Shravanabelagola
Town
Shravanabelagola/ಶ್ರವಣಬೆಳಗೊಳ
Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola/ಶ್ರವಣಬೆಳಗೊಳ
Shravanabelagola/ಶ್ರವಣಬೆಳಗೊಳ
Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola (Karnataka)
Coordinates: 12°51′32″N 76°29′20″E / 12.859°N 76.489°E / 12.859; 76.489Coordinates: 12°51′32″N 76°29′20″E / 12.859°N 76.489°E / 12.859; 76.489
CountryIndia
StateKarnataka
DistrictHassan
Elevation
871 m (2,858 ft)
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)

Shravanabelagola (Śravaṇa Beḷagoḷa) is a town located near Channarayapatna of Hassan district in the Indian state of Karnataka and is 144 km from Bangalore. The Gommateshwara Bahubali statue at Shravanabelagola is one of the most important tirthas (pilgrimage destinations) in Jainism, one that reached a peak in architectural and sculptural activity under the patronage of Western Ganga dynasty of Talakad. Chandragupta Maurya is said to have died here in 298 BCE after he became a Jain monk and assumed an ascetic life style.[1]

Gommateshwara statue, Akkana Basadi, Chandragupta basadi, Chamundaraya Basadi, Parshvanath Basadi and inscriptions of Shravanabelagola group of monuments are listed as Adarsh Smarak Monument by Archaeological Survey of India.[2]

Location

Shravanabelagola is located at 11 km to the south-east of Channarayapatna in the Channarayapatna taluk of Hassan district of Karnataka. It is at a distance of 51 km south-east of Hassan, Karnataka, the district centre. It is situated at a distance of 12 km to the south from the Bangalore-Mangalore road (NH-75), 18 km from Hirisave, 78 km from Halebidu, 89 km from Belur, 83 km from Mysuru, 144 km from Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka and 222 km from Mangalore.

Sacred places are spread over two hills, Chandragiri and Vindyagiri, and also among the villages at the foothills.[3]

Etymology

The pond in the middle of the town, after which it is named, Beḷagoḷa “White Pond”
The pond in the middle of the town, after which it is named, Beḷagoḷa “White Pond”

Shravanabelagola "White Pond of the Shravana" is named with reference to the colossal image of Gommaṭa - the prefix Śravaṇa serves to distinguish it from other Belagolas with the prefixes Hale- and Kodi-, while Beḷagoḷa "white pond" is an allusion to the pond in the middle of the town.[4][3] The Sanskrit equivalents Śvetasarovara, Dhavalasarovara and Dhavalasarasa used in the inscriptions that support this meaning.[5] There are more than 560 inscriptions in Shravabelagola.[2]

Some inscriptions mention the name of the place as Beḷgoḷa, which has given rise to another derivation from the plant Solanum ferox (hairy-fruited eggplant). This derivation is in allusion to a tradition which says that a pious old woman completely anointed the colossal image with the milk brought by her in a gullakayi or eggplant. The place is also designated as Devara Beḷgoḷa "White Pond of the God" and Gommaṭapuram "city of Gommaṭa" in some epigraphs.[5]

History

Statue of Emperor Bharata Chakravartin, after whom India was named Bharatvarsha.[6]
Statue of Emperor Bharata Chakravartin, after whom India was named Bharatvarsha.[6]

Shravanabelagola has two hills, Chandragiri and Vindhyagiri. Acharya Bhadrabahu and his pupil Chandragupta Maurya are believed to have meditated there.[7][8] Chandragupta Basadi, which was dedicated to Chandragupta Maurya, was originally built there by Ashoka in the third century BC.[9] Chandragiri also has memorials to numerous monks and Śrāvakas who have meditated there since the fifth century AD, including the last king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Manyakheta. Chandragiri also has a famous temple built by Chavundaraya.[10]

The 58-feet tall monolithic statue of Gommateshwara is located on Vindyagiri Hill.[11][12] It is considered to be the world's largest monolithic statue. The base of the statue has an inscriptions in Prakrit, dating from 981 AD. The inscription praises the king who funded the effort and his general, Chavundaraya, who erected the statue for his mother.[11] Every twelve years, thousands of devotees congregate here to perform the Mahamastakabhisheka, a spectacular ceremony in which the statue is anointed with Water, Turmeric, Rice flour, Sugar cane juice, Sandalwood paste, saffron, and gold and silver flowers.[13][14] Recently Mahamastakabhisheka was held in 2018 during feb month. The next Mahamastakabhisheka will be held in 2030.[15]

Shravanabelagola, nestled by the Vindhyagiri and Chandragiri Hills, protected by the monolith Bhagwan Bahubali, and home to over 2,300 years of Jain heritage, is a veritable picture postcard of our history and heritage spanning the centuries.[10] In the town of Shravanabelagola, stands a colossal rock-cut statue of Lord Gommateshwara Shri Bahubali. About eight hundred odd inscriptions which the Karnataka Archeological Department has collected at the place are mostly Jaina and cover a very extended period from 600 to 1830 A.D. Some refer even to the remote time of Chandragupta Maurya and also relate the story of the first settlement of Jains at Shravanabelagola.[16] That this village was an acknowledged seat of learning is proved from the fact that a priest from here named Akalanka was in 788 A.D. summoned to the court of Himasitala at Kanchi where having confuted the Buddhists in public disputation, he was instrumental in gaining their expulsion from the South of India to Ceylon.[17][18]

Inscriptions

Kannada inscription at Odegal Basadi
Kannada inscription at Odegal Basadi

More than 800 inscriptions have been found at Shravanabelagola, dating to various times from 600 AD to 1830 AD. A large number of these are found in the Chandragiri and the rest can be seen in the Vindhyagiri Hill and the town. Most of the inscriptions at the Chandragiri date back before the 10th century. These inscriptions include texts in the Kannada. The second volume of Epigraphia Carnatica, written by B. Lewis Rice, is dedicated to the inscriptions found here. It is said to be the oldest Konkani inscription. The inscriptions are written in Purvahalagannada (Ancient Kannada) and Halegannada (Old Kannada) characters. Some of these inscriptions mention the rise and growth in power of the Western Ganga Dynasty, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysala Empire, the Vijayanagara Empire and the Wodeyar dynasty. These inscriptions have helped modern scholars to understand the nature and development of the Kannada language and its literature.[19]

Tyagada Brahmadeva Pillar is a decorated free standing pillar (lit, Stambha), 2.3 m tall, commissioned by Chamundaraya.[20] The pillar dates to around 983 C.E. and exists on the Vindyagiri hill (called Dodda Betta in local Kannada language.[21] On the base of the pillar, on the north side, is an inscription in old Kannada language of the same period.[22]

Basadi

Odegal basadi on Vindhyagiri hill
Odegal basadi on Vindhyagiri hill
Akkana Basadi
Akkana Basadi
Vindhyagiri hill
  1. Odegal basadi: is the largest basadi on Vindhyagiri hill.[14] The temple derives the name from 'Odega', i.e., soapstone used for strengthening the walls of the temple.[23] The temple houses image of Rishabhanatha, Neminatha and Shantinatha.[24]
  2. Bhandari basadi: enshrines idols of 24 tirthankar in arranged in a single row.[24]
Chandragiri hill
  1. Akkana Basadi: This was built in 1181 A.D. Akkana Basadi has 23rd Tirthankara Parshwanath as main deity of the temple.[25][26]
  2. Chandragupta basadi: This was established in the 9th century. The middle cell of this temple has the figure of Parshvanatha, the one to the right the figure of Padmavathi and the one to the left the figure of Kushmandini, all in a seated posture.[14]
  3. Chamundaraya Basadi: is one of the largest temples on the hill. It is also known as Chavundaraya Basadi. It is dedicated to Neminatha, the 22nd Tirthankara. The sukhanasi consists of good figures of Sarvahna and Kushmandini, the yaksha and yakshi of Neminatha. It is dated back to 982 A.D.[27]
  4. Parshvanath Basadi: is one of the two tallest temple tallest structure in Shravanabelagola. the temple houses a 18 feet (5.5 m) monolithic colossal of Parshvanatha. the temple dates back to 12th century. The front of the temple has a 65.6 feet (20.0 m) tall manastambha.[28]
  5. Kattale Basadi: is the largest temple on the hill. The temple features a garbhagriha, pradakshinapatha, sukanasa and a navranga joined by 16 pillars. the temple's front is joined with Chandragupta basadi. The temple houses an idol of Rishabhanatha flanked by chauri bearers.[29]

The Sasana Basadi, Savitagandharva Basadi, Terina Basadi and Santiswara Basadi are other important temples on the Chandragiri hill.[30]

Mahamastakabhisheka

Mahamastakabhisheka of Gommateshwara statue
Mahamastakabhisheka of Gommateshwara statue

Main article: Mahamastakabhisheka

The Mahamastakabhisheka (Grand Consecration/The Great Indian Festival), refers to the abhiṣheka (anointment) of the Jain images when held on a large scale. The most famous of such consecrations is the anointment of the Bahubali Gommateshwara Statue located at Shravanabelagola. It is an important Jain festival held once in every 12 years.[31][32] It is an integral part of the ancient and composite Jain tradition. The festival is held in veneration of a 17.3736 metres (57.000 ft) high monolithic statue of the Siddha Bahubali. The anointing last took place in February 2018, and the next ceremony is going to take place in 2030.[33] During this festival, the statue is then bathed and anointed with libations such as milk, sugarcane juice, and saffron paste, and sprinkled with powders of sandalwood, turmeric, and vermilion.[34]

The event has been attended by multiple political personalities including Krishna-Rajendra Wodeyar in 1910, and Narendra Modi and Ramnath Kovind in 2018.[35]

Jain Temples near Shravanbelagola

Panchakuta Basadi, Kambadahalli

Other notable things

The tableau of Karnataka depicting Mahamastabhisheka of Lord Gommateshwara, during the Republic Day Parade in 2005
The tableau of Karnataka depicting Mahamastabhisheka of Lord Gommateshwara, during the Republic Day Parade in 2005

Shravanabelagola is the seat of the ancient Bhattaraka Matha,[39] belonging to the Desiya Gana lineage of Mula Sangh, from the Digambara monastic tradition.[40] Bahubali College of Engineering is an educational institute at Shravaṇabeḷagoḷa.[41]

Shravanabelagola is also part of the route followed by the luxury tourist train, the Golden Chariot.[42]

The government of Karnataka showcased the statue of Lord Gometashwara at the Republic Day Parade of 2005 where it received the first prize from the then President of India Honourable Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam.[43]

On August 5, 2007, the statue at Shravanabelagola was voted by the readers of Times of India as the first of the Seven Wonders of India with 49% votes in favor of the statue.[44]

Archaeological Survey of India has listed the group of monuments in Shravanabelagola as Adarsh Smarak Monument.[45]

Notable people

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Vir Sanghvi, "Rude Travel: Down The Sages", Hindustan Times, archived from the original on 18 May 2015
  2. ^ a b "Adarsh Smarak Monument". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  3. ^ a b Krishna 2017, p. 99.
  4. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 223.
  5. ^ a b Sangave 1981, p. 9.
  6. ^ Jain Pooja-Kavya: Ek Chintan. ISBN 9788126308187.
  7. ^ Sangave 2001, p. 204.
  8. ^ S. Settar, Inviting Death: Historical experiments on sepulchral hill, Karnatak University, Dharwar, 1986
  9. ^ Subbanna 2014, p. 166.
  10. ^ a b Biswas 2014, p. 275. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBiswas2014 (help)
  11. ^ a b Thurston 2011, p. 153.
  12. ^ "Delegates enjoy a slice of history at Śravaṇa Beḷgoḷa", The Hindu, Chennai, Staff Correspondent, 1 January 2006, archived from the original on 4 November 2012
  13. ^ Krishna 2017, p. 182.
  14. ^ a b c Raman 1994, p. 57.
  15. ^ "Mahamastakabhisheka works will be completed on time: A. Manju". 17 August 2017 – via www.thehindu.com.
  16. ^ Singh 2010, p. 43.
  17. ^ B. L. Rice 2001, p. 366.
  18. ^ Lewis Rice 1985, p. 12.
  19. ^ Introduction in Epigraphia Carnatica Vol.2 Institute of Kannada Studies, Mysore, 1972.
  20. ^ Kamath (1980), p. 45
  21. ^ Kamath (1980), p. 52
  22. ^ Rice 1889, p. 33. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFRice1889 (help)
  23. ^ Sangave 1981, p. 14.
  24. ^ a b Knapp 2008, p. 496.
  25. ^ Hardy 1995, p. 343.
  26. ^ ASI & Akkana Basati.
  27. ^ ASI & Chamundaraya Basati.
  28. ^ Chugh 2016, pp. 289–290.
  29. ^ Chugh 2016, p. 290.
  30. ^ Chugh 2016, p. 289.
  31. ^ Wiley 2009, p. 49.
  32. ^ Prasad 2018, p. 22.
  33. ^ Correspondent, TNN (8 February 2006). "Mahamastakabhisheka of Bahubali begins today". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  34. ^ Davey 2016, p. 327.
  35. ^ "Bahubali Mahamastakabhisheka Mahotsav: Here is the history of the Jain festival PM Modi attended today", The Indian Express, 19 February 2018
  36. ^ Chugh 2016, p. 292.
  37. ^ "Aratipura Archives - Jain Heritage Centres". Jain Heritage Centres. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  38. ^ "Mayasandra - Jain Heritage Centres". Jain Heritage Centres. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  39. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 125.
  40. ^ Flügel 2006, p. 386.
  41. ^ Gupta 2000, p. 700.
  42. ^ "Pride of the South".
  43. ^ "R-Day parade: state tableau wins first prize". The Times of India.
  44. ^ "And India's 7 wonders are", The Times Of India, 5 August 2007
  45. ^ "Adarsh Smarak Monument". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 19 July 2021.

Soruces