop's University (450) and McDonald's (400).[35] These include enterprises operating in Sherbrooke only and having 400 or more employees.


The Sherbrooke War Memorial by George William Hill is a cenotaph erected in 1926 to commemorate the soldiers who were killed during World War I.[36] This piece of cultural heritage has become emblematic of the City of Sherbrooke.[citation needed]
The Sherbrooke War Memorial by George William Hill is a cenotaph erected in 1926 to commemorate the soldiers who were killed during World War I.[36] This piece of cultural heritage has become emblematic of the City of Sherbrooke.[citation needed]

In the summer season, several festivals, concerts, and events are held in the city, such as the Fête du Lac des Nations, Sherblues & Folk, and the Festival des traditions du monde. Come winter, the city hosts the Carnaval de Sherbrooke.

The city has British architectural heritage, as seen in the buildings in Vieux-Nord.[citation needed]

Sherbrooke has the fourth largest theatre in Quebec, the Maurice O'Bready University Cultural Centre of Sherbrooke (Salle Maurice-O’bready du centre culturel de l’Université de Sherbrooke). Music, theatre, and dance shows are staged there. The Centennial Theatre of Bishop's University also hosts music and dance concerts from around the world. The Vieux Clocher, owned by the Université de Sherbrooke, has two stages, the primary being used by various music groups and comedians from around the province. The Théâtre Granada, designated as a historical site by the Canadian government, holds music concerts. It has retained its original architecture since its opening. The Petit Théâtre de Sherbrooke, located downtown, presents musicals and plays for children.[37]

Since 2007, the Centre des arts de la scène Jean-Besré (CASJB), built by the city with the support of the Ministry of Culture and Communications, has assisted in the creation and production of material for the region's artistic community.[38] It serves as the location for training theatre, music, and dance professionals. It contains three rehearsal studios, a production room, a decoration workshop, and a costume workshop, as well as administrative offices for each of its resident companies.

Historical buildings on Dufferin Street
Historical buildings on Dufferin Street




The former Winter Prison
The former Winter Prison

Museums and visitors' centres


Situated along lac des Nations, this park is about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) away from the downtown area and is connected to the lac des Nations promenade. It contains several sports facilities including soccer fields and tennis courts. Several festivals are held here including the Fête du Lac des Nations, the Carnaval de Sherbooke, the festivities for the Fête Nationale and Canada Day.
This park is the largest in Sherbrooke, with an area of 200 hectares (490 acres). Situated partially on the campus of the Université de Sherbrooke, it is managed by the city and developed by volunteer organization Regroupement du Mont-Bellevue. Within the park are mounts Bellevue and John-S.-Bourque, the former of which has a small ski station. The park is also used for cross-country skiing, snowshoeing, walking, and tubing in winter; as well as hiking, mountain biking, archery, tennis, and jogging in summer. The park contains a total of 30 kilometres (19 mi) of trails and several different types of ecosystems.[40]
This park was established on an old maple grove that belonged to Major Henry Beckett between 1834 and 1870. The property remained in his family until it was acquired by the city in 1963.[41] In 2000, the Ministère de Ressources naturelles et de la Faune recognized the property as an old-growth forest.[42] The oldest tree is said to be 270 years old.[43] The park is maintained, protected and promoted by a volunteer group. Several trails have been built by the city which are open year-round. Within the park, there are several artifacts left behind by Beckett, such as foundations, wells, and farm equipment.
Situated 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) west of downtown on the bank of the Magog River, this park is open to several outdoor activities such as swimming and beach volleyball. Bicycles, canoes, kayaks, paddle boats, and dragon boats are available for rent. There is an interpretation centre with an emphasis on the reptiles and amphibians of the region as well as a boutique.
At the heart of the Rock Forest–Saint-Élie–Deauville borough, this park is equipped for soccer, tennis, baseball, beach volleyball, and has a playground and an outdoor pool.
Formerly called Parc Central de Fleurimont, this park is situated in the borough of Fleurimont, and mirrors Central Park of Rock Forest-Saint-Élie-Deauville. In early July, the Pif Classic baseball tournament is held in the park, and in August, it hosts the Festival des Traditions du Monde.
Across Terrill Street from one another, these parks are situated just east of downtown. Inside these parks lie pedestrian trails, Olympic-size soccer fields, a handicap accessible outdoor pool, and a sports complex.[44] This multifunctional facility, called the Centre MultiSport Roland-Dussault, has an artificial turf allowing local teams the opportunity to practise indoor soccer, baseball, football, rugby, and so on. There is a hockey arena.
Located near the Saint-François River, this marsh was developed by CHARMES, a non-profit management corporation that seeks to promote ecotourism in and around Sherbrooke.[45] The park is located on 40 hectares (99 acres) of land and allows visitors access to wooden piers and observation towers, where there are over 50 tree and shrub species and birds.[46]



The Sherbrooke Expos of the Ligue de Baseball Majeur du Québec, an amateur baseball league, play their home games at Amedée Roy Stadium.

The city also hosted some games of the 2002 World Junior Baseball Championship,[47] and the 2013 Canada Games.[48]

Historically, several professional teams based in Sherbrooke competed in Minor League Baseball or in independent baseball leagues:[49]

Season(s) Team League Classification
1940 Sherbrooke Braves Quebec Provincial League Class B
1946 Sherbrooke Canadians Border League Class C
1947 Sherbrooke Black Sox Quebec Provincial League Independent
1948–1949 Sherbrooke Athletics Provincial League
1950–1951 Class C
1953–1955 Sherbrooke Indians
1972–1973 Sherbrooke Pirates Eastern League Double-A

Ice hockey

The Sherbrooke Phoenix is a junior hockey team playing in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League.

The Sherbrooke Canadiens competed in the American Hockey League from 1984 to 1990.


Boroughs and districts of Sherbrooke
Boroughs and districts of Sherbrooke

Sherbrooke is the seat of the judicial district of Saint-François.[50]


Local governance is provided by the Sherbrooke City Council. The mayor is Évelyne Beaudin.[51]

Under the 2000–2006 municipal reorganization in Quebec, Sherbrooke merged with most of the suburban municipalities in the surrounding area: Rock Forest, Saint-Élie-d'Orford, Deauville, Fleurimont, Bromptonville, Ascot, and Lennoxville. This resulted in the creation of six Boroughs of Sherbrooke: Brompton, Fleurimont, Lennoxville, Mont-Bellevue, Rock Forest–Saint-Élie–Deauville, and Jacques-Cartier. Each of the boroughs is subdivided into electoral districts, with the number varying based on population. For example, there are only two districts in Brompton, which only has 6,314 inhabitants, whereas Fleurimont (pop. 40,824) has five. Sherbrooke has 21 districts total, for which the average population is 7,200 inhabitants.

Borough Population City Councillors
Brompton 5,956 3
Fleurimont 41,276 5
Jacques-Cartier 30,229 4
Lennoxville 5,195 3
Mont-Bellevue 33,377 4
Rock Forest–Saint-Élie–Deauville 29,191 4

Federal and provincial

Sherbrooke is split into the federal electoral districts of Sherbrooke, represented by Élisabeth Brière of the Liberal party of Canada and Compton—Stanstead, represented by Marie-Claude Bibeau of the Liberals.

Provincially, Sherbrooke is divided into three electoral districts. Sherbrooke is represented by Christine Labrie of the Québec solidaire (QS), Saint-François is represented by Guy Hardy of the PLQ and Richmond is represented by Karine Vallières of the PLQ.

Public safety

In 2007, the crime rate was 5,491 per 100,000.[52]


Military parade in front of the Sherbrooke Armoury
Military parade in front of the Sherbrooke Armoury

Sherbrooke does not host any units from the Regular Force with the exception of a recruiting centre, but four Primary Reserve units are stationed in the city:

A Canadian military artifact is preserved at the William Street Armoury, the Sherman tank "Bomb" which helped liberate Europe fighting with the Sherbrooke Fusilier Regiment and is the only Canadian tank to have landed on the Normandy beach on D-Day and fought through to VE Day without being knocked out.[citation needed]



Transdev Limocar provides bus service to Montreal via Granby and Magog. Formerly, Autobus Jordez linked Sherbrooke to Drummondville and Trois-Rivières, and also to Victoriaville and Quebec City, but since the company lost their licence to operate heavy vehicles,[53] they have sold their licence to Autobus La Québécoise, who now provide the service.

Société de transport de Sherbrooke (STS) provides bus service within the city. It operates 17 bus routes, 11 minibus routes, and 5 taxibus routes.

The city is located at the eastern terminus of A-10, and directly on the Autoroute Trans-Québécoise (A-55). A-10 provides a direct freeway connection to Montreal and points west, while A-55 connects directly to Trois-Rivières, Shawinigan, and points north, as well as to Interstate 91 to the south (Vermont). A-410 and A-610 are the southern and northern bypass roads, respectively.

The last passenger train for the city was VIA Rail's Montreal – Saint John, New Brunswick Atlantic, which ended service in 1994. There have been recent proposals to provide rail service from Montreal to Boston with a stop in Sherbrooke.[54]

Sherbrooke Airport, in Cookshire-Eaton is just east of the city. There are currently no scheduled flights operating out of the airport.[citation needed]

Public health

The suburban Sherbrooke University Hospital ("CHUS"[55] or "Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbooke) has over 5,200 employees, including 550 doctors. It includes a clinical research facility, the Étienne-Lebel Research Centre.


This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2010)

Sherbrooke has eight institutions that make up the Sherbrooke University Pole, which educates some 40,000 students and employs about 11,000 persons.[56] University students comprise 10.32% of the population, the highest concentration in Quebec.[57]

The city is the location of one French-language university, the Université de Sherbrooke, and an English-language university, Bishop's University. Université de Sherbrooke is a comprehensive university with schools of medicine and law and extensive graduate programs. Bishop's University is smaller and predominantly undergraduate. There are three CEGEPs in Sherbrooke, two of them French-language, the Cégep de Sherbrooke and the Séminaire de Sherbrooke, and one English-language, Champlain College Lennoxville. CCSQ and CDE College which currently enrols International Students. In the past over 100 International students have graduated and landed jobs in Sherbrooke City itself, making it an attraction to the Indian student division. There currently over 100 South Asians residing in the City of Sherbrooke which consists of Hindu, Punjabi and Gujrati ethnic background.

There are also public high school boards such as the English Eastern Townships School Board, French Commission scolaire de la Région-de-Sherbrooke and private high schools such as Séminaire de Sherbrooke founded in 1875, Bishop's College School founded in 1836, etc.


Main article: Media in Sherbrooke

See also


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  2. ^ "Répertoire des municipalités: Sherbrooke". Ministère des Affaires municipales et de l'Habitation (in French). Government of Quebec. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
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  4. ^ a b "Census Profile – Sherbrooke (Population centre)". Canada 2011 Census. Statistics Canada. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
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  14. ^ Baskerville, Peter A. (6 February 2006). "British American Land Company". Canadian Encyclopedia.
  15. ^ Browde, Anatole (2002). "Settling the Canadian Colonies: A Comparison of Two Nineteenth-Century Land Companies". Business History Review. 76 (2): 299–335. doi:10.2307/4127841. ISSN 0007-6805. JSTOR 4127841. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  16. ^ Macdonald, Roy (8 November 2012). "2 killed, 19 injured in Sherbrooke Factory explosion". CBC News. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  17. ^ "Pharmaceutical plant explosion injures 17, leaves cloud of toxic smoke looming over Sherbrooke". National Post. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
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  26. ^ These figures correspond to the territory of the city of Sherbrooke following the municipal reorganizations of 2002 and 2006.
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  29. ^ "2011 Community Profiles". 2011 Canadian Census. Statistics Canada. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
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  36. ^ Bombardier, David (16 September 2008). "Le cénotaphe sera restauré" (in French). La Tribune. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
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  55. ^ pronounced "Shoe"
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