Shiur klali, Slabodka Yeshiva
Shiur klali, Slabodka Yeshiva
Gemara Shiur, Toras Emes Yeshiva
Gemara Shiur, Toras Emes Yeshiva
Rabbinical Shiur, Jerusalem
Public  Shiur: Ovadia Yosef, Bar-Ilan University, Machon synagogue
Public Shiur: Ovadia Yosef, Bar-Ilan University, Machon synagogue
Memorial Shiur on the Yarzheit of Rav Aharon Lichtenstein at Yeshivat Har Etzion
Memorial Shiur on the Yarzheit of Rav Aharon Lichtenstein at Yeshivat Har Etzion
Yom iyun, Midreshet Oryah (click to enlarge)
Yom iyun, Midreshet Oryah (click to enlarge)
Sicha, Ulpana students
Sicha, Ulpana students
Drosha - Rabbi Eliezer Shlomo Schick,  Yavne'el Synagogue
Drosha - Rabbi Eliezer Shlomo Schick, Yavne'el Synagogue

Shiur (/ˈʃər/, Hebrew: שיעור [ʃiˈʔuʁ], lit. amount, pl. shiurim שיעורים[ʃiʔuˈʁim]) is a lecture on any Torah topic, such as Gemara, Mishnah, Halakha (Jewish law), Tanakh (Bible), etc.

History

The Hebrew term שיעור designated amount came to refer to a portion of Judaic text arranged for study on a particular occasion, such as a yartzeit, the dedication of a new home, or the evening of a holiday, and then to a public reading and explanation of the same. The act of teaching and studying these texts at the designated time was known as schiur lernen in Yiddish.[1] These shiurim would be attended by all classes of people;[2][3] it was traditional for learned attendees to engage the lecturer in continuous discussion, and for the larger lay audience to listen intently.[4]

Concurrently, the word came to refer to the daily study quotient for students of a yeshiva,[5][6] and then to the lecture given thereon. Akiva Eger, for example,

would not miss learning a single shiur with the yeshiva. His shiurim with them were always three per day: there was a session of Talmud and Tosafot, a session of exhaustive Halakha, and a session of Shulchan Aruch and Magen Avraham, and these were aside from the session of Tur and SA Yoreh De'ah he would learn with his children and some students, and with these he would learn a further shiur of exhaustive Talmud and Tosafot at night.[7]

Yeshiva learning

Further information: Yeshiva § Talmud study, and Yeshiva § Jewish law

Shiur may refer to the type of learning that takes place in yeshivot and kollelim, in which students hear an in-depth lecture on the sugya (Gemara topic) the yeshiva is studying at the time.

Typically, yeshiva students attend a daily shiur yomi (daily lecture) given by a maggid shiur (literally, "sayer of the shiur") and a weekly shiur klali (comprehensive lecture, which sums up the week's learning) given by the rosh yeshiva.[8] The rosh yeshiva usually also gives the senior shiur - see below - on a daily basis.

Before the shiur, a bibliography and a series of textual references, or mar'e mekomot, [9] [10] are posted so that students may prepare for the lecture in advance. Students typically spend several hours preparing for the shiur yomi. After the shiur, students spend additional time reviewing and clarifying the lesson that they have just heard. These preparation and review periods take place in a special time period called a seder, in which students study the lesson individually and/or in chavrutot (study pairs).

Shiurim may also be offered in yeshiva on topics in mussar, Chumash, and hashkafah (Jewish philosophy), depending on the yeshiva and the learning level of its students.[11] The shiur is likewise the typical format for classes at women's seminaries and midrashot.

Class levels

A shiur is also the name given to the different class-levels in a yeshiva. For example, first-year students are said to be in "Shiur Aleph"; second-year students are in "Shiur Bet"; third-year students are in "Shiur Gimmel, etc. In kollelim, the higher shiurim accommodate more advanced levels of learning. See Yeshiva #Talmud study.

Public study sessions

Synagogue rabbis and noted rabbis in the community also give shiurim to their constituencies. In shuls, the shiur given between the Mincha and Maariv services is usually geared to baalebatim (laymen). Noted rabbis give more in-depth shiurim to attendees on Shabbat or weekday evenings, usually in the local synagogue or beth midrash (study hall).[12][13]

(Public) shiurim thus range in length and depth: from a short "vort", or "Dvar Torah" ("word (of Torah)", in Yiddish and Hebrew respectively), to a detailed "drasha" ("study", from the Aramaic; see midrash); the former above, baalebatim focused, is a vort, while the latter is a drosha. Especially in Chasidic settings, a less formal - often inspirational - shiur may be termed "sicha" (שיחה, lit. "speech"); see also Maamor and Maamarim (Chabad).

Commonly, the Rosh Yeshiva delivers a weekly shiur on the parashah (weekly Torah portion), exploring a particular question or theme. This is usually in-depth, of an hour in duration, and typically open to the public.

Many yeshivot, midrashot, and "community kollels" host yemei iyun ("days of in-depth learning", sing. yom iyun), where community members study a specific topic. These are often held before religious holidays - especially Pesach and the New Year period - preparing the spiritual and halakhik elements of the upcoming festival.

A "Memorial Shiur" is often given to the entire yeshiva / community on the Yahrzeit of a (founding) Rosh Yeshiva or Rabbi; usually exploring a specific topic of general interest.

"Shiur" may include any kind of Torah lesson — including lectures to children, women, and baalebatim (lay audience), and taped lectures circulated via cassette tape, computer hookup, MP3 or MP4 connection, or call-in telephone lines. Some kiruv organizations advertise "five-minute shiurim" to attract beginning listeners.[14]

Similarly, "Vort" and "Dvar Torah", may in fact refer to any short Torah idea, delivered on various occasions, [15] [16] [17] and not necessarily by a Rabbi; for example: by the host at his Shabbat table, by the leader before "Benching" (grace after meals), or by a guest at sheva brachot, or at any Seudat mitzvah.

References

  1. ^ Wise, Isaac Mayer (1901). Reminiscences. L. Wise.
  2. ^ Lilienthal, Max E.; Philipson, David (1915). Max Lilienthal, American Rabbi: Life and Writings. Bloch publishing Company.
  3. ^ Jacob, Star of (1847). HBQOY BKVK. The Star of Jacob, ed. by M. Margoliouth.
  4. ^ Hebrew Union College Monthly. 1921.
  5. ^ Curländer, David Joseph (1846). Skizze meines Lebens: mit reiner Wahrheit in humoristischen Style geschrieben und mit Knittelversen versehen ... (in German). D. Curländer.
  6. ^ The Scattered Nation: Occasional Record of the Hebrew Christian Testimony to Israel. Hebrew Christian Testimony to Israel. 1898.
  7. ^ Bleichrode, Abraham Moses (1875). תולדות רבינו עקיבא איגר: זה ספר תולדות חיי ... (in Hebrew). בדפוס נ. שריפטגיססער.
  8. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Yeshivat Har Etzion. 2010. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  9. ^ Example marei mekomot - Halacha
  10. ^ Example marei mekomot - Gemara
  11. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Derech HaTalmud. 2010. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  12. ^ Wallach, Shalom Meir (January 2004). The Seraph of Brisk: Rabbi Yehoshua Leib Diskin. Tevunah Publishers. p. 623. ISBN 1-58330-708-7.
  13. ^ Eleff, Zev (2008). Mentor of Generations: Reflections on Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik. Ktav Publishing House. pp. 293–294. ISBN 978-1-60280-011-3.
  14. ^ "The Chicago Community Kollel Five-Minute Hilchos Tefillah Shiur". Chicago Community Kollel. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  15. ^ vortfinder.com
  16. ^ shortvort.com
  17. ^ Vedibarta Bam - topic areas