Siege of Mariupol
Part of the eastern Ukraine offensive and the southern Ukraine offensive of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Mitropolitskaya st. 108, Mariupol 20220323 005.jpg

War damage in Mariupol, 16 March 2022
Date24 February – 20 May 2022
(2 months, 3 weeks and 5 days)
Location47°05′53″N 37°36′36″E / 47.098°N 37.61°E / 47.098; 37.61Coordinates: 47°05′53″N 37°36′36″E / 47.098°N 37.61°E / 47.098; 37.61
Result Russian and DPR victory[1][2]
Belligerents
 Ukraine
Commanders and leaders
Mikhail Mizintsev[3][4] Volodymyr Baranyuk (POW)[5][6]
Denys Prokopenko (POW)[7][8]
Units involved

 Russia

Donetsk People's Republic Donetsk People's Militia

 Ukraine
Inside Mariupol:[15]

Other involved units:

Strength
14,000[27] 3,500[27]–8,100[28][29]
Casualties and losses
Per Ukraine:
~6,000 killed[30]
Per Russia:
4,200+ killed,[c]
3,903 captured[d]
Per Ukraine:
906+ killed,[34][35][36][37][38]
3,500+ captured[39]
Per United Nations:
1,348 civilians killed confirmed
(total number thought "thousands higher")[40][41][42]
Per Ukraine:
25,000+ civilians killed[43]
20,000–50,000 deported[44][45][46]

The siege of Mariupol was a siege in Ukraine during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, when forces from Russia and the separatist Donetsk People's Republic engaged Ukrainian forces in the city of Mariupol. The siege, which was part of the Russian eastern Ukraine offensive and southern Ukraine offensive, started on 24 February 2022 and concluded on 20 May 2022, when Russia announced the remaining Ukrainian forces in Mariupol surrendered[47] after they were ordered to cease fighting.[48]

Mariupol is located in Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine, and is controlled by the Russian-backed separatist Donetsk People's Republic. Russian forces completely besieged the city on 2 March, after which they gradually gained control.[49] By 22 April, the remaining Ukrainian forces had retreated to the Azovstal Iron and Steel Works, a massive and highly defensible industrial complex.[50][20][51]

The Red Cross described the situation as "apocalyptic", and Ukrainian authorities accused Russia of engineering a major humanitarian crisis in the city.[52][53] Ukrainian officials reported that about 25,000 civilians had been killed[43] and that at least 95% of the city had been destroyed during the fighting, largely by Russian bombardments.[54] The United Nations stated it had confirmed the deaths of 1,348 civilians, but said the true death toll was likely thousands higher, and added that 90% of the city's residential buildings had been damaged or destroyed.[40][41][42]

The siege ended on 16 May 2022, after what media outlets called the "evacuation" or "surrender" of the remaining Azov Regiment personnel from the Azovstal Iron and Steel Works; the Russian Ministry of Defense stated that the Ukrainians had "surrendered",[55][56][57][58][59] a word Ukraine avoided using.[60]

Some Western reports called the battle a pyrrhic[61][62] or symbolic[63] victory for Russia, with others noting that the siege's humanitarian impact was a "reputational disaster" for Russia.[64] However, the loss of the city has also been seen as a significant defeat for Ukraine.[65]

Background

Main articles: Battle of Mariupol (2014), Offensive on Mariupol (September 2014), and Shyrokyne standoff

See also: War in Donbas (2014–2022) and January 2015 Mariupol rocket attack

Mariupol was considered a major strategic city and therefore was a target for Russian forces. It was the largest city in the Ukrainian-controlled portion of Donetsk Oblast,[e][66] and was also one of the largest Russian-speaking cities in Ukraine.[66] Mariupol was a major industrial hub, home of the Illich and Azovstal Iron and Steel Works, and the largest city on the Sea of Azov.[67]

Control of its port on the western shore of the Sea of Azov is vital to the economy of Ukraine. For Russia, it would allow a land route to Crimea and allow passage by Russian marine traffic.[68] Capturing the city gave Russia full control over the Sea of Azov.[69]

In 2014 after the Revolution of Dignity, Mariupol was swept by pro-Russian protests against the new government. Tensions erupted into the war in Donbas in early May, and during the unrest, militiamen of the separatist and Russian-backed Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) took control of the city and forced Ukrainian troops to abandon it during the first battle for Mariupol.[70] However, the following month, Ukrainian forces recaptured the city in an offensive.[71] In August, the DPR and Russian troops captured the village of Novoazovsk, 45 km east of Mariupol near the Russo-Ukrainian border.[72] With the town captured and forces renewed, in September the DPR attempted to capture the city again in the second battle for Mariupol. Fighting reached the eastern outskirts, but the separatists were eventually repelled.[73] In October, then-DPR Prime Minister Alexander Zakharchenko vowed to retake the city.[74] Mariupol was then indiscriminately bombed by rockets in January 2015. Fearing a future third offensive into Mariupol, in February Ukrainian forces launched a surprise attack into Shyrokyne, a village located 11 km east of Mariupol with the objective of expelling the separatist forces from the city limits and creating a buffer zone away from DPR territory.[75][76] The separatists withdrew from Shyrokyne four months later.[77] The conflict was frozen when the Minsk II ceasefire agreement was signed in 2015.[78]

One of the most instrumental groups for the recapture and subsequent defenses of Mariupol was the Azov Battalion, a Ukrainian volunteer militia, controversial for their openly neo-Nazi and ultranationalist members.[79][80][81] By November 2014 Azov was integrated into the National Guard of Ukraine, and set Mariupol as their headquarters.[82] As one of Vladimir Putin's stated goals for the invasion was the "denazification" of Ukraine, Mariupol represented an important ideological and symbolical target for the Russian forces.[83][84]

Prior to the siege, around 100,000 residents left Mariupol according to the city's deputy mayor.[85]

Prior to falling to Russian forces, the city was defended by the Ukrainian Ground Forces, the Ukrainian Naval Infantry, the National Guard of Ukraine (primarily the Azov Regiment[16]), the Territorial Defense Forces of Ukraine and irregular forces.[24]

Advances to Mariupol

See also: Russian occupation of Donetsk Oblast § Mariupol

Preliminary shelling and advance on the city

On 24 February, the day the invasion began, Russian artillery bombarded the city, reportedly injuring 26 people.[86][87]

On the morning of 25 February, Russian forces advanced from DPR territory in the east towards Mariupol. They encountered Ukrainian forces near the village of Pavlopil, with Ukrainian forces defeating the Russian advance.[88] Vadym Boychenko, mayor of Mariupol, said that 22 Russian tanks had been destroyed in the skirmish.[89][90]

The Russian Navy, drawing on the capabilities provided by the Black Sea Fleet, reportedly began an amphibious assault on the Sea of Azov coastline 70 kilometres (43 mi) west of Mariupol on the evening of 25 February.[91] A US defense official stated that the Russians may have deployed thousands of marines from this beachhead.[92][93][94]

On 26 February, Russian forces continued to bombard Mariupol with artillery.[95] Later, the government of Greece announced that ten ethnic Greek civilians had been killed by Russian strikes at Mariupol, six in the village of Sartana and four in the village of Buhas.[96][97]

On the morning of 27 February, Boychenko said that a Russian tank column had advanced on Mariupol from the DPR, but this attack was repulsed by Ukrainian forces, with six Russian soldiers captured.[98] Later that day, a 6-year-old girl in Mariupol was killed by Russian shelling.[99] Pavlo Kyrylenko, governor of Donetsk Oblast, stated that fighting in Mariupol had continued throughout the night of 27 February.[100]

Throughout 28 February, the city remained under Ukrainian control, despite being surrounded by Russian troops and constantly shelled.[101][102] Electricity, gas, and internet connection to most of the city was cut during the evening.[103] Later, according to Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Russian Major General Andrei Sukhovetsky was killed by a Ukrainian sniper near Mariupol, but other sources[clarification needed] said that he had been killed during the Kyiv offensive.[104][105]

Mariupol surrounded

An apartment building damaged during shelling in Mariupol, 2 March 2022
An apartment building damaged during shelling in Mariupol, 2 March 2022

On 1 March, Denis Pushilin, the head of the DPR, announced that DPR forces had almost completely surrounded the nearby city of Volnovakha and that they would soon do the same to Mariupol.[106] Russian artillery later bombarded Mariupol, causing over 21 injuries.[107]

The city was fully surrounded on 2 March,[49][108] after which the siege intensified.[109] Russian shelling killed a teenager and wounded two other teenagers who were playing soccer outside.[110][111] Boychenko announced the city was suffering from a water outage and had experienced massive casualties. He also said Russian forces were preventing civilians from exiting.[112][113]

Russian bombing of Mariupol, 3 March 2022
Russian bombing of Mariupol,
3 March 2022
Smoke from many buildings amid massive Russian bombing in Mariupol, 3 March 2022
Smoke from many buildings amid massive Russian bombing in Mariupol,
3 March 2022

Later on 2 March, Russian artillery targeted a densely populated neighborhood of Mariupol, shelling it for nearly 15 hours. The neighborhood was massively damaged as a result, with deputy mayor Sergiy Orlov reporting that "at least hundreds of people are dead".[114][115]

On the morning of 3 March, the city was shelled again by Russian troops.[116] Eduard Basurin, the spokesman for the DPR militia, formally called on the besieged Ukrainian forces in Mariupol to surrender or face "targeted strikes".[117] Russian Ministry of Defense spokesman Igor Konashenkov reported that DPR forces had tightened the siege, and that three nearby settlements had been captured.[118]

On 4 March, Boychenko stated that the city's supplies were running out, and called for a humanitarian evacuation corridor and Ukrainian military reinforcements.[119][120] He also stated that Russian BM-21 Grads were shelling the city's hospitals and that Mariupol residents no longer had heat, running water, or electricity.[121] Later that day, a temporary ceasefire was proposed for the Mariupol region in order to allow citizens to evacuate.[122]

On 5 March, the Ukrainian government announced its desire to evacuate 200,000 civilians from Mariupol. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) announced that it would act as a guarantor for a new ceasefire to allow for this evacuation.[123] The Red Cross described the situation in Mariupol as "extremely dire".[124] After three days of shelling, a ceasefire was announced to be in effect from 11:00 to 16:00.[125] Civilians began to evacuate from Mariupol along a humanitarian corridor to the city of Zaporizhzhia. As civilians entered the evacuation corridor, Russian forces continued shelling the city, forcing evacuees to turn back.[126]

Ukrainian authorities later reported that Russian forces had failed to observe the ceasefire and continued to shell the city.[127] Russian officials accused Ukrainian forces of not allowing civilians to evacuate towards Russia.[128] The DPR reported that only 17 civilians had been evacuated from Mariupol.[129]

On 6 March, the Red Cross announced that a second attempt to evacuate civilians from Mariupol had again failed.[130] Anton Herashchenko, a Ukrainian official, said the second attempt at a humanitarian corridor for civilians in Mariupol ended with a Russian bombardment.[130] The Red Cross reported that there were "devastating scenes of human suffering" in Mariupol.[130][131] Later in the morning, Inna Sovsun, a Ukrainian member of parliament, stated that the fuel pipeline that supplies Mariupol was damaged by Russian forces, leaving more than 700,000 people without heat, and suggested that people might freeze to death, as the temperature at the time often fell below 0 °C (32 °F).[132] The bombardment also hit the city's last functioning cellular tower.[133]

On 7 March, the ICRC Director of Operations stated that humanitarian corridor agreements had only been made in principle, without the precision required for implementation, needing routes, times and whether goods could be brought in to be agreed. The ICRC team had found that one of the proposed corridor roads was mined, and the ICRC was facilitating talks between Russian and Ukrainian forces.[134][135]

On 8 March, another attempt to evacuate civilians was made, but the Ukrainian government accused Russia of violating the ceasefire again by bombing the evacuation corridor.[136]

On 9 March, the Associated Press reported that scores of Ukrainian civilians and soldiers were being buried by city workers in a mass grave at one of the city's cemeteries. Russian shelling had hit the cemetery the previous day, interrupting the burials and damaging a wall.[137][138] Later, another attempted ceasefire failed after Orlov reported that Russian soldiers had opened fire on construction workers and evacuation points. Orlov described the city's supply shortage as so severe that residents were melting snow to get water.[139] Later that day, the Mariupol City Council issued a statement that a Russian airstrike had struck and destroyed a maternity ward and children's hospital.[140][141][142] Ukrainian officials stated that three civilians were killed and at least 17 wounded.[143]

Urban advances

Russian push into the city

The streets in Mariupol, 12 March 2022
The streets in Mariupol, 12 March 2022

Ukraine's military stated on 12 March that Russian forces had captured the eastern outskirts of Mariupol.[144] Later, a vehicle convoy of 82 ethnic Greeks was able to leave the city via a humanitarian corridor.[145][146]

On 13 March, Boychenko stated that Russian forces had bombed the city at least 22 times in the previous 24 hours, with a hundred bombs, and added that the last food and water reserves in the city were being depleted.[147][148] The Ukrainian Ministry of Internal Affairs said that the National Guard of Ukraine had damaged several Russian armored vehicles with artillery strikes during the day.[149] İsmail Hacıoğlu, the head of the local Sultan Suleiman Mosque, stated that 86 Turkish citizens in the city were awaiting evacuation by the Turkish government.[150]

More than 160 cars were able to leave the city on 14 March at 13:00 local time, the first evacuation allowed during the siege. The Russian Ministry of Defense stated that 450 tonnes of humanitarian aid had been brought to the city after Russian forces captured the outskirts.[151] Ukrainian military officials were later said to have killed 150 Russian soldiers and destroyed 10 Russian vehicles.[152]

Refugee civilians in Mariupol, 12 March 2022
Refugee civilians in Mariupol,
12 March 2022

On the same day, Ramzan Kadyrov, the head of Chechnya, stated that Chechen soldiers were participating in the siege and had briefly entered Mariupol before retreating. Kadyrov also stated that Adam Delimkhanov, a close ally and member of the State Duma, was the commander of Chechen forces in Mariupol.[153] The funeral for Captain Alexey Glushchak of the GRU was held in Tyumen, and it was revealed he died near Mariupol, likely in the early stages of the siege.[154]

On 15 March, around 4,000 vehicles with about 20,000 civilians were able to leave the city.[155]

Ukrainian government official Anton Herashchenko said that Russian Major General Oleg Mityaev, commander of the 150th Motorized Rifle Division, was killed when Russian forces tried to storm the city.[10][156] The Donetsk Regional Drama Theatre, sheltering hundreds of civilians, was hit by a Russian airstrike on 16 March and destroyed.[157] Pavlo Kyrylenko, the governor of Donetsk Oblast, later stated that Russian forces had also targeted the Neptune swimming pool.[158]

On 18 March, DPR forces said they had captured the Mariupol airport from Ukrainian forces.[159] Clashes later reached the city center, according to the mayor[160] and on 19 March, Russian and Ukrainian forces began fighting at the Azovstal steel plant.[161] On the same day, President Volodymyr Zelensky awarded Colonel Volodymyr Baranyuk and Major Denys Prokopenko, leaders of the defense in Mariupol, the honor of Hero of Ukraine, the country's highest military award.[162][163] During this time, while attempting to transport the killed and wounded to the hospital at Azovstal, Major Mykyta Nadtochii, commander of the Azov Regiment's second battalion, was wounded in a Russian airstrike.[164]

Russian tank destroyed by Ukrainian troops in Mariupol
Russian tank destroyed by Ukrainian troops in Mariupol
Ukrainian soldiers attack a Russian tank in Mariupol
Ukrainian soldiers attack a Russian tank in Mariupol

On 20 March, the city council of Mariupol claimed Russian forces had forcefully deported "several thousand" people to camps and remote cities in Russia over the past week.[45][165][166] Russia denied the accusation.[166] The same day, an art school building, which had sheltered some 400 people, was destroyed in a Russian bombing. No information on casualties was immediately available.[167]

An order by Russia's Ministry of Defence to surrender, lay down arms and evacuate the city was submitted on 20 March, requesting a written response by 02:00 UTC the next day.[168] The ultimatum was rejected by the Ukrainian government and the mayor of Mariupol.[169] By this point, one of the Ukrainian battalion commanders in the city described "bombs falling every 10 minutes".[166]

Shelled apartment building in Mariupol, 23 March 2022
Shelled apartment building in Mariupol, 23 March 2022

On 21 March, the first helicopter evacuation from Azovstal took place as eight or nine seriously wounded soldiers were evacuated,[170] including the wounded Major Nadtochii.[164] Two Ukrainian Mil Mi-8 helicopters flew into Azovstal as part of "Operation Air Corridor", carrying a special forces team with crates of Stinger and Javelin missiles, as well as a satellite internet system.[170] "Operation Air Corridor" lasted until 7 April, when one helicopter was shot down, followed by the shooting down of a second helicopter that was sent as part of rescue efforts to search for survivors of the first downing. The four special forces members on board the second helicopter were killed, along with the helicopter's crew.[170] Ukraine claimed 85 seriously wounded soldiers were evacuated as part of "Operation Air Corridor"[170] during seven missions to the Azovstal plant to resupply or deliver reinforcements using some 16 Mi-8s, in pairs or fours, two of which were shot down, along with the rescue helicopter, according to Major General Kyrylo Budanov.[171] In contrast, Ukrainian president Zelensky stated 90 percent of helicopter pilots sent to Mariupol during the course of the siege to resupply Ukrainian forces and evacuate the wounded were lost due to Russian air-defenses.[172] According to Russia, one Ukrainian Mil Mi-8 helicopter was shot down on 28 March,[173] as it was heading to Mariupol to evacuate the leaders of the Azov Regiment.[174] In addition, Russia reported its forces shot down two more Ukrainian Mi-8s on 5 April, as they were once again attempting to evacuated Azov commanders.[175]

On 23 March, local authorities, including the mayor, left the city due to the deteriorating situation.[176] The following day, Russian forces entered central Mariupol,[177] seizing the Orthodox Church of the Intercession of the Mother of God. The city administration alleged that Russians were trying to demoralize residents by publicly shouting claims of Russian victories, including statements that Odessa had been captured.[178]

Vadym Boychenko said on 27 March that while Mariupol was still under Ukrainian control, Russian forces had entered deep into the city and that the city's population needed a "complete evacuation".[179] By this point, Ukrainian soldiers had run out of food and clean drinking water, and an analyst believed that Ukrainian forces would not be able to fight on beyond a few days. However, Ukrainian officers refused to evacuate from the city, as they did not want to abandon their wounded and dead soldiers and civilians.[180] The "Club 8bit" computer museum was destroyed.[181]

On 28 March, Mayor Vadym Boychenko said "we are in the hands of the occupiers today" in a televised interview,[182] and a spokesman for the Mariupol mayor's office announced that "nearly 5,000 people" had been killed in the city since the start of the siege.[183][184][185] The Ukrainian government estimated that "from 20,000 to 30,000" Mariupol residents had been forcibly sent[44] to camps in Russia[45] under Russian military control.[44] During the day, Russian forces seized the administrative building in the northern Kalmiusky district[12] and the military headquarters of the Azov Regiment.[186] The next day, Russian forces were reported to have likely divided Ukrainian troops in the city into two and possibly even three pockets.[187]

On 2 April, Russian forces captured the SBU building in central Mariupol,[188] after which there was no more reported fighting in the area. On 4 April, one Ukrainian battalion surrendered,[189] with Russian officials stating two days later they captured 267 Ukrainian marines from the 503rd Battalion of the Ukrainian Naval Forces.[190] Due to the surrender, the lines between the Ukrainian 36th Separate Marine Brigade and the Azov Regiment had been broken.[189] On 7 April, the DPR announced central Mariupol had been cleared of Ukrainian forces.[191]

Meanwhile, Russian troops started an advance from the southwest on 1 April, leaving the Ukrainian military in partial control of the area around the port in the southwest of Mariupol by 7 April.[191] On 4 April, a Russian Navy missile hit a Malta-based Dominica-flagged cargo ship, resulting in the ship catching fire.[192] In addition, on 7 April, Russian forces captured a bridge leading to the Azovstal steel plant.[193] The following day, Russian troops seized the southern part of Mariupol's port.[194]

On 10 April, Russian forces captured the fishing port, separating Ukrainian troops in the port from those in the Azovstal steel plant into two pockets, while a possible third pocket was centered on the Illich steel plant to the north.[195] The next day, DPR forces claimed to have captured 80% of Mariupol. Local Ukrainian forces expected the city to fall soon, since they were running out of ammunition, and analysts at the Institute for the Study of War believed that Mariupol would fall within a week.[196][197]

Final pockets of resistance

On 11 April, Russian media reported that 160 Ukrainian servicemen from the 36th Separate Marine Brigade were captured with their equipment.[198]

During the night between 11 and 12 April,[199] Baranyuk led the 36th Separate Marine Brigade in an attempt to break out of the Russian encirclement at the Illich steel plant to the north. After being spotted they broke into smaller groups,[200] with some of them managing to link up with fighters of the Azov Regiment at the Azovstal plant to the southeast.[201][202] A large number of Ukrainian servicemen were either killed or captured during the breakout.[189] The fate of Baranyuk initially remained unknown.[200] Later, the DPR claimed that they had identified the body of Baranyuk after their special forces blocked the Ukrainian breakout.[199] However, on 8 May, Baranyuk appeared alive in an interview with RT, along with the 36th Brigade's Chief of Staff Dmytro Kormiankov. They were reported to have been captured during the breakout attempt.[5]

Around the same time at 11 April, a battalion of tankers of the 17th Tank Brigade, which were doing operations supporting the 36th Brigade, did not follow Baranyuk's plan and instead broke through the siege. They used two tanks, anti-aircraft guns and cars for transport, and after breaking out they proceeded on foot for 175km until reaching friendly Ukrainian positions.[18] For leading his men to safety, the unit's commander, Liutenant Colonel Oleg Grudzevych, was awarded a Hero of Ukraine medal.[18]

On 12 April, Aiden Aslin, a British man fighting with the Ukrainian Marines, reported that his unit was going to surrender since they had run out of ammunition, food and other supplies.[203] Subsequently, in the evening,[204] Russia stated that 1,026 Marines of the 36th Separate Marine Brigade had surrendered at the Illich steel plant, including 162 officers and 400 wounded fighters.[205][206][201][204] Later, Russia said it captured an additional 134 Ukrainian servicemen, bringing the total number of prisoners to 1,160.[207] Ukraine confirmed nearly 1,000 Marines had been captured,[189] including wounded and those who remained at the Illich plant.[208] On 13 April, Russian forces secured the Illich plant, reducing the number of pockets in Mariupol to two,[201] while Russia also announced it had taken full control of Mariupol's commercial port,[209] which was confirmed three days later.[210] The commander of the Azov Regiment, Prokopenko, criticized the servicemen that had surrendered, while praising those that managed to link up with his unit.[211] Prokopenko, as well as Ukrainian intelligence officer Illia Samoilenko, also blamed Baranyuk for the large losses inflicted on Ukrainian forces, stating his actions were uncoordinated. According to Prokopenko, Baranyuk's breakout attempt was made without warning to other units and the direction of attack was not previously agreed upon,[189] while Samoilenko called Baranyuk a "coward", stating he tried to flee the city, "taking with him people, tanks and ammunition".[212]

Ukrainian military expert Oleg Zhdanov claimed that by this point the Russian 810th Guards Naval Infantry Brigade, originally sent from Feodosia, had suffered extremely heavy losses during the siege, to the extent of being "destroyed twice."[213]

Resistance in the Azovstal steel plant

Withdrawal to Azovstal

The Azovstal steel plant in 2014
The Azovstal steel plant in 2014

On 15 April, a Ukrainian military commander issued a plea for military reinforcements to come and "break the siege" of Mariupol. He also said that "the situation is critical and the fighting is fierce" but that sending reinforcements and breaking the siege "can be done and it must be done as soon as possible".[214] On the same day, Ukrainian Defence Ministry spokesman Oleksandr Motuzianyk reported Russia started using Tu-22M3 long-range bombers to strike targets in Mariupol.[215] The Azovstal iron and steel works, the heart of one of the remaining pockets of resistance, was well-defended and described as a "fortress within a city", as the steel plant was an enormous complex that made locating the Ukrainian forces difficult and had workshops that were difficult to destroy from the air. Additionally, the complex contained a system of underground tunnels, which would make clearing the entire complex challenging.[216] During the day, Russian forces captured the base of the Ukrainian National Guard's 12th Operational Brigade [ru; uk], in western Mariupol.[217]

On 16 April, DPR troops seized a police station near Mariupol's beach[217] and Russian forces were confirmed to have seized the Vessel Traffic Control Center at the port.[210] Several days after the port was captured, on 20 April, a Ukrainian Marine officer claimed Marine and Azov forces from the Azovstal plant conducted an evacuation operation of around 500 members of the Ukrainian Border Guard and National Police from the port, as they were running out of ammunition. According to the officer, the Ukrainian forces from the Azovstal pocket made an armoured breakthrough to the port and provided covering fire, as the 500 besieged soldiers retreated to the Azovstal plant.[20] Subsequently, Russia announced all urban areas of the city had been cleared, claiming that Ukrainian forces only remained at the Azovstal Steel Plant.[51] However, fighting was reported to be continuing near Flotskaya street in the western Primorsky District.[210]

On 18 April, it was estimated that 95% of the city had been destroyed in the fighting.[54] Ukrainian soldiers ignored a Russian ultimatum to surrender, deciding to fight to the end. Russia threatened to "destroy" those who continued to fight on.[218] A military expert estimated that there could still be 500 to 800 Ukrainian soldiers holding out within the city,[219] while Russian officials estimated that 2,500 Ukrainian soldiers and 400 foreign volunteers were holding out within the Azovstal plant.[218]

Siege of Azovstal

On 20 April, Russian and DPR forces made small advances on the outskirts of the Azovstal plant.[220] On 21 April, Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered Russian troops not to storm the Azovstal steel plant, but to blockade it instead until the Ukrainian forces there ran out of supplies. He also reported that "The completion of combat work to liberate Mariupol is a success", while a Ukrainian official rebutted Putin's comments, saying that Russia's choice of implementing a blockade over storming the steel plant meant that Russia had admitted their inability to physically capture Mariupol.[221][222] General Sir Richard Barrons, former commander of the United Kingdom's Joint Forces Command, assessed that the battle for the plant was no longer "really relevant" in regard to the control of the city and its roads, since Russia and Crimea were now connected. In his opinion, defeating Ukrainian forces at the plant would have been "really difficult" for Russian troops without an "enormous cost to both sides".[223] Despite the ordered blockade, Russian forces advanced within 20 metres (66 ft) of some of the Ukrainian positions.[224]

On 22 April, the western Primorsky District was thought to be cleared by Russian forces, with no more reports of fighting, with all of the remaining Ukrainian forces surrounded in the Azovstal Steel Plant.[50] On 23 April, according to Ukraine, airstrikes and an apparent ground assault recommenced on the Azovstal steel works. An advisor to the Ukrainian President said: "The enemy is trying to strangle the final resistance of the defenders of Mariupol in the Azovstal area".[225] However, this could not be independently confirmed.[226] Ukrainian security chief Oleksiy Danilov claimed that at night, a helicopter had resupplied Azovstal.[227] On the same day, it was reported that Russia was redeploying forces from Mariupol to other fronts in eastern Ukraine, with Russia reportedly redeploying 12 units from Mariupol.[227] On the next day, Russian forces continued bombing Ukrainian positions in the Azovstal Steel Plant, with reports that Russian forces might have been planning a renewed assault on the facility.[228] During the night of 27 to 28 April, the heaviest airstrikes yet were reportedly conducted against Azovstal, with more than 50 strikes by Tu-22M3, Su-25s and Su-24s aircraft hitting the facility, according to Ukraine. Ukraine claimed a military field hospital was hit, with the number of wounded increasing from 170 before the strike to more than 600 after the bombing.[229][230]

Evacuation of civilians

ICRC buses preparing for an evacuation convoy on 8 May 2022 to Zaporizhzhia
ICRC buses preparing for an evacuation convoy on 8 May 2022 to Zaporizhzhia

On 30 April, the United Nations and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) started to run evacuations through a humanitarian corridor.[231][232] This corridor was made after a trip by Secretary-General of the United Nations António Guterres to Moscow the previous week, where he personally brokered a deal.[232] On 30 April 20 civilians had left the Azovstal steel plant, while Russian media claimed a number of 25. Talks were underway to try and release the remaining 1,000 or so civilians.[233][234] At least two of the wives of members of the Azov Regiment called for a concurrent evacuation of the about 2,000 forces that would be left behind after the civilian evacuation, highlighting concerns of treatment as POWs by the Russians and lack of medical and food supplies.[235]

On 2 May, about 100 civilians were reported to have been evacuated.[236] Russian aircraft, according to the US Department of Defense, were using dumb bombs in Mariupol.[237] Russian ground forces were also reported to be pulling out of the city, possibly to reinforce their positions elsewhere in the Donbas, where Russia was carrying out a large-scale offensive. According to one US DOD official: "Largely the efforts around Mariupol for the Russians are now in the realm of airstrikes".[238] On 3 May, the Russian forces in Mariupol restarted their attacks on Azovstal.[239] They began an assault on the steel plant in what have been called "difficult bloody battles".[240] The following day it was reported the Russians had broken into the plant.[241] Ukrainian politician Davyd Arakhamia said: "Attempts to storm the plant continue for the second day. Russian troops are already on the territory of Azovstal."[242] On 5 May, some 300 civilians were allowed to leave due to Russia opening humanitarian corridors. These corridors ran from 8am to 6pm.[243] Ukrainian forces blamed Russian success on an electrician who gave Russian forces information about the underground tunnel network, claiming: “Yesterday, the Russians started storming these tunnels, using the information they received from the betrayer.”[244]

On 5 May, The Telegraph reported that Russia had intensified its bombing of the steel factory bunkers by using thermobaric bombs to increase the devastation of deployed firepower against the remaining Ukrainian soldiers who had lost all contact with the Kyiv government; in his last communications, Zelenskyy had authorized the commander of the besieged steel factory to surrender as necessary under the pressure of increased Russian attacks.[245]

On 6 May, some 500 civilians, in total, had been evacuated according to the United Nations. The Azov Regiment reported one fighter killed and six wounded while helping evacuate civilians.[246]

On 7 May, the Ukrainian government announced that all of the remaining women, children and elderly who had been inside the Azovstal steel plant had been evacuated.[247][248][249]

Surrender

Bombardment of Azovstal, May 2022

On 8 May, the commander of the 36th Separate Marine Brigade, Serhiy Volynskyi, asked "that a higher power find a way to figure out our rescue". As to their current conditions, "It feels like I've landed in a hellish reality show in which us soldiers fight for our lives and the whole world watches this interesting episode. Pain, suffering, hunger, misery, tears, fears, death. It's all real." President Zelenskyy promised "we are working on evacuating our military".[250]

On 9 May, the Donetsk People's Republic held a Victory Day parade in Mariupol. The leader of the Republic, Denis Pushilin participated in the event.[251] At the same time, a meeting took place near Mariupol involving Russian military representatives and Ukrainian commanders from Azovstal, including Major Prokopenko, who were brought to the meeting place by Russian armoured vehicles from Azovstal. During the meeting, the terms of the Ukrainians' surrender was agreed.[252]

On 10 May, Ukrainian authorities reported that over 1,000 Ukrainian soldiers, hundreds of them wounded, remained trapped inside the Azovstal steelworks.[253][254]

The Institute for the Study of War noted the lack of a Russian ground offensive on 12 May,[255] but noted that Russian forces had likely secured the M14 highway the following day.[256]

Ukrainian prisoners after the fall of Azovstal
Ukrainian prisoners after the fall of Azovstal

On 16 May, Alexander Khodakovsky, commander of a DPR brigade stationed near Azovstal, stated that a group of nine soldiers had come out of the plant to negotiate under a white flag.[257] On the same day, the Ukrainian General staff announced that the Mariupol garrison had "fulfilled its combat mission" and that "evacuation" from the Azovstal steel plant had begun. The military said that 264 service members, 53 of them seriously wounded, had been taken by bus to areas controlled by Russian forces.[258] A social media post was released by Azov Regiment commander Denys Prokopenko stating: "In order to save lives, the entire Mariupol garrison is implementing the approved decision of the Supreme Military Command and hopes for the support of the Ukrainian people." Wounded Ukrainian soldiers from the Azovstal plant were taken to the DPR-controlled town of Novoazovsk for treatment.[259] The evacuation of wounded troops was followed in the subsequent days by the surrender of the remainder of the garrison. Ukrainian Deputy Defence Minister Hanna Maliar said: "Thanks to the defenders of Mariupol, Ukraine gained critically important time to form reserves and regroup forces and receive help from partners. And they fulfilled all their tasks. But it is impossible to unblock Azovstal by military means."[260]

Russia press secretary Dmitry Peskov said Russian President Vladimir Putin had guaranteed that the fighters who surrendered would be treated "in accordance with international standards" while Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy said in an address that "the work of bringing the boys home continues, and this work needs delicacy – and time". Some prominent Russian lawmakers called on the government to deny prisoner exchanges for members of the Azov Regiment.[261] The ICRC registered the surrendered troops as prisoners of war at the request of both sides, collecting information to contact their families.[262]

On 18 May, Russian artillery and aircraft bombed once again Azovstal's remaining defenders. The DPR leadership claimed that the local high-ranking Ukrainian commanders had not yet surrendered.[263] According to Russian sources, the last defenders surrendered on 20 May, among them Lieutenant Colonel Prokopenko, Major Volynskyi and Captain Svyatoslav Palamar, deputy commander of the Azov Regiment.[264][265] The Russian Ministry of Defense claimed that altogether 2,439 prisoners had been taken at Azovstal between 16 and 20 May, and that the steel plant was now under control of Russian and DPR forces.[266][267][268]

Aftermath

On 18 May, Denis Pushilin announced Azovstal would be demolished by the Donetsk People's Republic, and Mariupol would be turned into a resort city.[269]

Russian Telegram bloggers shared a video, reportedly showing Russian soldiers attacking some remaining Ukrainian holdouts at Azovstal on 22 May.[270] Head of the DPR Denis Pushilin claimed that some Ukrainian holdouts had been discovered and captured in the area of the Azovstal plant.[271]

On 26 May, Russia reopened the Port of Mariupol to commercial vessels following mine removal.[272]

In an explosion at Olenivka prison on 29 July 2022, 53 Ukrainian prisoners of war from Mariupol were killed and 75 wounded.[273] Both Ukrainian and Russian authorities accused each other of the attack on the prison.[274][275] As of 30 July, there was no independent confirmation of what occurred.[276]

Cholera outbreak

The Ukrainian parliament stated on 30 April 2022 that the city's living conditions had been reduced to "medieval" levels, and that most of the city's sanitary and health infrastructure was destroyed, potentially putting the city's citizens at risk of disease.[277]

In late April, the Mariupol City Council urged the evacuation of 100,000 residents, warning of "deadly epidemics" in the city.[278]

On 28 April 2022, the Rospotrebnadzor issued a 40-paragraph resolution calling for additional measures to be taken in regards to drinking and waste water, especially in places which had become locations for Ukrainian refugees (specifically Belgorod, Bryansk, Kursk, Rostov and Voronezh Oblasts), as well as providing information to citizens about cholera by 1 June 2022. The government of Rostov Oblast announced that Ukrainian refugees in Russia would be tested for cholera.[278]

On 17 May 2022, the World Health Organization warned of the possibility of cholera outbreaks in Ukraine, with WHO Regional Director for Europe Hans Kluge saying, "We are concerned about the potential cholera outbreak in occupied areas where water and sanitation infrastructure is damaged or destroyed." Such concerns were echoed by WHO Ukraine incident Manager Dorit Nitzan, who reported "swamps" of waste water on the streets of Mariupol, and claimed that there were cases of sewage and drinking water being mixed in the city.[279]

On 6 June 2022, Ukrainian Deputy Minister of Healthcare Ihor Kuzin warned against a potential cholera outbreak in the city; saying that all preconditions for an outbreak were already present. In addition to Mariupol, Ukrainian task forces tested soil and drinking water in Kyiv, Zhytomyr, Chernihiv, and Sumy Oblasts. Shortly after his announcement, Russian occupational authorities imposed a quarantine on the city.[280]

Mayor Boychenko said on 11 June that there was an outbreak of cholera in the city as sanitation systems were broken and corpses were rotting in the streets.[281]

Spread

Medical officials in Ukraine and Russia have cautioned that cholera could spread beyond Mariupol, with Russian government officials in oblasts bordering Ukraine establishing labs to treat cholera. Ukrainian epidemiologist Liudmyla Mukharska warned that the outbreak could spread throughout the rest of the Donbas, and that outbreaks of intestinal infections, dysentery, salmonellosis, and hepatitis A and E were possible. Other epidemiologists said that due to rotations of Russian soldiers fighting in Ukraine and the deportation of Ukrainians to filtration camps within Russia, the spread of the cholera outbreak to Russia was inevitable.[282]

Casualties

Military casualties

According to Ukraine, around 6,000 Russian soldiers were killed during the siege,[30] while Russia stated more than 4,000 Ukrainian soldiers had died up to the start of the siege of the Azovstal plant in mid-April[51] and that the bodies of another 152 Ukrainian soldiers were found in a non-functioning refrigerated truck in Azovstal following the facilitie's siege. Explosives capable of destroying the bodies were found underneath them. The bodies would be handed over to Ukraine.[283][284] By 12 June, Russia returned the bodies of some 220 deceased Ukrainian soldiers, all of whom had been fighting in the Azovstal steelworks, while "just as many bodies" still remained in Mariupol. A third of these were soldiers from the Azov unit.[285] Subsequently, another 145 bodies of those killed in Mariupol were returned.[286][287][288]

Ukraine claimed the 810th Naval Infantry Brigade of Russia's Black Sea Fleet had 158 killed, 500 wounded and 70 missing by mid-April, while the Black Sea Fleet's 126th Coastal Defence Brigade,[289] a unit of about 2,000 soldiers,[290] suffered 75 percent losses.[289] In addition, Ukraine claimed 14 special forces members of the Russian Spetsnaz GRU were killed by late March.[291]

According to Russia, some 3,903 Ukrainian soldiers were captured during the siege,[d] while Ukraine confirmed more than 3,500 soldiers, with an additional battalion, were taken prisoner.[39] On 8 June, over 1,000 prisoners of war were transferred from the DPR to Russia.[292]

Civilian casualties

See also: Casualties of the Russo-Ukrainian War § 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

Mariupol's deputy mayor Serhiy Orlov stated on 9 March that at least 1,170 civilians in the city had been killed in the city since Russia's invasion began and the dead were being buried in mass graves.[293] On 11 March, the city council stated that at least 1,582 civilians had been killed during the siege, increasing that number on 13 March to 2,187 having been killed by the latter date.[294][295] On 14 March, Oleksiy Arestovych, an adviser to Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelenskyy, stated that more than 2,500 civilians had been killed in Mariupol's siege.[296] However, the city council later clarified that 2,357 civilians had died.[297]

Pyotr Andryushchenko, an adviser to the city government, however stated that the council's count was inaccurate and estimated that total number of civilians killed could be as high as 20,000. The New York Times reported that officials in the city had been struggling to account for how many civilians had died or gone missing during the siege. Videos posted on Telegram showed that residents of the Cheryomushki neighborhood were forced to bury corpses in a courtyard, while others had to turn a post office building into a makeshift morgue, stacking it with dead bodies.[298]

On 16 March, the Associated Press (AP) reported that it had documented that many of the dead were "children and mothers" contrary, it said, to Russian government claims that civilians had not been targeted.[299] It also reported that doctors in Mariupol were saying that they were treating "10 injured civilians for every injured Ukrainian soldier."[299]

On 11 April, Mariupol Mayor Vadym Boychenko stated that over 10,000 civilians had died in the Russian siege of Mariupol.[300] On 12 April, city officials reported that up to 20,000 civilians had been killed.[300] On the same day, the Mayor of the city reported that about 21,000 civilians had been killed.[301] An updated Ukrainian death toll the following month put the number of civilians killed at at least 22,000.[302] In early November, Ukraine stated that at least 25,000 civilians had been killed in Mariupol.[43]

By mid-June, The United Nations stated it had confirmed the deaths of 1,348 civilians, but said the true death toll was "likely thousands higher".[40][41][42]

The Greek minority in Ukraine which is concentrated in and around Mariupol was impacted heavily by the fighting. Sartana and Volnovakha, two towns near Mariupol having substantial Greek population, were hit hard by Russian forces and nearly completely destroyed.[303]

Humanitarian situation

A shelled apartment building during around-the-clock attacks, 3 March 2022
A shelled apartment building during around-the-clock attacks, 3 March 2022

On 6 March, Petro Andryushchenko, advisor to the mayor of Mariupol, reported that people were "drinking from puddles in the streets" due to the loss of running water in the city caused by days of around-the-clock Russian shelling and bombing attacks. He also stated that there was no heat, electricity or telephone service.[304] According to US officials, civilians had been unable to evacuate the city due to repeated ceasefire violations, attacks on agreed-upon evacuation corridors, and direct attacks on civilians attempting to evacuate.[305]

On 14 March, another spokesman for the ICRC announced that "hundreds of thousands" of people in the city were "facing extreme or total shortages of basic necessities like food, water and medicine."[306] On 15 March, Ukraine's Deputy Prime Minister Iryna Vereshchuk accused Russian forces of taking around 400 civilians hostage after capturing a hospital in the city.[307] Ukrainian officials accused Russian forces of firing at an evacuation convoy and injuring five civilians on 16 March.[308] On 18 March, Ukrainian officials stated that more than 350,000 people were sheltering under siege in Mariupol, still with no access to food or water.[309]

On 21 March, CNN reported that an official in Mariupol said that people are afraid, due to the constant bombing and shelling, to leave their underground shelters even to obtain food and water, meaning they were trying to drink less and eat less.[166] On 22 March, CNN reported that the Russian Army had confiscated 11 buses that were headed into the city in order to evacuate citizens.[310] Fox News later reported that at least some of the buses were filled with humanitarian supplies which were taken. It was also reported that 15 aid workers in the buses have been arrested while trying to get food into Mariupol.[311] CNN also reported that to that date, all attempts to bring empty buses into Mariupol to evacuate civilians had failed.[310] On 23 March, Ukrainian President Zelenskeyy announced that 100,000 civilians were still unable to get out of Mariupol and that they were trapped in "inhumane conditions" without food, running water or medicine.[312][310]

On 1 April, a rescue effort by the UN to transport hundreds of civilian survivors out of Mariupol with 50 buses failed.[313]

Ultimately the ICRC reported that it had helped facilitate the safe evacuation of over 10,000 civilians from Mariupol and Sumy.[314]

War crimes committed by Russian forces

See also: War crimes in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

Numerous war crimes were committed by Russian forces during the siege. Some media outlets described the crimes that occurred as the worst seen in the 21st century.[315]

On 25 March, Russian Colonel-General[316] Mikhail Mizintsev was accused by Ukrainian authorities of ordering the bombings of both the Mariupol Children's and Maternity Hospital and the city theatre where 1,200 civilians were sheltering.[4] Mizintsev was nicknamed the "Butcher of Mariupol" by western and Ukrainian sources as a result of his alleged role in the siege,[3][4][317] and sanctioned by the United Kingdom.[316] Accused of personally directing war crimes during the siege, Mizintsev accused Ukrainian troops of creating a "terrible human catastrophe," and furthermore claimed that he would allow the safe exit of Ukrainian civilians from Mariupol. Mizintsev's claims were rejected by Deputy Prime Minister of Ukraine Iryna Vereshchuk as "manipulation."[317]

Shooting of evacuation checkpoints

On 7 March, U.S. ambassador to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Michael Carpenter, described two incidents that occurred in Mariupol on 5 and 6 March as war crimes. He stated that on both dates, Russian forces bombed agreed-upon evacuation corridors while civilians were trying to use them.[305]

Maternity and children's hospital bombing

See also: Mariupol hospital airstrike and Women in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

Consequences of the bombing of the children's hospital and maternity hospital in Mariupol, 9 March 2022
Consequences of the bombing of the children's hospital and maternity hospital in Mariupol, 9 March 2022

On 9 March, after an airstrike damaged a maternity ward and children's hospital, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy tweeted that the attack was an "atrocity" along with a video of the building's ruins.[318] The hospital was destroyed.[319] Three people were killed, including a young girl and at least 16 were injured; authorities stated that many more patients and hospital staff were buried under rubble from the blast.[320]

Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov said that the building was formerly a maternity hospital, and Russia bombed it because it was then occupied by the Azov Regiment.[321][322]

Later on the same day, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokeswoman Maria Zakharova rejected the hospital bombing as "information terrorism", while Russian Ministry of Defence spokesman Igor Konashenkov called the bombardment staged.[323]

Then, on the afternoon of 10 March, the Russian Embassy to the UK said in a tweet that two injured pregnant women seen being evacuated after the attack were actually played by actresses wearing "realistic make-up", that the maternity ward was occupied by the Azov Regiment and that no women or children had been present since the facility was "non-operational".[324] The tweet was later removed by Twitter for violating their rules on disinformation.[324] Dmitry Peskov, the press secretary for the Russian President, stated soon after the bombing that the Russian government would investigate the incident.

The accusation by Russia then began trending online in Russia, including on Russian Telegram social media, which has hundreds of thousands of followers.[325] Twitter then took down the embassy's posts.[325]

The pregnant woman videotaped being carried out wounded on a stretcher (accused by Russia of being an actress) was moved to another hospital and then died on 13 March, after her child was stillborn. She had suffered numerous injuries in the bombing, including a crushed pelvis and detached hip, which contributed to the stillbirth of her child.[326] Seeing that she had lost her baby, medical workers said that she cried, "Kill me now."[327] Thirty minutes later, she also died.[327]

Russian claims that the videos were faked and that the bombed hospital was being used as a military post were debunked by investigative reporters.[328] On 22 March, Russian journalist Alexander Nevzorov was charged under Russia's "false information" law after he published information about the Russian shelling of a maternity hospital in Mariupol.[329] Under a new law passed on 4 March, he could be sentenced to up to 15 years in prison.[330]

Regional theatre bombing

Main article: Mariupol theatre airstrike

The Donetsk Regional Drama Theatre was bombed on 16 March
The Donetsk Regional Drama Theatre was bombed on 16 March

On 16 March, the Donetsk Regional Drama Theatre of the city was struck and largely destroyed by an airstrike.[308] The Mariupol city council accused Russia of targeting the drama theatre, where at least hundreds of civilians had been sheltering.[331] Human Rights Watch stated that the theatre was sheltering at least 500 civilians.[332] Serhiy Taruta, the former governor of Donetsk Oblast, stated that 1,300 were sheltering inside.[333]

A satellite image taken by Maxar Technologies on 14 March showed that the Russian word for "children" was written in large white letters on the pavement in both the front and the back of the theatre, which would make it clear that civilians were sheltering inside.[334] Ukrainian Minister of Foreign Affairs Dmytro Kuleba claimed that Russia "could not have not known this was a civilian shelter". According to the Verkhovna Rada,[clarification needed] it was impossible to start rescue operations at the theatre due to the ongoing shelling.[335] The city council also stated that access to the shelter in the theatre was blocked by debris.[336] The Russian Defense Ministry denied attacking the building and accused the Azov Regiment of blowing it up.[337]

The bomb shelter in the basement, where people had been sheltering, however, was able to resist the attack according to Taruta. Survivors began emerging from the remains of the theatre on 17 March.[333] More than 130 civilians had been rescued from the basement as of 18 March, according to Ukrainian officials, and rescuers had yet to find any fatalities. The city council stated that no one had died according to initial information, but one person was gravely wounded.[338]

The Associated Press reported that 600 civilians were killed during the airstrike,[339] double the official number given by the Ukrainian government.

Mass shelling of residential areas

War damage in Mariupol, 12 March 2022
War damage in Mariupol, 12 March 2022

On 2 March, deputy mayor Sergiy Orlov reported that Russian artillery targeted a densely populated neighborhood of Mariupol, shelling it for nearly 15 hours. He said that one populated residential district on the city's left bank had been "nearly totally destroyed".[114]

Satellite photos of Mariupol taken the morning of 9 March taken by Maxar Technologies showed "extensive damage" to high-rise apartments, residential homes, grocery stores and other civilian infrastructure. This was determined by comparing before and after photos.[340] The Mariupol council made a statement that the damage to the city has been "enormous". It estimated that approximately 80% of the city's homes had been significantly damaged, of which almost 30% were beyond repair.[341] Reporting from Mariupol, Reuters reporter Pavel Klimov said that "all around are the blackened shells" of tower block dwellings.[342]

On 16 March, BBC News reported that nearly constant Russian attacks had turned residential neighbourhoods into "a wasteland."[343] On the same day it reported that it had obtained drone footage showing "a vast extent of damage, with fire and smoke billowing out of apartment blocks and blackened streets in ruins."[343] A city resident told the BBC that "in the left bank area, there's no residential building intact, it's all burned to the ground." The left bank contained a densely populated residential district.[114] She also said that the city centre is "unrecognisable."[343] On the same day the Institute for the Study of War (ISW) reported that Russian forces continued to commit war crimes in Mariupol including "targeting civilian infrastructure."[344]

On 18 March, Lieutenant General Jim Hockenhull, Chief of Defence Intelligence for the United Kingdom (UK), described "continued targeting of civilians in Mariupol".[345] Ukrainian authorities stated that about 90% of buildings in Mariupole were now damaged or destroyed.[309] On the same day, Sky News from the UK described videos as showing "civilian areas left unrecognisable by the bombing."[309] Sky News also quoted the Red Cross as describing "Apocalyptic destruction in Mariupol."[309] On 19 March 2022, a Ukrainian police officer in Mariupol made a video in which he said "Children, elderly people are dying. The city is destroyed and it is wiped off the face of the earth." The video was authenticated by the Associated Press.[346]

The government of Mariupol said on 28 March that 90% of all buildings in Mariupol had been damaged by shelling, with 40% of all structures inside the city destroyed.[347] The statistics released also counted that 90% of Mariupol's hospitals had been damaged, and that 23 schools and 28 kindergartens had been destroyed by Russian shelling.[348]

By 18 April, Ukrainian officials estimated that at least 95% of Mariupol had been destroyed in the fighting, largely as a result of the Russian bombing campaigns.[54]

On 12 April, city officials reported that up to 20,000 civilians had been killed.[300] On the same day, the Mayor of the city reported that about 21,000 civilians had been killed.[301]

Alleged use of chemical weapons

On 11 April 2022, Eduard Basurin, a spokesperson for the Donetsk People's Republic, called for Russia to bring "chemical forces" to "smoke out the moles", referring to the Ukrainian forces in the Azovstal.[349] Later on the same day, the Azov Regiment accused Russian forces of using "a poisonous substance of unknown origin" in Mariupol, causing respiratory problems. A Pentagon spokesperson said the reports were not confirmed, but they reflect concerns about Russia's potential use of chemical agents.[350][351][352] Later, Ukraine stated that it was investigating the allegations. Three Ukrainian soldiers were injured in the incident.[353]

According to experts, it is too soon to say what exactly had happened,[354] UK and Ukrainian officials said that they suspected the use of white phosphorus, which is not typically regarded as a chemical weapon in international law.[351]

Media coverage

Associated Press staff member Mstyslav Chernov and freelancer Evgeniy Maloletka, working for AP, stayed in Mariupol from late February until 11 March. They were among the few journalists, and, according to the AP, the only international journalists in Mariupol during that period, and their photographs were extensively used by Western media to cover the siege and the situation in the city.[355] According to Chernov, on 11 March, they were in a hospital taking photos, when they were evacuated from the city with the assistance of Ukrainian soldiers. They managed to escape from Mariupol unharmed, at which point, he said, no journalists were left in the city.[356]

Testimonies from the Azovstal steel plant were made available via the Starlink satellite connections system.[357]

The propaganda in the state-controlled media in Russia presented the invasion as a liberation mission and accused Ukrainian troops of attacking civilian targets in Mariupol.[358][359]

The Guardian observed in a piece on Mariupol published after the Russian attack on the Mariupol maternity ward that "Entire settlements reduced to rubble, attacks on civilian targets and the bombing of refugee exit routes were all part of Moscow’s brutal Syria campaign",[360] while the Washington Post under the headline "Russia’s Ukraine war builds on tactics it used in Syria, experts say" related the effects on the civilian population as "dwindling food supplies. No electricity or water. Russian tanks roaming the streets. Nights punctuated by shelling." Ukrainian officials warned that this battle risked "becoming a second Aleppo." The Syria Civil Defense team said "They want to empty those cities of their population, so it will be less costly for Russia to take over," and indeed some estimates were that 75% of Mariupol’s population had left by 31 March.[361]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c National Guard of Ukraine
  2. ^ Later left Mariupol to fight in the battle of Kyiv.[25][26]
  3. ^ More than 4,000 claimed killed before the start of the Azovstal siege mid-April,[31] with another 152 bodies said to be found following the Azovstal siege,[32] for a total of 4,152+ claimed killed (rounded to 4,200, representing an appropriate degree of precision).
  4. ^ a b 1,464 claimed surrendered before the start of the Azovstal siege mid-April,[31] with another 2,439 said to have surrendered following the Azovstal siege,[33] for a total of 3,903 prisoners claimed taken.
  5. ^ The largest city de jure in Donetsk Oblast is Donetsk, which has been de facto held by the DPR since 2014.

References

  1. ^ "The Ukrainian authorities declare an end to the combat mission in Mariupol after weeks of Russian siege". The New York Times. 16 May 2022.
  2. ^ "A timeline of how the Azovstal steelworks in Mariupol fell". The Week. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  3. ^ a b Taylor, Adam; Branigin, William (1 April 2022). "Russian general dubbed 'butcher of Mariupol' is a mystery to experts". Washington Post. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  4. ^ a b c Batchelor, Tom (25 March 2022). "'Butcher of Mariupol' accused of ordering maternity hospital bombing six years after destroying Aleppo". The Independent. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Russian media claim Ukrainian Marine commander in captivity after leaving Azovmash plant". 8 May 2022.
  6. ^ "Two defenders of Mariupol became Heroes of Ukraine". 19 March 2022. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  7. ^ "На "Азовстали" сдался командир батальона "Азов"". RBC (in Russian).
  8. ^ Official appeal of Azov commander, the major Denis Prokopenko, to the world community. Національний Корпус. 7 March 2022. Archived from the original on 18 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022 – via YouTube.
  9. ^ a b c "Russian Invasion Of Ukraine: The Battle Of Mariupol, Or A Ukrainian Stalingrad". Warsaw Institute. 15 March 2022. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  10. ^ a b "Fourth Russian general killed in fighting, Ukraine says". Associated Press. 15 March 2022. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022 – via The Washington Times.
  11. ^ Clark, Mason; Barros, George; Stepanenko, Kateryna (16 March 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, March 16". Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  12. ^ a b c Mendick, Robert (28 March 2022). "Devastated Mariupol teeters on the brink, but Ukrainian troops refuse to abandon the fallen". Yahoo News.
  13. ^ Matthew Loh (6 April 2022). "A soldier wearing Nazi imagery was given a medal by a Russia-backed separatist republic for killing Ukrainian 'nationalists'". Yahoo. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  14. ^ Steshin, Dmitry (15 March 2022). "Александр Ходаковский: Мы в Мариуполь две недели вгрызаемся. А тут приехали чеченцы – красивые, бородатые — чуть колонной на город не пошли". Komsomolskaya Pravda (in Russian).
  15. ^ a b c d Zelenskyy, Volodymyr (19 March 2022). "Meaningful talks on peace and security for Ukraine are the only chance for Russia to reduce the damage from its own mistakes". President of Ukraine. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  16. ^ a b Goncharenko, Roman (16 March 2022). "The Azov Battalion: Extremists defending Mariupol". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022. The city of Mariupol, which has a population of 500,000, is primarily being defended by the Azov Battalion.
  17. ^ Kovalenko, Serhiy (2 April 2022). "Дмитро Апухтін героїчно загинув, обороняючи Маріуполь". ArmyInform (in Ukrainian).
  18. ^ a b c "Олег Грудзевич. Командир, який вивів свій підрозділ з окупованого Маріуполя". Главком | Glavcom (in Ukrainian). 13 August 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  19. ^ a b Tom Bateman (13 April 2022). "Ukraine: The critical fight for 'heart of this war' Mariupol". BBC News. Retrieved 27 April 2022. I want to separately address those heroes who are having a very hard time. Those who defend Mariupol. A marine battalion of the 36th marine brigade, Azov special operations detachment, 12th operational brigade of the National Guard of Ukraine. Subdivisions of the State Border Guard Service. Volunteers of the "Right Sector". The 555th military hospital and National Police employees.
  20. ^ a b c Roman Petrenko (20 April 2022). "Marines and "Azov" rescue 500 fighters from the port of Mariupol – media". Pravda. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  21. ^ "Russian invasion update: Ukraine repels tank attack, captures six Russians in Mariupol". www.ukrinform.net. 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  22. ^ Thomas Eydoux (30 March 2022). "In Mariupol, a war of images to prove who controls the city". The Observers – France 24. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  23. ^ MacKinnon, Mark (13 April 2022). "Fight for Mariupol not over, commander of foreign legion says, despite Russian claims more than 1,000 Ukrainian marines surrendered". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  24. ^ a b Adler, Nils; King, Laura (28 January 2022). "'Everything that needs to be done': Ukraine citizen soldiers prepare for Russia threat". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022. Its defenders — both the regular Ukraine army and the irregular forces mustering for battle
  25. ^ a b Krikunenko, Iryna (7 April 2022). "Брат по зброї. Командир чеченських добровольців, який воює за Україну, розповідає про свої три війни з Росією". NV (in Ukrainian).
  26. ^ a b Gribchatov, Evgeny (26 April 2022). "Кадыров объявил награду 1 млн долларов за информацию о чеченских боевиках в Мариуполе". Moskovskij Komsomolets (in Russian).
  27. ^ a b "Hundreds of thousands face catastrophe in Mariupol". The Economist. 21 March 2022. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022. Ukrainian forces in Mariupol are vastly outnumbered, with 3,500 soldiers facing 14,000 invaders, around a tenth of the total estimated Russian force in the country.
  28. ^ "Putin says Russia has seized Mariupol, calls off storm of Ukrainian troops". Fortune.
  29. ^ Over 8,000 Ukrainian troops, mercenaries were in Mariupol at time of encirclement — Shoigu
  30. ^ a b "Azov officer: Russian forces lost about 6,000 troops in Mariupol". The Kyiv Independent. 14 May 2022. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  31. ^ a b "Russia Says All Urban Areas of Mariupol Cleared of Ukrainian Forces". VOA.
  32. ^ "Mariupol mayor's aide challenges rebel claim of mass body find". BBC News. 31 May 2022.
  33. ^ "Russia says Azovstal siege is over, shows video of defenders surrendering". news.yahoo.com.
  34. ^ "As part of exchanges with Russia, Ukraine received more than 400 bodies of soldiers". Retrieved 12 July 2022.
  35. ^ Another operation was carried out to transfer the bodies of dead soldiers
  36. ^ Another transfer of bodies took place: 17 fallen defenders returned
  37. ^ Another 16 bodies of dead defenders who defended Mariupol were brought to Kyiv
  38. ^ 541 bodies of Ukrainian defenders brought back to Ukraine Commissioner for Missing Persons
  39. ^ a b More than 1,000 reported surrendered before the start of the Azovstal siege mid-April,[1] with another 2,500 surrendering following the Azovstal siege,[2] for a total of 3,500+ prisoners taken.
  40. ^ a b c "High Commissioner updates the Human Rights Council on Mariupol, Ukraine". OHCHR.
  41. ^ a b c Regan, Helen; Khalil, Hafsa; Guy, Jack; Upright, Ed; Hammond, Elise; Vogt, Adrienne; Sangal, Aditi (17 June 2022). "UN says more than 1,300 civilians killed in Mariupol — but true toll "likely thousands higher"". CNN.
  42. ^ a b c "UN says more than 1,300 civilians killed in Mariupol — but true toll "likely thousands higher"". 17 June 2022.
  43. ^ a b c "The agony of not knowing, as Mariupol mass burial sites grow". British Broadcasting Corporation. 07 November 2022. Retrieved 10 Nov 2022. ((cite news)): Check date values in: |date= (help)
  44. ^ a b c "Mariupol Mayor Cites 'Thousands' Dead, Says 'Complete Evacuation' Needed". Radio Free Europe. Radio Liberty. 27 March 2022. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  45. ^ a b c Bondarenko, Khrystyna; Watson, Ivan; Stapleton, AnneClaire; Booth, Tom; Alasaar, Alaa (19 March 2022). "Mariupol residents are being forced to go to Russia, city council says". CNN, World. CNN. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  46. ^ "Occupying forces have deported more than 50,000 Mariupol residents to Russia and temporarily occupied territories of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts". Ukrayinska Pravda. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  47. ^ "Russia says remaining 531 Azovstal defenders surrender, steelworks siege over". 20 May 2022.
  48. ^ "Ukraine war: Last Ukrainian troops in Mariupol told to stop defence of city". Sky News.
  49. ^ a b "Ukraine: Mariupol Residents Trapped by Russian Assault – Ukraine". ReliefWeb. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  50. ^ a b Clarke, Mason; Barros, George; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Hird, Karolina (22 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 22". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  51. ^ a b c "Russia Says All Urban Areas of Mariupol Cleared of Ukrainian Forces". voanews.com. 16 April 2022. Archived from the original on 18 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  52. ^ "Russia accused of 'holding 400,000 people hostage' in Mariupol". the Guardian. 9 March 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  53. ^ "Photos: Mariupol residents suffer as Russian forces lay siege". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  54. ^ a b c Holly Ellyatt (18 April 2022). "Mariupol hasn't surrendered to Russia, PM says; at least 5 dead, 20 injured in Kharkiv attack". CNBC. Archived from the original on 18 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  55. ^ Hopkins, Valerie; Nechepurenko, Ivan; Santora, Marc (16 May 2022). "The Ukrainian authorities declare an end to the combat mission in Mariupol after weeks of Russian siege". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  56. ^ "Hundreds of Ukrainian troops evacuated from Mariupol steelworks after 82-day assault". the Guardian. 17 May 2022. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  57. ^ "Минобороны показало кадры сдачи в плен украинских военных с "Азовстали"". РБК (in Russian). Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  58. ^ "UPDATE 3-Azovstal siege ends as hundreds of Ukrainian fighters surrender – Reuters witness". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  59. ^ "Fate of hundreds of Ukrainian fighters uncertain after surrender". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  60. ^ "Fall of Mariupol appears at hand; fighters leave steel plant". AP NEWS. 17 May 2022. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  61. ^ Mariupol a 'Pyrrhic victory' for Russia: military analyst, Deutsche Welle, 18 May 2022, retrieved 20 May 2022
  62. ^ Spencer, Richard (17 May 2022). "Defiance of Azovstal steelworks defenders ensures Putin wins only a pyrrhic victory". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  63. ^ Prince, Todd (18 May 2022). "Russia's Capture Of Azovstal: Symbolic Success, 'Pyrrhic' Victory?". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  64. ^ "Ukraine ends Mariupol battle; Azovstal steel plant fighters evacuated…". Washington Post. 18 May 2022. Archived from the original on 18 May 2022. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  65. ^ Harrison, Virginia (17 May 2022). "Hundreds of Ukrainian troops evacuated from Mariupol steelworks after 82-day assault". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  66. ^ a b "Public Opinion Survey of Residents of Ukraine" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  67. ^ Lourie, Richard (26 October 2018). "Putin's bridge over troubled waters". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 19 January 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  68. ^ Russian dominance in the Black Sea: The Sea of Azov Archived 19 March 2022 at the Wayback Machine, Middle East Institute, Luke Coffey, 25 September 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  69. ^ "The Azov Sea, symbolic prize of Russia-Ukraine war". France 24. 1 March 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  70. ^ Blair, David (10 May 2014). "Ukraine: Security forces abandon Mariupol ahead of referendum". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 19 February 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  71. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Kiev forces win back Mariupol". BBC News. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  72. ^ "Russia opens 3rd front with a new offensive: Ukrainian, Western officials". CNBC. 28 August 2014. Archived from the original on 28 August 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  73. ^ "Ukraine fighting subsides after ceasefire agreement". The Irish Times. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  74. ^ "Ukraine rebels end ceasefire before polls". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  75. ^ "Ukrainian forces launch offensive near Mariupol, east Ukraine: Kiev". Reuters. 10 February 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  76. ^ "Ukraine's Azov regiment claims to have launched offensive on Novoazovsk – Feb. 10, 2015". KyivPost. 10 February 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  77. ^ "Ukraine Rebels Leave Front Towns". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  78. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Kiev forces win back Mariupol". BBC News. 13 June 2014. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  79. ^ Pancevski, Bojan. "Kiev lets loose Men in Black". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  80. ^ "Ukraine crisis: the neo-Nazi brigade fighting pro-Russian separatists – Telegraph". 5 July 2018. Archived from the original on 5 July 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  81. ^ "Azov fighters are Ukraine's greatest weapon and may be its greatest threat". the Guardian. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  82. ^ "Ultra-nationalist Ukrainian battalion gears up for more fighting | Reuters". Reuters. 24 January 2016. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2022.
  83. ^ "The Azov Battalion: How Putin built a false premise for a war against "Nazis" in Ukraine". CBS News. 22 March 2022. Retrieved 10 April 2022.
  84. ^ "Azov Regiment takes centre stage in Ukraine propaganda war". France 24. 25 March 2022. Retrieved 10 April 2022.
  85. ^ "'Why? Why? Why?' Ukraine's Mariupol descends into despair". AP NEWS. 16 March 2022. Archived from the original on 15 March 2022. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  86. ^ Vasovic, Aleksandar (24 February 2022). "Port city of Mariupol comes under fire after Russia invades Ukraine". Reuters. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  87. ^ "Ukraine Crisis: Protecting civilians 'Priority Number One'; Guterres releases $20M for humanitarian support". UN News. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022.
  88. ^ "Battle ongoing near Mariupol – mayor". www.ukrinform.net. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  89. ^ "Fierce battles raging in all directions near Mariupol – mayor". Interfax-Ukraine. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  90. ^ Richárd, Jabronka (25 February 2022). "Így áll most a háború Ukrajnában: több nagyvárosban harcok dúlnak, megtámadtak egy orosz repülőteret". Ellenszél (in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  91. ^ "Russian Navy Carries Out Amphibious Assault Near Mariupol". The Maritime Executive. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  92. ^ CNN (25 February 2022). ""Amphibious assault" underway west of Mariupol on the Sea of Azov, senior US defense official says". CNN. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  93. ^ "Russian forces are about 31 miles outside southeastern Ukrainian city of Mariupol, US defense official says". CNN. 27 February 2022. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  94. ^ "Russian advance slowed by Ukrainian resistance and logistical setbacks, U.S. defense official says". CBS News. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  95. ^ "Russia orders troops to hasten their advance as Mariupol remains under heavy shelling". ABC News. 26 February 2022. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  96. ^ "At Least Six Greeks Killed in Russian Attacks at Mariupol, Ukraine". GreekReporter.com. 26 February 2022. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  97. ^ Georgiopoulos, George (26 February 2022). "Greece says 10 expats killed in Ukraine, summons Russian ambassador". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  98. ^ "Russian invasion update: Ukraine repels tank attack, captures six Russians in Mariupol". www.ukrinform.net. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  99. ^ "A shelling, a young girl, and hopeless moments in a hospital". Associated Press. 27 February 2022. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  100. ^ Reuters (28 February 2022). "Fighting around Ukraine's Mariupol throughout the night – regional governor". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  101. ^ "Russian invasion update: Mariupol remains Ukrainian controlled". ukrinform.net. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  102. ^ Trevithick, Joseph (27 February 2022). "Strategic Ukrainian Port Of Mariupol Now Surrounded By Russian Forces". thedrive.com. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  103. ^ "Маріуполь частково залишився без електрики, газу та інтернету". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  104. ^ Anna Mukhina; Mark Krutov (3 March 2022). ""Звоните в ФСБ". В Россию пошли первые "похоронки"". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (in Russian). Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  105. ^ Potocka, Joanna (4 March 2022). "Rosyjski generał zabity przez snajpera na Ukrainie. Kim był Andriej Suchowiecki?" (in Polish). Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  106. ^ CNN (1 March 2022). "Russian-backed separatist leader expects his forces to surround Mariupol on Tuesday". CNN. Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  107. ^ "Маріуполь – під шквалом російської реактивної артилерії, обстріли без упину. ВІДЕО". March 2022. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  108. ^ Hunder, Max (30 March 2022). "Timeline: Russia's siege of the Ukrainian city of Mariupol". Reuters – via www.reuters.com.
  109. ^ "Ukrainian city of Mariupol 'near to humanitarian catastrophe' after bombardment". BBC News. 2 March 2022. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  110. ^ "Ukraine leader Volodymyr Zelensky vows to hold fast as 2,000 civilian deaths blamed on Russia's invasion". CBS News. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  111. ^ "Most of the world lines up against Moscow, attacks intensify". Associated Press. 2 March 2022. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  112. ^ Reuters (2 March 2022). "Mariupol mayor reports mass casualties from nonstop Russian attack". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  113. ^ "WATCH: Hundreds of casualties reported after fighting in Mariupol, Ukraine". Euro Weekly News. 2 March 2022. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  114. ^ a b c Gunter, Joel (2 March 2022). "Ukrainian city of Mariupol 'near to humanitarian catastrophe' after bombardment". bbc.com. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  115. ^ "Hundreds feared dead from 15-hour Russian attack on Mariupol, Ukraine". New York Post. 2 March 2022. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  116. ^ "Mariupol under siege: 'We are being completely cut off'". BBC News. 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  117. ^ "Pro-Russian separatists threaten Ukraine's Mariupol with strikes". Reuters. 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  118. ^ Tim Lister, Olga Voitovych and Laura Smith-Spark (3 March 2022). "Russia squeezes southern Ukraine amid warning 'worst is yet to come'". CNN. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  119. ^ Reuters (4 March 2022). "Besieged Ukrainian city of Mariupol appeals for help". Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  120. ^ "UN Security Council in emergency meeting after Russia seizes second Ukrainian nuclear plant". ABC News. 4 March 2022. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  121. ^ "Results in talks on humanitarian corridors for Mariupol not yet achieved – adviser to interior minister". www.ukrinform.net. Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  122. ^ Drake, Andrew; Ebel, Francesca; Karmanau, Yuras; Chernov, Mstyslav (4 March 2022). "Reports: Russia to observe ceasefire in 2 areas of Ukraine". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  123. ^ "Red Cross acting as ceasefire guarantor to allow evacuation of Mariupol, Volnovakha – report". www.timesofisrael.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022.
  124. ^ Hamza Mohamed and Nadim Asrar, Al Jazeera (5 Mar 2022) Russia-Ukraine live news: Mariupol evacuation halted Archived 7 March 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  125. ^ "Siege of Mariupol: Fresh Russian attacks throw evacuation into chaos". 5 March 2022. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022 – via www.bbc.com.
  126. ^ Joel Gunter (5 March 2022). "Siege of Mariupol: Fresh Russian attacks throw evacuation into chaos". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  127. ^ "Siege of Mariupol: Fresh Russian attacks throw evacuation into chaos". BBC News. 5 March 2022. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  128. ^ Reuters (5 March 2022). "UK accuses Russia of using Mariupol ceasefire plan to reset forces". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  129. ^ Polityuk, Pavel; Vasovic, Aleksandar (5 March 2022). "Kyiv, Moscow trade blame over failed evacuation as Russian assault grinds on". Saskatoon StarPhoenix. Reuters. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  130. ^ a b c "Ukraine: Second attempt to evacuate civilians from Mariupol fails — live updates | DW | 6 March 2022". Deutsche Welle. 6 March 2022. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  131. ^ Gunter, Joel (6 March 2022). "Mariupol: Fires, no water, and bodies in the street". BBC News. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  132. ^ Braithwaite, Sharon (6 March 2022). "Ukrainian MP: Russia has damaged Donetsk-Mariupol pipeline, leaving over 700,000 people without heat". CNN. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  133. ^ Marsi, Federica. "Anguished Ukrainians await news of relatives in besieged Mariupol". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  134. ^ Today 7 Mar 2022. Today. BBC Radio 4. 7 March 2022. Event occurs at 1h:41m:00s-1h:43m:41s. Retrieved 7 March 2022. ICRC Director of Operation Dominik Stillhart: ... so far we have seen unfortunately only agreements in principle ... they have immediately broken down because they lack precision, they lack the kind of information and agreements over times, over roads, over whether people can go out or goods can come in, so all of these things need to be agreed in military to military talks in order for us to also be on the ground to facilitate the agreement between the parties ... we have been talking to them for days on end getting them to an agreement that is sufficiently precise so that it can then be implemented. ... We have a team in Mariupol on the ground ... the [corridor] road that was indicated to them was actually mined so therefore the agreement could not be implemented. That is why it is so important that the two parties have a precise agreement.
  135. ^ Rahman, Khaleda (7 March 2022). "Evacuation Route Offered to Fleeing Ukrainians Was Mined—Red Cross". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  136. ^ Zaks, Dmitry; Clark, Dave (8 March 2022). "Ukraine accuses Russia of attacking humanitarian corridors as civilians flee cities". Agence France-Presse. The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  137. ^ Mstyslav Chernov (9 March 2022). "Besieged Ukraine city of Mariupol buries dead in mass grave". ctvnews.ca. Mariupol, Ukraine: CTV News. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  138. ^ "Mass grave set up in Mariupol as morgues overflow". BBC News. 9 March 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  139. ^ "War in Ukraine live updates: Russia fires on civilian evacuation points in Mariupol, deputy mayor says". NPR. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  140. ^ "Mariupol says children's hospital destroyed by Russian bombing". National Post. 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  141. ^ "Attacks hits Ukraine children's hospital, officials say". AP NEWS. 9 March 2022. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  142. ^ Harding, Luke (9 March 2022). "'Pure genocide': civilian targets in Mariupol 'annihilated' by Russian attacks". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  143. ^ "Ukraine war: Three dead as maternity hospital hit by Russian air strike". BBC. Associated Press. 9 March 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  144. ^ Chernov, Mstyslav; Karmanu, Yuras (12 March 2022). "Russian troops push towards Kyiv, key cities blockaded". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  145. ^ Nedos, Vassilis. "Greek convoy makes it out of Mariupol | eKathimerini.com". www.ekathimerini.com. Archived from the original on 11 March 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  146. ^ "Humanitarian corridor for Greek expatriates in Mariupol | eKathimerini.com". www.ekathimerini.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  147. ^ "Ukraine's Mariupol city says 2,187 residents killed since start of war". Devdiscourse. Reuters. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  148. ^ "Ukraine's Mariupol says city's last reserves of food and water are running out". Reuters. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  149. ^ Olga Gluschenko (13 March 2022). "Оборона Мариуполя: уничтожена бронетехника и живая сила врага". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Russian). Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  150. ^ "Turkey to evacuate citizens in Mariupol mosque: FM". Hurriyet daily news. 13 March 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  151. ^ "First convoy of civilians escapes besieged Mariupol". Al Jazeera. 14 March 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  152. ^ Olga Gluschenko (15 March 2022). "ЗСУ відбили атаки на Маріуполь, знищили ворожу техніку і 150 загарбників – штаб". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  153. ^ Rasheed, Jillian Kestler-D'Amours,Zaheena. "US warns China not to help Russia; Moscow-Kyiv talks to resume". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 15 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  154. ^ Stewart, Will (14 March 2022). "Ukraine war: Russia admits first loss of GRU intelligence officer". Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  155. ^ Andy Hayes (15 March 2022). "Ukraine war: 20,000 flee Mariupol in biggest evacuation yet from besieged port city". Sky News. Archived from the original on 15 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  156. ^ "Fourth Russian general killed in Ukraine, claims president Zelensky". MSN. Archived from the original on 18 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  157. ^ Andrea Rosa (18 March 2022). "Ukraine rescuers search Mariupol theater rubble as Russian attacks continue". PBS. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  158. ^ Natalie Drier (16 March 2022). "Russia attacks Ukraine: Mariupol theater used as shelter bombed". KIRO-TV. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  159. ^ "Мариупольский аэропорт полностью перешел под контроль ДНР". RIA Novosty. 18 March 2022. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  160. ^ "Fighting Reaches Center Of Mariupol As Putin Puts Up Defiant Appearance". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 18 March 2022. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  161. ^ "Russians push deeper into Mariupol as locals plead for help". The Toronto Star. 19 March 2022. ISSN 0319-0781. Archived from the original on 19 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  162. ^ "Meaningful talks on peace and security for Ukraine are the only chance for Russia to reduce the damage from its own mistakes - address by President Volodymyr Zelenskyy".
  163. ^ Zelensky, Volodymyr. War Speeches I: February – March 2022. lmverlag. ISBN 9789083172798 – via Google Books.
  164. ^ a b "Azov Regiment Commander Denys Prokopenko hands over his command". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  165. ^ Reuters (20 March 2022). "Mariupol says Russia forcefully deported thousands of people". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  166. ^ a b c d Bondarenko, Khrystyna; Watson, Ivan; Stapleton, AnneClair (21 March 2022). ""Bombs falling every 10 minutes," says Ukrainian officer in Mariupol". CNN World. Dnipro: CNN. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  167. ^ "Russian forces bomb school sheltering 400 people in Mariupol, city council says". CNN. 20 March 2022. Archived from the original on 22 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  168. ^ "Ukraine has rejected Vladimir Putin's demand to surrender the stricken city of Mariupol". lbc. 20 March 2022. Archived from the original on 22 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  169. ^ "Ukraine rejects Russian demand to surrender Mariupol and lay down arms". lbc. 21 March 2022. Archived from the original on 22 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  170. ^ a b c d Schwirtz, Michael (24 July 2022). "Last Stand at Azovstal: Inside the Siege That Shaped the Ukraine War". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  171. ^ Altman, Howard (25 May 2022). "Inside Ukraine's Daring Helicopter Missions Into Russian-Occupied Mariupol". The Drive.
  172. ^ "Під час оборони Маріуполя загинуло багато льотчиків". Інтерфакс-Україна.
  173. ^ "Guerra Ukrania: 15 soldados Ucranianos mueren al Rusia derribar su helicoptero en Mariúpol". RTVE (in Spanish). 28 March 2022.
  174. ^ "Russia says helicopter downed near Mariupol was headed to evacuate Azov unit leaders". Tass Russian News Agency. 28 March 2022.
  175. ^ "Russia Says Prevented Ukraine Officers Fleeing Mariupol By Air". 5 April 2022.
  176. ^ Clark, Mason; Barros, George; Stepanenko, Kateryna. "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, March 24". Institute for the Study of War.
  177. ^ "Ukraine war in maps: Tracking the Russian invasion". BBC News. 25 March 2022. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  178. ^ "Institute for the Study of War". Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 25 March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  179. ^ "Mariupol Mayor Cites 'Thousands' Dead, Says 'Complete Evacuation' Needed". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  180. ^ Carlotta Gall (27 March 2022). "As the war in Ukraine moves into its second month, fears grow of Mariupol's fall to Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  181. ^ "Russia's invasion of Ukraine has destroyed a historic computer museum". Engadget. 27 March 2022. Archived from the original on 28 March 2022.
  182. ^ "Mariupol is 'in the hands' of Russia, mayor says". theweek.com. 29 March 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  183. ^ "Nearly 5,000 people killed in siege of Ukraine's Mariupol – mayor's office". Reuters. 28 March 2022. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  184. ^ "More Than 5,000 Civilians Killed in Mariupol, Mayor Says". TIME. 6 April 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  185. ^ Schreck, Adam; Rosa, Andrea (6 April 2022). "Mariupol's dead put at 5,000 as Ukraine braces in the east". Associated Press. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  186. ^ "Elfoglalták az oroszok a rettegett Azov-zászlóalj egyik bázisát". Portfolio (in Hungarian). 28 March 2022.
  187. ^ Clark, Mason; Barros, George; Stepanenko, Kateryna (29 March 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, March 29". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  188. ^ Clark, Mason; Barros, George; Hird, Karolina (2 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 2". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  189. ^ a b c d e "Azov Regiment believes Russian troops should have been stopped on Crimeas border". news.yahoo.com.
  190. ^ "Russia Says Ukrainian Marines Surrendered En-Masse In Mariupol; Western Experts Call It Putin's Propaganda". Eurasian Times. 6 April 2022. 267 Ukrainian marines from the 503rd Battalion of the Ukrainian Naval Forces opted to surrender in the encircled Mariupol
  191. ^ a b Clark, Mason; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Hird, Karolina (7 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 7". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  192. ^ Saul, Jonathan (5 April 2022). "Foreign ship sinks in Mariupol after missile attacks, says flag registry". The Globe and Mail – via www.theglobeandmail.com.
  193. ^ Mason Clark; Kateryna Stepanenko (8 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 8". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  194. ^ Clark, Mason; Barros, George; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Hird, Karolina (9 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 9". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  195. ^ Clark, Mason; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Hird, Karolina (10 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 10". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  196. ^ Clark, Mason; Hird, Karolina; Barros, George (10 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 11". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  197. ^ Emmanuel Peuchot (11 April 2022). "Ukraine Braces for Fall of Mariupol to Russia". Moscow Times. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  198. ^ "It became known about the Marines handed over to the Ukrainian Armed Forces in Mariupol". 24 Happenings. 11 April 2022. About 160 Marines surrendered to the Ukrainian Armed Forces (APU) in Mariupol.
  199. ^ a b "Басурин сообщил об убийстве в Мариуполе командира 36-й бригады морской пехоты ВС Украины" [Basurin announced the murder in Mariupol of the commander of the 36th Separate Marine Brigade of the Armed Forces of Ukraine]. Tass (in Russian). 17 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  200. ^ a b "Russia Claims 1,000 Members of the 36th Marine Brigade Surrendered in Mariupol". SOFREP. 14 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  201. ^ a b c Mason Clark; Kateryna Stepanenko; Karolina Hird (13 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 13". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  202. ^ "Marines from 36th brigade break through to Azov fighters, defenders of Mariupol strengthen defense area". Interfax-Ukraine. 13 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  203. ^ George Grylls; Charlie Parker (12 April 2022). "Briton Aiden Aslin 'surrenders' in Mariupol as he runs out of food". The Times. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  204. ^ a b Petr Ermilin (12 April 2022). "More than 1,000 Ukrainian Marines voluntarily surrendered in Mariupol". Pravda. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  205. ^ Peter Graff; William Maclean; Cynthia Osterman (13 April 2022). "Russia says 1,026 Ukrainian marines surrendered in Mariupol". Reuters. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  206. ^ Ronald Popeski; Robert Birsel (13 April 2022). "Chechen chief Kadyrov says over 1,000 Ukrainian marines surrender in Mariupol". Reuters. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  207. ^ Elena Teslova (14 April 2022). "134 more Ukrainian servicemen surrendered in Mariupol: Russia". aa.com.tr. Retrieved 18 April 2022. This means a total of 1,160 Ukrainian soldiers and officers laid down their weapons in Mariupol on Wednesday
  208. ^ Нестор Дим (13 April 2022). "орпіхи 36-ї бригади в Маріуполі: частина з'єдналася з "Азовом", частина – ішла на прорив, багато потрапили в полон" [Nurses of the 36th Brigade in Mariupol: Some joined forces with Azov, some went on a breakthrough, many were taken prisoner]. Novynarnia (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  209. ^ "Mariupol commercial sea port fully liberated from Azov regiment's Nazi fighters". Tass. 13 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  210. ^ a b c Mason Clarke; George Barros (17 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 17". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  211. ^ Aditi Sangal; Adrienne Vogt; Helen Regan; Matias Grez; Jeevan Ravindran; Laura Smith-Spark; Maureen Chowdhury; Mike Hayes (13 April 2022). "Ukrainian commanders defending Mariupol say their units were able to link up despite relentless attacks". Cable News Network. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  212. ^ "Mariupol defenders tell how the commander of marines fled the city". news.yahoo.com.
  213. ^ Марк Ворошилов (12 April 2022). ""Потери просто сумасшедшие", – ВСУ уничтожили полный состав 810-й бригады морской пехоты из Феодосии ["The losses are just crazy" – the Armed Forces of Ukraine destroyed the entire composition of the 810th Brigade of Naval Infantry from Feodosia"]". Диалог.UA [dialog.ua].
  214. ^ Drozd, Yulia (15 April 2022). "Ukrainian commander issues urgent plea in Mariupol". ABC News. ABC News Network. Archived from the original on 18 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  215. ^ "Russian Tu-22M3 bombers strike Mariupol". ukrinform.net. 15 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  216. ^ "'Fortress in a city': steel plant becomes Ukrainian hold-out in Mariupol". The Guardian. 15 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  217. ^ a b Kagan, Frederick; Stepanenko, Kateryna; Hird, Karolina (16 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 16". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  218. ^ a b Adam Schreck; Mystyslav Chernov (18 April 2022). "Ukrainian defenders in Mariupol defy surrender-or-die demand". Associated Press. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  219. ^ "Ukraine war: Mariupol defenders will fight to the end says PM". BBC. 18 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  220. ^ Clarke, Mason; Barros, George; Hird, Karolina (20 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 20". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  221. ^ Schreck, Adam (21 April 2022). "Putin claims Mariupol win but won't storm Ukrainian holdout". Associated Press. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  222. ^ "Putin calls off plan to storm Mariupol plant, opts for blockade instead". Reuters. 21 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  223. ^ Yvette Tan (21 April 2022). "Steelworks battle was militarily irrelevant to Russia – former armed forces chief". BBC News. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  224. ^ Michael Schwirtz (22 April 2022). "Inside Azovstal Plant, Ukrainian Sergeant Prays for Rescue". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  225. ^ David Keyton; Yesica Fisch (23 April 2022). "Ukraine battered again; Zelenskyy says US officials to visit". Associated Press. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  226. ^ Frederick W. Kagan; Kateryna Stepanenko; Karolina Hird (23 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 23". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  227. ^ a b Connor Sephton (23 April 2022). "Ukraine war: A dozen crack Russian military units redeployed from Mariupol as Kyiv claims to have rearmed blockaded district with daring night-time helicopter drop". Sky News. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  228. ^ Mason Clarke; Kateryna Stepanenko (24 April 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, April 23". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  229. ^ Tim Lister; Olga Voitoivych (28 April 2022). "Mariupol steel plant suffers "heaviest airstrikes so far," Ukrainian official says". Cable News Network. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  230. ^ Tim Lister (29 April 2022). "600 injured in recent bombing of Azovstal steel plant, Mariupol mayor says". Cable News Network. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  231. ^ "Ukraine: UN-Red Cross operation underway to evacuate civilians from stricken Mariupol plant". UN News. 1 May 2022. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  232. ^ a b "Go inside the civilian evacuation of Mariupol's besieged Azovstal steel plant". ABC News. 1 May 2022. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  233. ^ Tiffany Wertheimer (1 May 2022). "Ukraine latest news: Safe passage for civilians to leave Mariupol under way – UN". BBC News. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  234. ^ "Mariupol civilians leave besieged Azovstal steelworks". BBC News. 30 April 2022. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  235. ^ Thomas, Trisha (30 April 2022). "Wives of Mariupol defenders appeal for soldiers' evacuation". ABC News. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  236. ^ "At least 100 civilians evacuated from Azovstal plant in Mariupol, Zelenskyy says". ABC News. 1 May 2022. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  237. ^ David Vergun (2 May 2022). "Russians Make Minimal Progress in the Donbas, DOD Official Says". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  238. ^ Matt Seyler (2 May 2022). "Russians leaving Mariupol, progress in Donbas 'minimal at best': US". ABC News. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  239. ^ "Russian troops begin to storm Azovstal plant". www.ukrinform.net. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  240. ^ "Ukraine war: Zelensky plea as Russians seek Mariupol endgame". BBC. 4 May 2022.
  241. ^ "Russians break into the Azovstal plant in Mariupol – sources". Ukrayinska Pravda. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  242. ^ "Russian troops enter Azovstal plant, top Ukrainian lawmaker says". Reuters. 5 May 2022.
  243. ^ "Ukraine war: 300 civilians evacuated from Mariupol after Russia opens humanitarian corridors". Sky News. 5 May 2022.
  244. ^ "'Seemed like goodbye': Mariupol defenders make their stand". Associated Press. 5 May 2022.
  245. ^ "Ukraine loses contact with Azovstal defenders as Russian troops storm steelworks". The Telegraph. 5 May 2022.
  246. ^ "Fresh Rescue Efforts Under Way at Ukraine's Azovstal Steel Plant". Wall Street Journal. 6 May 2022.
  247. ^ "Ukraine says all women, children and elderly out of besieged Azovstal plant". DW (Deutsche Welle). Deutsche Welle. 7 May 2022. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  248. ^ Toman, Siobhan (7 May 2022). "Women, children, elderly out of besieged plant – Ukraine". BBC News. BBC World Services. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  249. ^ Lister, Tim; Presniakova, Julia; Voitovych, Olga (7 May 2022). ""All women, children and elderly" have been evacuated from Azovstal, Ukrainian government says". CNN World News. CNN (Cable News Network). Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  250. ^ "'Hellish reality show': Trapped Mariupol fighter pleads for help". aljazeera. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  251. ^ "Donetsk People's Republic Leader Holds Victory Day Parade in Mariupol". NT News. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  252. ^ "Intelligence officers explain why Azovstal exit was not a surrender". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  253. ^ "Live: Nearly two-thirds of Kyiv's 3.5 million residents have now returned to the city". Euronews. 10 May 2022.
  254. ^ "Kyiv says over 1,000 Ukraine fighters still in Azovstal plant". Al Arabiya English. 10 May 2022. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  255. ^ Stepanenko, Kateryna; Hird, Karolina; Kagan, Frederick W. (12 May 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 12". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  256. ^ Stepanenko, Kateryna; Kagan, Frederick W. (13 May 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 13". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  257. ^ ""They came out of Azovstal with a white flag"; Negotiations are underway". B92.net.
  258. ^ Hopkins, Valerie; Nechepurenko, Ivan; Santora, Marc (16 May 2022). "Ukrainian authorities declare an end to the combat mission in Mariupol after weeks of Russian siege". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 16 May 2022. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  259. ^ "Azovstal defenders appear to signal end of siege". The Jerusalem Post. 16 May 2022. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  260. ^ "Longest battle of war ends as Ukrainian troops evacuated from Azovstal steel mill in Mariupol". Sydney Morning Hearld. 17 May 2022.
  261. ^ Reuters (17 May 2022). "Azovstal siege ends as hundreds of Ukrainian fighters surrender". Reuters. Archived from the original on 17 May 2022. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  262. ^ "Ukraine: ICRC registers hundreds of prisoners of war from Azovstal plant". International Committee of the Red Cross. 19 May 2022. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  263. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 18". Institute for the Study of Warfare. 18 May 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  264. ^ Ljunggren, David (21 May 2022). "Russia shows video of Azovstal defenders surrendering". Reuters – via www.reuters.com.
  265. ^ "На "Азовстали" сдался командир батальона "Азов"". РБК.
  266. ^ "Russia says 959 Ukrainian fighters surrendered from Azovstal so far". Reuters. 18 May 2022 – via www.reuters.com.
  267. ^ "Russia says 771 more Ukrainian soldiers surrender at Azovstal steel plant-Xinhua". english.news.cn.
  268. ^ "War in Ukraine: Kyiv orders Azovstal troops to stop fighting, Russia claims control of Mariupol". Le Monde.fr. 20 May 2022 – via Le Monde.
  269. ^ "A timeline of how the Azovstal steelworks in Mariupol fell". The Week. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  270. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 23". Institute for the Study of Warfare. 23 May 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  271. ^ "Hidden militants detained at Azovstal". 26 May 2022.
  272. ^ "Russia says civil vessels may use Mariupol port, mine danger lifted". Reuters. 26 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  273. ^ "В ДНР заявили об ударе ВСУ по колонии с военнопленными в Еленовке. Сообщается о 53 погибших" [The DPR announced the strike of the Armed Forces of Ukraine on the colony with prisoners of war in Yelenovka. 53 deaths reported]. Meduza (in Russian). Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  274. ^ "Масова загибель українських полонених в Оленівці. Що відомо" [Mass death of Ukrainian prisoners in Olenivka. What is known]. BBC News Україна (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  275. ^ Lister, Tim; Kesaieva, Julia; Pennington, Josh (30 July 2022). "Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky says prison attack 'deliberate war crime by the Russians,' as Russia blames Ukraine". CNN News. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
  276. ^ "Украина обвиняет Россию в ударе по колонии в Еленовке и гибели пленных" [Ukraine accuses Russia of attacking the colony in Yelenovka and killing prisoners]. Радио Свобода (in Russian). Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  277. ^ Lonas, Lexi (30 April 2022). "Ukrainian parliament warns Mariupol residents endangered by 'medieval living conditions' amid siege". The Hill. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  278. ^ a b "ВОЗ готовится к вспышкам холеры в Мариуполе. Что это значит для России?" [WHO prepares for cholera outbreaks in Mariupol. What does this mean for Russia?]. BBC (in Russian). 20 May 2022. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  279. ^ Peseckyte, Giedre (18 May 2022). "Cholera outbreak: A new health concern in war-torn Ukraine". Euractiv. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  280. ^ Thebault, Reis (6 June 2022). "Cholera fears prompt quarantine in Mariupol, official says". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  281. ^ "Ukraine reports deaths of 24 more children in Mariupol". Reuters. 11 June 2022.
  282. ^ Sribnians'ka, Kseniia (6 June 2022). "Епідемія холери та інших хвороб загрожують не лише Маріуполю: що кажуть медики" [The cholera epidemic threatens more than just Mariupol, doctors say]. Apostrof (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  283. ^ "Russia to hand over bodies of 152 Ukrainian soldiers from Mariupol steelworks". La Prensa Latina. Memphis. EFE. 31 May 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  284. ^ "Russia to hand over bodies of Ukrainian fighters from Azovstal". The Daily Telegraph. 31 May 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  285. ^ "Scores of Ukraine Azovstal Fighters' Bodies Still in Mariupol, Ex-Commander Says". Retrieved 12 June 2022. “Maksym Zhorin said that under the terms of a recent exchange, around 220 bodies of those killed in Azovstal had already been sent to Kyiv but "just as many bodies still remain in Mariupol".
  286. ^ "Ukraine returns 64 bodies of fallen Azovstal defenders". 14 June 2022. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  287. ^ "Ukraine Returns Bodies Of Another 35 Killed Defenders - Intelligence". Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  288. ^ "17 Ukrainian defenders were released from captivity". 28 June 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  289. ^ a b "Russia suffers losses of 75% on Black Sea fleet coastal defence brigade, Ukraine claims". The Guardian. 19 April 2022. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  290. ^ "С именем Суворова на Знамени". 24 January 2018. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  291. ^ George Grylls (22 March 2022). "A dozen elite Russian soldiers have been killed by Ukrainians in fight for Mariupol". The Times. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  292. ^ Moscow, Isabel Coles in Kyiv, Ukraine and Ann M. Simmons in (8 June 2022). "Russia Takes Captured Ukrainian Fighters From Mariupol to Its Territory". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
  293. ^ "Ukraine says 1,170 civilians have been killed in Mariupol since Russian invasion". Reuters. 9 March 2022. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  294. ^ "Ukraine's Mariupol says 1,582 civilians killed by Russian shelling and blockade". Reuters. 11 March 2022. Archived from the original on 11 March 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  295. ^ Asrar, Nadim; Uras, Umut; Marsi, Federica (12 March 2022). "Ukraine latest updates: 2,187 residents killed in Mariupol". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  296. ^ "Over 2,500 Mariupol residents killed so far in war – Ukrainian presidential advisor". Reuters. 14 March 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  297. ^ "Russian forces shoot at civilians in Hostomel". India Today. 15 March 2022. Archived from the original on 15 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  298. ^ Santora, Marc; Hopkins, Valerie (15 March 2022). "Officials in Mariupol struggle to account for the dead". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 15 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  299. ^ a b CHERNOV, MSTYSLAV; MALOLETKA, EVGENIY; HINNANT, LORI (16 March 2022). "'Why? Why? Why?' Ukraine's Mariupol descends into despair". ABC News. MARIUPOL, Ukraine. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 17 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  300. ^ a b c Yuras Karmanau; Adam Schreck; Cara Anna (12 April 2022). "Mariupol mayor says siege has killed more than 10K civilians". Associated Press. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  301. ^ a b "Russia-Ukraine war: 21,000 civilians killed, Mayor of Mariupol estimates". The Jerusalem Post. 13 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  302. ^ "At least 22,000 civilians killed in Mariupol - mayor's adviser". Interfax-Ukraine. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  303. ^ "President of the Federation of Greek Associations of Ukraine cries for help". Neos Kosmos. 14 March 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  304. ^ Vega, María R. Sahuquillo, Luis de (6 March 2022). "Russian forces exert stranglehold on Mariupol after failure of ceasefire". EL PAÍS English Edition. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  305. ^ a b Mangan, Dan (7 March 2022). "U.S. is collecting evidence of possible Russian war crimes in Ukraine". cnbc.com. CNBC. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  306. ^ "Live updates: Zelenskyy vows to keep negotiating with Russia. The latest developments on the Russia-Ukraine war: (Section titled "Geneva" NOTE there are two sections with the same name— "Geneva" SEE THE FIRST)". Apneas.com. Associated Press. 14 March 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  307. ^ Ruslan Rehimov (16 March 2022). "Russians holding 400 hostage at captured Mariupol hospital: Ukraine deputy premier". Anadolu Agency. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  308. ^ a b Lorenzo Tondo; Isobel Kosiw (16 March 2022). "Ukrainian officials accuse Russia of shelling civilians fleeing Mariupol". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  309. ^ a b c d Patel-Carstairs, Sunita (18 March 2022). "Ukraine war: Videos show apocalyptic destruction in Mariupol as Russia says it is 'tightening its encirclement'". Sky News. Sky New. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  310. ^ a b c Carey, Andrew; Presniakova, Yulia; Atay Alam, Hande (22 March 2022). "Russian forces stole buses driving to rescue people from Mariupol, Ukraine says". CNN World. CNN. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  311. ^ Beals, Monique (23 March 2022). "Ukraine: Russia seized rescue workers trying to deliver food to Mariupol". The Hill. NEXSTAR MEDIA INC. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  312. ^ "Zelensky says 100,000 still trapped in Mariupol, facing 'inhumane conditions'". France 24. France 24. 22 March 2022. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  313. ^ "Ukraine: No 'plan B' for evacuation of shattered Mariupol, say humanitarians, as Friday attempt fails". UN News. 1 April 2022.
  314. ^ "Ukraine: More than 170 civilians evacuated from Azovstal and Mariupol area in third safe passage operation". International Committee of the Red Cross. 8 May 2022. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  315. ^ "Putin's Mariupol Massacre is one of the 21st century's worst war crimes". Atlantic Council. 25 May 2022. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  316. ^ a b Cowburn, Ashley (31 March 2022). "Russian general dubbed 'butcher of Mariupol' among new list of sanctions announced by Liz Truss". The Independent. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  317. ^ a b Brown, Lee (24 March 2022). "Russian 'Butcher of Mariupol' blamed for worst Ukraine war atrocities". New York Post. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  318. ^ Balevic, Katie. "Zelenskyy accuses Russian troops of 'direct strike' that wrecked a Mariupol maternity hospital, pleads to 'close the sky right now'". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  319. ^ "Ukraine war: Aftermath of Mariupol hospital shelling". Sky News. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  320. ^ AFP (10 March 2022). "EU condemns Russian bombing of Mariupol maternity hospital as a 'war crime'". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  321. ^ Osborne, Samuel (10 March 2022). "Ukraine war: Russia says claim it bombed children's hospital is 'fake news'". Sky News. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  322. ^ "Что заявили главы МИД России и Украины после переговоров. Главное". Meduza (in Russian). 10 March 2022. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  323. ^ Trevelyan, Mark (10 March 2022). "Russia shifts stance on hospital bombing that sparked world outrage". Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  324. ^ a b "'Ukrainian propaganda': Russia says pic of pregnant woman in hospital attack is 'fake'". LBC. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  325. ^ a b Macaluso, Nora (16 March 2022). "Social Media Posts Misrepresent Victims of Hospital Bombed in Mariupol". FactCheck.org. Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  326. ^ "Ukraine war: Pregnant woman and baby die after hospital shelled". BBC News. 14 March 2022. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  327. ^ a b "Pregnant woman and baby die after attack on hospital in Mariupol". The Guardian. The Associated Press in Mariupol, Ukraine. 14 March 2022. Archived from the original on 22 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  328. ^ Feenstra, Willem; Sabel, Pieter; Verwiel, Erik (17 March 2022). "De foto's bij het bombardement op het ziekenhuis in Marioepol zouden volgens de Russen in scène zijn gezet. Wat klopt er van hun bewijzen?". de Volkskrant (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  329. ^ "Russia: Authorities launch witch-hunt to catch anyone sharing anti-war views". Amnesty International. 30 March 2022.
  330. ^ "Top Russian Journalist Defiant in Face of Fake News Investigation". VOA News. 23 March 2022.
  331. ^ Andy Hayes (16 March 2022). "Ukraine war: Mariupol theatre where 'hundreds of people sheltering' bombed by Russian forces, officials claim". Sky News. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  332. ^ James Mackenzie; Natalia Zinets; Oleksandr Kozhukhar (17 March 2022). "Shells hit theatre sheltering Ukraine civilians, Biden calls Putin a war criminal". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 March 2022. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  333. ^ a b Victoria Butenko; Olga Voitovych; Andrew Carey; James Frater; Jeevan Ravindran (17 March 2022). "Survivors emerge from rubble of Mariupol theater bombed by Russia". CNN. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  334. ^ "Ukraine theatre hit by airstrike where hundreds were sheltering had 'children' written on pavement in Russian". The Independent. 18 March 2022. Archived from the original on 21 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  335. ^ "Ukraine: Mariupol city council claims Russia destroys crowded theater — live updates". Deutsche Welle. 16 March 2022. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  336. ^ "В Мариуполе ракета разрушила здание драмтеатра. Власти заявляют, что сотни людей использовали его как убежище". Meduza (in Russian). 16 March 2022. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  337. ^ "Russia-Ukraine war: Survivors emerge from bombed Mariupol theatre". The Independent. 17 March 2022. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  338. ^ "130 Rescued in Ukrainian Theater Bombing, Search for Missing Continues". Voice of America. 18 March 2022. Archived from the original on 19 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  339. ^ "AP evidence points to 600 dead in Mariupol theater airstrike". AP NEWS. 4 May 2022. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  340. ^ Wall, Mike (9 March 2022). "Russia-Ukraine invasion updates / Satellite photos of Mariupol, Ukraine show damage from Russian attacks: Grocery stores, homes and shopping centers have gone up in smoke". space.com. Future US, Inc. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  341. ^ Aloisi, Silvia (18 March 2022). "Shattered dreams". Reuters. Reuters. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  342. ^ Klimov, Pavel; Popeski, Ron (18 March 2022). "Mariupol, on the front line of Ukraine's war". Reuters.com. Mariupol, Ukraine: Reuters. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  343. ^ a b c Bachega, Hugo; Popovych, Maksym (16 March 2022). "Ukraine war: Infection and hunger as hundreds hide in Mariupol cellar". bbc.com. BBÇ News. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  344. ^ Mason, Clark; Barros, George; Stepanenko, Kateryna (16 March 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, March 16". ISW – Institute for the Study of War. ISW – Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  345. ^ Boffey, Daniel; Tondo, Lorenzo (18 March 2022). "Fighting reaches central Mariupol as shelling hinders rescue attempts: Russia claims to be 'tightening noose' around south-eastern port city as thousands still stranded". The Guardian. Brussels, Belgium; Lviv, Ukraine. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  346. ^ "Russians push deeper into port city of Mariupol as locals plead for help: "Children, elderly people are dying"". CBSNews.com. CBS News, Associated Press. 19 March 2022. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  347. ^ "Ukraine retakes control of two Russian-occupied towns". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  348. ^ Lviv, Nathan Hodge, CNN and Julia Presniakova in (28 March 2022). "Mariupol mayor says Ukrainian city 'in the hands of the occupiers'". CNN. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  349. ^ "Ukraine War: Report of Mariupol chemical attack sparks US, UK concern". BBC. 12 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  350. ^ Christina Wilkie (12 April 2022). "Pentagon monitoring reports of possible Russian chemical weapons attack in Mariupol". CNBC. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  351. ^ a b Boyle, Danny (12 April 2022). "Tuesday morning news briefing: Vladimir Putin 'uses chemical weapons'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 May 2022. The city's Azov regiment is said to have fallen ill after a "poisonous substance of unknown origin" was reportedly dropped on them from a Russian drone. It came hours after Mariupol's mayor said more than 10,000 civilians have died in the Russian siege of his city and the death toll could surpass 20,000. Britain is increasingly worried that Russia could use white phosphorus munitions, which cause horrific burns.
  352. ^ Hall, Sam (11 April 2022). "'We are holding back the horde': Mariupol fighters battle on weeks after experts said city would fall". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 May 2022. the Azov regiment said in a statement on their Telegram channel that Russian forces appeared to have used chemical weapons. “Russian occupation forces used a poisonous substance of unknown origin against Ukrainian military and civilians in the city of Mariupol, which was dropped from an enemy drone. “The victims have respiratory failure … the effects of the unknown substance are being clarified.” The claim could not immediately be verified
  353. ^ "Ukraine War: US 'deeply concerned' at report of Mariupol chemical attack". BBC News. 12 April 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  354. ^ Sabbagh, Dan (12 April 2022). "Did Russia really use chemical weapons in Ukraine? Experts are sceptical". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 April 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  355. ^ Klein, Charlotte (17 March 2022). ""This Is Personal for Them": Two Ukrainian AP Journalists Capture the Most Devastating Moments of War". Wanity Fair. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  356. ^ Chernov, Mstyslav (22 March 2022). "20 Days in Mariupol". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  357. ^ Schwirtz, Michael (21 April 2022). "Inside the Azovstal plant, a Ukrainian sergeant prays for rescue". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  358. ^ Coalson, Robert (29 March 2022). "'Military Brainwashing': Russian State TV Pulls Out The Stops To Sell Kremlin's Narrative On The War In Ukraine". RFE/RL.
  359. ^ "Propaganda War Over Mariupol's Destruction Is Only Just Starting". Bloomberg. 22 April 2022.
  360. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma; Dyke, Joe (24 March 2022). "How Russia is using tactics from the Syrian playbook in Ukraine". Guardian News & Media Limited.
  361. ^ Parker, Claire (31 March 2022). "Russia's Ukraine war builds on tactics it used in Syria, experts say". The Washington Post.