Starr 050419-6513 Sida fallax.jpg
ʻIlima (Sida fallax)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Malvoideae
Tribe: Malveae
Genus: Sida

98-200+, see text


Pseudomalachra (K.Schum.) Monteiro

Sida is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. They are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide,[2] especially in the Americas.[3] Plants of the genus may be known generally as fanpetals[1] or sidas.[4]


These are annual or perennial herbs or shrubs growing up to 2m tall (6 feet). Most species have hairy herbage. The leaf blades are usually unlobed with serrated edges, but may be divided into lobes. They are borne on petioles and have stipules. Flowers are solitary or arranged in inflorescences of various forms. Each has five hairy sepals and five petals in shades of yellow, orange, or white. There are many stamens and a style divided into several branches. The fruit is a disc-shaped schizocarp up to 2 cm (3/4 inch) wide which is divided into five to 12 sections, each containing one seed. The pollens are spherical in shape.

Three pollen grains of a plant in genus Sida
Three pollen grains of a plant in genus Sida



Many Sida are attractive to butterflies and moths. Arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia), for example, is a larval host for the tropical checkered skipper (Pyrgus oileus).[5]

The Sida golden mosaic virus and Sida golden yellow vein virus have been first isolated from Sida species; the former specifically from Sida santaremensis.


The genus name Sida is from the Greek for "pomegranate or water lily".[4] Carl Linnaeus adopted the name from the writings of Theophrastus.[3]


Main article: List of Sida species

Sida has historically been a wastebasket taxon, including many plants that simply did not fit into other genera of the Malvaceae. Species have been continually reclassified.[2] The circumscription of Sida is still unclear, with no real agreement regarding how many species belong there. Over 1000 names have been placed in the genus, and many authorities accept about 150 to 250 valid names today.[2] Some sources accept as few as 98 species.[6] There are many plants recognized as Sida that have not yet been described to science.[7]

Sida rhombifolia
Sida ciliaris
Sida ciliaris
Sida linifolia
Sida linifolia

Species include:[1][6][8]

Formerly placed here

Species now in other genera include:[8]

  • Abutilon abutiloides (Jacq.) Garcke ex Hochr. (as S. abutiloides Jacq. or S. lignosa Cav.)
  • Abutilon cristata (L.) Schltdl. (as S. cristata L.)
  • Abutilon giganteum (Jacq.) Sweet (as S. gigantea Jacq.)
  • Abutilon grandifolium (Willd.) Sweet (as S. grandifolia Willd. or S. mollis Ortega)
  • Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) Sweet (as S. graveolens Roxb. ex Hornem.)
  • Abutilon incanum (Link) Sweet (as S. incana Link)
  • Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet (as S. indica L.)
  • Abutilon megapotamicum (A.Spreng.) A.St.-Hil. & Naudin (as S. megapotamica A.Spreng.)
  • Abutilon mollissimum (Cav.) Sweet Sida mollicoma Willd. (as S. mollissima Cav.)
  • Abutilon pictum (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.) Walp. (as S. picta Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.)
  • Abutilon reflexum (Juss. ex Cav.) Sweet (as S. reflexa Juss. ex Cav.)
  • Abutilon sellowianum (Klotzsch) Regel (as S. sellowiana Klotzsch)
  • Abutilon theophrasti Medik. (as S. abutilon L.)
  • Bakeridesia integerrima (Hook.) D.M.Bates (as S. integerrima Hook.)
  • Corynabutilon vitifolium (Cav.) Kearney (as S. vitifolium Cav.)
  • Malvastrum hispidum (Pursh) Hochr. (as S. hispida Pursh)
  • Malvella leprosa (Ortega) Krapov. (as S. hederacea (Douglas) Torr. ex A.Gray)
  • Nototriche compacta (Gay) A.W.Hill (as S. compacta Gay)
  • Pavonia sepium A. St.-Hil. (as S. malvacea Vell.)
  • Sidalcea malviflora (DC.) A.Gray ex Benth. (as S. malviflora DC.)
  • Sidalcea oregana subsp. oregana (as S. oregana Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray)
  • Sidastrum micranthum (A.St.-Hil.) Fryxell (as S. micrantha A.St.-Hil.)
  • Sidastrum paniculatum (L.) Fryxell (as S. paniculata L.)
  • Sphaeralcea grossulariifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Rydb. (as S. grossulariifolia Hook. & Arn.)
  • Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C.Presl ex Thwaites (as S. periplocifolia L.)


  1. ^ a b c Sida. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
  2. ^ a b c Shaheen, N., et al. (2009). Foliar epidermal anatomy and its systematic implication within the genus Sida L. (Malvaceae). African Journal of Biotechnology 8(20), 5328-36.
  3. ^ a b c Sida. The Jepson eFlora 2013.
  4. ^ a b c Sida. FloraBase. Western Australian Herbarium.
  5. ^ Sida rhombifolia. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. University of Texas, Austin.
  6. ^ a b Sida. The Plant List.
  7. ^ a b Markey, A. S., et al. (2011). Sida picklesiana (Malvaceae), a new species from the Murchison-Gascoyne region of Western Australia. Nuytsia 21(3) 127-37.
  8. ^ a b GRIN Species Records of Sida. Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
  9. ^ "Sida ulmifolia - Species Details". Atlas of Florida Plants. Retrieved 2021-09-05.