Shizunai River
静内川
Takami Dam (November 2006)
EtymologyAinu language:
Shiputnai — A marsh at the origin of the Ainu or
Shuttonai — A marsh with plentiful grapes or
Shutnai — A river at the foot of a mountain.
Native nameShizunai-gawa
Location
CountryJapan
StateHokkaidō
RegionHidaka Subprefecture
DistrictHidaka District
MunicipalityShinhidaka
Physical characteristics
Source confluenceKoikakushushibichari River and Koibokushushibichari River
 • coordinates42°28′22″N 142°45′05″E / 42.47278°N 142.75139°E / 42.47278; 142.75139
 • elevation300 m (980 ft)
MouthPacific Ocean
 • coordinates
42°19′47″N 142°22′05″E / 42.32972°N 142.36806°E / 42.32972; 142.36806Coordinates: 42°19′47″N 142°22′05″E / 42.32972°N 142.36806°E / 42.32972; 142.36806
 • elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Length69.9 km (43.4 mi)
Basin size683.4 km2 (263.9 sq mi)
Basin features
Tributaries 
 • leftHidaka Mena River (日高目名川, Hidaka Mena-gawa), Mount Sumi River (炭山, Sumi-yama-kawa), Shunbetsu River, Penkeonikemushi River, Ponpanbetsu Creek, Penkebetsusawa River, Porokaunnai River
 • rightPerari River, Poyoppusawa River, Pisenaisawa River, Ibetsusawa River, Abeunnai River

Shizunai River (静内川, Shizunai-gawa) is a river in Shinhidaka, Hokkaidō, Japan. The Shizunai River drains from the Hidaka Mountains into the Pacific Ocean.

Etymology

The Shizunai River was known as Shibuchari[1] and Shibechari. This name was derived from Shipe-ichan, meaning "a salmon spawning place" in Ainu.[2]

The name Shizunai is derived from the Ainu language and has three possible sources:[3]

Course

The Shizunai River flows generally southwest from its headwaters in the Hidaka mountains at the confluence of the Koikakushushibichari and Koibokushushibichari rivers. It flows into Lake Takami (高見湖, Takami-ko), a reservoir created by the Takami Dam. Past the dam, the Shizunai river flows into Shizunai Flood Control Reservoir (静内調整池, Shizunai Chōseichi). Past the Shizunai Dam, the river encounters Futa Dam before leaving the mountains for the flood plain. The river flows past the outlying communities of Shizunai before entering the Pacific Ocean just northwest of Shizunai harbor.

Natural history

The Shizunai River was designated as a wildlife protection area in 1965. Whooper swans overwinter on the Shizunai River.[2]

History

The Shizunai River basin was the home of the Ainu leader who led Shakushain's revolt against the Shogunate-era Yamato people, especially the Matsumae clan, in the 1660s. In the Edo period the region was used for gold mining.

Lists

List of bridges and dams

From river mouth to source:

List of (named) tributaries

From river mouth to source:

  1. Left — Hidaka Mena River (日高目名川, Hidaka Mena Gawa)
  2. Right — Perari River
  3. Left — Mount Sumi River (炭山, Sumiyama Kawa) charcoal or coal mountain river
  4. Left — Shunbetsu River
  5. Right — Poyoppusawa River
  6. Right — Pisenaisawa River
  7. Left — Penkeonikemushi River
  8. Left — Ponpanbetsu Creek
  9. Left — Penkebetsusawa River
  10. Left — Porokaunnai River
  11. Right — Ibetsusawa River
  12. Right — Abeunnai River
  13. Confluence Left — Koibokushuchchari, Right — Koikakushuppichari

References

  1. ^ Walker, The Conquest of Ainu Lands, pgs 18–19
  2. ^ a b Nippon-Kichi, 静内川 Shizunai-gawa The Shizunai River, last access 26 May 2008
  3. ^ Akagi Sanpei (赤木 三兵), Journey of Hokkaidō Place Names—Notes on Ainu Language Place Names (北海道 地名の旅—アイヌ語地名解, Hokkaidō Chimei no Tabi — Ainugo Chimei Kai)