Silvia Pinal
Silvia Pinal Hidalgo

(1931-09-12) 12 September 1931 (age 90)
Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico
EducationEl Colegio de México
National Institute of Fine Arts and Literature
OccupationActress, singer, stage and television producer, politician
Years active1949–present
(m. 1947; div. 1952)
(m. 1961; div. 1967)
(m. 1967; div. 1976)
Tulio Hernández
(m. 1982; div. 1995)

Silvia Pinal Hidalgo (born 12 September 1931) is a Mexican film, theater and television actress.[2] Pinal began her career in the theater, venturing into cinema in 1949. Her film work and popularity in her native country led her to work in Europe (Spain and Italy). Pinal achieved international recognition by starring in a famous film trilogy by director Luis Buñuel: Viridiana (1961), El ángel exterminador (1962) and Simón del desierto (1965).

In addition to her film career, she has also excelled in other areas. She was a pioneer of musical theatre in Mexico,[3] ventured into television, and held some political office charges.

Early life

Silvia Pinal Hidalgo was born in Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, on 12 September 1931.[4][5][6] Her parents were María Luisa Hidalgo Aguilar and Moisés Pasquel. Pasquel was an orchestra conductor at the Mexican radio station XEW. Pinal's mother became pregnant with Pasquel when she was only 15 years old. Her father did not recognize her and Pinal did not know him until she was 11 years old.[7] On the part of her biological father, Pinal had three more brothers: Eugenio, Moisés and Virginia. however, Pinal never spent time with the Pasquel family.[8] Pinal spent her first years behind the counter of a seafood restaurant located near the XEW where her mother worked. When Pinal was five years old, her mother married Luis G. Pinal, whom they called "El Caballero Pinal", a journalist, military man and politician twenty years older than her. Pinal recognized Pinal as his daughter. Mr. Pinal had three more daughters from a previous marriage: Mercedes, Beatriz and Eugenia. Her adoptive father held several public positions in Mexico. He was municipal president of Tequisquiapan, Querétaro. The family lived in several cities of Mexico as Querétaro, Acapulco, Monterrey, Chilpancingo, Cuernavaca and Puebla, finally settled in Mexico City.

Pinal was fascinated by show business since she was a child. In addition to film and music, she liked to write and recite poems.[9] She studied first at Pestalozzi College in Cuernavaca, and then at the Washington Institute in Mexico City. Despite her artistic aspirations, her father conditioned her to study "something useful" and therefore she learned typing. At age 14 she started working at Kodak as a secretary.[10]

Pinal wanted to study opera. She began to prepare taking classes with a private teacher and then with Professor Reyes Retana. Her first step towards fame occurred when she was invited to participate in a beauty pageant. In this contest Pinal obtained the title of Student Princess of Mexico. In her coronation she met the actors Rubén Rojo and Manolo Fábregas, with whom she became close friends.[11] While studying bel canto, Pinal went to work as a secretary in the pharmaceutical laboratories Carlos Stein. At the music academy, Pinal auditioned for a role in the opera La Traviata. However, this hearing was a failure. Then her teacher encouraged her to take acting courses in the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes. In that academy, she was a classmate of figures such as Carlos Pellicer, Salvador Novo and Xavier Villaurrutia.[12] She debuted as an extra in a performance of A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare.[13]



Pinal continued working in the pharmaceutical products firm, in her advertising department. Her boss, knowing that she was studying acting, gave her the opportunity to participate in the recording of some radio comedies in the XEQ. She debuted in the comedy Dos pesos la dejada.[14]

At the radio station, she met some publicists, who invited her to be part of an experimental company. She made her debut in that company with a role in the play Los Caprichos de Goya. The director of this work was the Mexican actor and director, of Cuban origin Rafael Banquells, with whom Pinal began an employment relationship and a close friendship that led to romance. Rafael Banquells got the master Carlos Laverne to allow them to use the Ideal Theater of Mexico City for their productions. Laverne chose Pinal to participate in a montage with the company of the Ideal Theater, directed by the Spanish actress Isabelita Blanch. The work was called Nuestra Natacha. Pinal acted in numerous works for this company. Her first star work was Un sueño de cristal.[15]


Just fifteen days after she debuted in the theater, Pinal made her debut in the cinema with a brief role in the film Bamba (1949), starring Carmen Montejo and directed by Miguel Contreras Torres. Contreras Torres had seen her work at the Ideal Theatre and invited her to take part in the project. Contreras Torres was a tough and strict director who made Pinal suffer for her inexperience. Eventually, in that same year, she performed in the film El pecado de Laura, directed by Julián Soler and starring Meche Barba. In that film she worked for the first time in cinema with Rafael Banquells, who at that time was already her husband. Immediately she made another small role in the film Escuela para casadas, by Miguel Zacarías. Pinal met and worked for the first time with the popular actor and singer Pedro Infante in the film La mujer que yo perdí. The actor and comedian Cantinflas (her wedding godfather), chose Pinal as his co-star in the film The Doorman (1949), which was a very big step for the young and new actress. But her first solid step towards popularity was her participation in the comedy El rey del barrio (1949), where she formed a great comedic pair with Germán Valdés "Tin-Tán", directed by Gilberto Martínez Solares. Pinal and Tin Tán acted together in two more films: La marca del zorrillo (1950) and Me traes de un ala (1952). Pinal participated in small roles in several more films.

Pinal received her first major recognition, her first Silver Ariel Award as a co-starring actress, for her performance in the film Un rincón cerca del cielo (1952), where she worked again with Pedro Infante. In 1952, she performed with Joaquín Pardavé in the comedies Doña Mariquita de mi corazón] and El casto Susano.

In 1953, Pinal signed a contract with the FILMEX studios of Gregorio Walerstein, who gave her first stellar works in the films Reventa de esclavas (1953) and Yo soy muy macho (1953). In that same year, she made her first musical work with the film Mis tres viudas alegres, where she shared credits with Lilia del Valle and the Cuban rumbera Amalia Aguilar. The success of the film led the three actresses to star, that same year, in the comedy Las cariñosas. In that same year , she acted with Libertad Lamarque in Si volvieras a mí.

Pinal achieved success and recognition in 1954, after participating in the film Un extraño en la escalera, directed by Tulio Demicheli, and starring opposite Arturo de Córdova. De Córdova wanted as his co-stars the Italian actress Gina Lollobrigida or the Cuban rumbera Rosa Carmina, because he distrusted Pinal due to her youth. With the support of the producer Gregorio Walerstein, Pinal made a change of image, highlighting her sex appeal, which helped her to be approved by De Cordova for the film. The film was filmed in Havana, Cuba and it was a remarkable blockbuster, which consecrates Pinal as the first figure in the cinema.[16]

Another director who knew how to make the most of Pinal's histrionic abilities was Alberto Gout. Under the baton of Gout, Pinal made the film La sospechosa (1954). Another outstanding movie in which Pinal participates is Historia de un abrigo de mink (1954),an episodic film that Pinal co-stars with the actresses María Elena Marqués, Columba Domínguez and Irasema Dilián. With Tito Davison as director, Pinal also filmed the Mexican-Spanish-Chilean co-production Cabo de Hornos (1955), along with the actor Jorge Mistral. Pinal worked again with Pedro Infante, this time as his co-star in the famous comedy El inocente (1955).

Pinal starred in several films by Tulio Demicheli. Among the most outstanding is Locura pasional (1955), which would bring her first Silver Ariel award as best actress. The second was thanks to her role in the film La dulce enemiga (1957), directed by Tito Davison. In 1956, Pinal starred in the film Una cita de amor (1956), where she worked for the first and only time under the direction of the director Emilio Fernández.

The popularity and success of Pinal in Mexico opened the doors for her to work in Europe following the advice of Tulio Demicheli. Her first work in the Old Continent is in the Spanish-Mexican co-production Las locuras de Bárbara (1958), directed by Demicheli. From the hand of Demicheli Silvia starred in Spain the musical film Charleston.

Pinal with Elke Sommer in Uomini e Nobiluomini (1959)
Pinal with Elke Sommer in Uomini e Nobiluomini (1959)

Given the success of her films in Europe, Pinal was invited to work in Italy, where she also served as producer of the film Uomini e Nobiluomini (1959), which she starred next to Vittorio de Sica and Elke Sommer.

Under the direction of José María Forqué, Pinal starred in Spain in the film Maribel y la extraña familia (1960). In 1961 she filmed the Spanish musical film Adiós, Mimí Pompom, next to Fernando Fernán Gómez.

Pinal achieved international acclaim through a trilogy of films that marked the end of the Mexican era of the Spanish filmmaker Luis Buñuel. Pinal had her first contact with Buñuel through Mexican actor Ernesto Alonso, with the firm intention of starring in the film version of the novel Tristana. However, the little commercial success of Buñuel's films prevented the producers from financing the project, which ended up collapsing (Buñuel filmed the film years later in Spain with Catherine Deneuve).[17]

Pinal in Viridiana (1961)
Pinal in Viridiana (1961)

Years later, Pinal, with the help of her second husband, producer Gustavo Alatriste, looked for Buñuel in Spain and convinced him to film Viridiana (1961). This, without a doubt, is her most famous film. She was co-starred by Francisco Rabal and Fernando Rey, and was the winner of the Palme d'Or at the prestigious Cannes Film Festival. Despite the success and prestige enjoyed by the film, it was at the time, rejected by the Spanish censorship and the Vatican, accusing it of blasphemy. The Spanish government ordered its destruction. Through the intervention of Pinal, who fled with a copy to Mexico, the film was saved.[18] In Mexico, Vatican censorship had also resonated. However, with the help of Salvador Novo, the film premiered in some rooms.

Her second film with Buñuel was El ángel exterminador (1962), which Pinal starred in with a choral cast. The film also received critical acclaim worldwide. In 2004, the New York Times recognized it among the best films of all time.[19]

Her third and last project with Buñuel was Simón del desierto (1964). The film, misrepresented as a medium-length film, was originally conceived to be an episodic film. Pinal and Gustavo Alatriste looked for Federico Fellini to direct a second episode, but Fellini accepted with the condition that his wife, Giulietta Masina, starred in it. Jules Dassin was then sought, who likewise accepted on the condition that it was starred by his wife Melina Mercouri. Pinal also rejected this request. The idea was that Pinal starred in all the episodes of the film, so the project ended up filming only with Buñuel.[20] In the film Pinal also made the first nude appearance of her career, something still rare in Mexican cinema and also the first naked scenes of Buñuel's cinema.[21]

Pinal was also on the verge of starring with Buñuel in the film Diary of a Chambermaid, in France. Pinal learned French and was willing to charge nothing for her participation. However, the French producer Serge Silberman ended up choosing Jeanne Moreau.[22] Even so, Pinal (along with Lilia Prado), who is the actress with whom Buñuel worked with the most, made a total of three classic films. Pinal was also going to shoot with Buñuel in Spain on Divinas palabras, but there were problems with copyrights. Years later, Pinal was finally able to do it in Mexico with another director.

After her work with Buñuel, Pinal returned to the cinema with the comedy Buenas noches, Año Nuevo (1965), where she alternated with Ricardo Montalbán. In 1966 she made the mythical film La soldadera, directed by José Bolaños and inspired by the events of the Mexican Revolution. In that same year she participated in the Mexican-Brazilian co-production Juego peligroso, directed by Luis Alcoriza and based on a script by Gabriel García Márquez. She also appeared in the Franco-Italian-Mexican co-production La bataille de san sebastian, along with Anthony Quinn and Charles Bronson. In 1967 Pinal films Shark!, together with Burt Reynolds and directed by Samuel Fuller, making this the only Hollywood production in which Pinal has appeared. Pinal achieved a huge blockbuster with the film María Isabel (1968), based on a popular cartoon by Yolanda Vargas Dulché.

Between the late 1960s and early 1970s, Pinal mainly made comic films directed by the filmmaker René Cardona Jr.. In 1976, Pinal starred in Las mariposas disecadas, a thriller of psychological suspense. In 1977 she finally starred in the controversial film Divinas palabras (1977), directed by Juan Ibáñez, a film where she made an integral nude scene.

At the end of the seventies and the beginning of the eighties, Pinal filmed some films in Spain, Italy and Argentina as part of a project by Televisa to unify the Spanish and Latin American markets.

Silvia Pinal in 2019
Silvia Pinal in 2019

After ten years of absence in the cinema, Pinal returned in 1992 with the tape Modelo antiguo, directed by Raúl Araiza. The decline of Mexican cinema and the activity of Pinal on television and other media (such as politics), made her practically withdraw from the big screen. In recent years, her film appearances are limited to films Ya no los hacen como antes (2002), and a brief special appearance on the movie Tercera llamada (2013).


Pinal made her debut at the theater in the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes. Eventually she did experimental plays, to then work at the Ideal Theater in Mexico City, in the company of the Spanish actress Isabelita Blanch, where she was directed in numerous productions by Rafael Banquells.

Outside of this company, in 1950 participates in the play Celos del aire, with Manolo Fábregas and Carmen Montejo. In that same year she represented Doña Inés in Don Juan Tenorio, next to Jorge Mistral. Of her most outstanding plays from the beginning of her career stand out The Madwoman of Chaillot, next to Prudencia Griffel and El cuadrante de la soledad, by José Revueltas, with sets by the artist Diego Rivera. In 1954, Pinal participates in the play La Sed, with Ernesto Alonso and the Argentinean actor Pedro López Lagar. In 1955 she obtained the recognition in the theater scene in the assembly Anna Christie, along with Wolf Ruvinskis. In 1957 Pinal staged the play Desnúdate, Lucrecia, in Chile, next to Jorge Mistral, who eventually starred in the cinema in Mexico.

In 1958, Pinal was responsible for producing in Mexico the first Musical comedy Bells Are Ringing, directed by Luis de Llano Palmer. For this work, Pinal had an offer to work on Broadway with the manager of Judy Holliday, but Pinal refused to cut her career in Mexico.[23]

In 1964 she made the Mexican version of the musical Irma La Douce, alongside Julio Alemán and directed by Enrique Rambal. José Luis Ibáñez will end up becoming her head theater director. Under the baton of Ibañez, Pinal starred in the work Vidas privadas. One of her most memorable works in musical comedy, was the Mexican version of Mame, successful Broadway musical, which thanks to her success, Pinal rode three times (1972, 1985 and 1989). In 1976 he also starred in the musical Annie Get Your Gun.

In 1977, to commemorate her twenty-five year career, Pinal set up her own cabaret show entitled ¡Felicidades Silvia!. The show was presented with great success, first at the nightclub El Patio, and then at the Teatro de la Ciudad in Mexico City.

In 1978, she starred in the musical Plaza Suite. The death of her daughter Viridiana, truncated the theatrical project Agnes of God, which starred together in 1982.[24] In 1983, Pinal starred in and produced the Mexican montage of the work La señorita de Tacna, based on the work of Mario Vargas Llosa. In 1985, while serving as First Lady of the state of Tlaxcala, Pinal remodeled the Xicohténcatl Theater, which reopened with the assembly The memories of the Divine Sarah. In 1986, Pinal starred in the work Anna Karenina, which despite the success obtained, was not to the liking of the actress, and the assembly only reached 100 performances.

In 1988, in association with Margarita López Portillo, Pinal acquired the Cine Estadio, located in Colonia Roma in Mexico City, transforming it into its own theatrical venue, the Silvia Pinal Theater, a space dedicated mainly to musical comedy. which Pinal was free to set up her own productions.[25] The theater was inaugurated in 1989 with the third representation of the musical Mame, with Pinal at the head of the cast.

In 1992, Pinal acquired the former Cine Versalles, located in Colonia Juárez in Mexico City and turned it into his second theater, the Diego Rivera Theater. The Diego Rivera Theater was inaugurated in 1991 with the assembly Lettice and Lovage.

In 1996, Pinal returned to the musical theater with the second Mexican version of Hello, Dolly!, opposite Ignacio López Tarso. The last work that Pinal starred in her previous theater was Gypsy (1998), starring alongside her daughter, the singer Alejandra Guzmán.

As a producer, she was responsible for making the Mexican versions of the musicals A Chorus Line (1989), Cats (1991) and La Cage aux Folles (1992). Unfortunately, several problems caused Pinal to close the Silvia Pinal Theater, which stopped functioning in 2000 to become a religious temple.

Pinal returned to the theater in 2002 with the play Debiera haber obispas. In recent dates she has also participated in productions such as Adorables enemigas (2008) and Amor, dolor y lo que puesto (2012). In 2014, the Diego Rivera Theater changed its name to become the new Silvia Pinal Theatre.[26]


Pinal dabbled in television since its appearance in Mexico in the early 1950s. In 1952, she participated in her television show titled Con los brazos abiertos. Eventually she participates in numerous telecasts, produced by Luis de Llano Palmer. That's where Pinal first introduced the use of playback on Mexican television.[27]

In the mid-sixties, Pinal staged her own comic-musical show on Televisa entitled Los especiales de Silvia Pinal. When Silvia married the actor and singer Enrique Guzmán, both produced and starred in the variety show Silvia y Enrique (a comedy-musical program in the style of The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour), which presented during four years (1968–1972) with a great success. Once separated from Guzmán, Silvia continued with her variety show titled ¡Ahora Silvia!!.

In 1985, she became a producer and presenter of the TV show Mujer, casos de la vida real. Initially, the show was created to respond to cases and needs of the public focused on locating victims of the 1985 earthquake in Mexico City. With the passage of time, the show evolved to present current issues and daily life that included from domestic violence to legal issues and public health. This production was a success and lasted more than 20 years transmitting in Mexico, Spain, Italy and several countries in Latin America. The program was canceled in 2007.

In 2009 Pinal also participated in a chapter of the series Mujeres asesinas.

In 1968, Pinal makes his debut in telenovelas with the historical telenovela Los caudillos, inspired by the events of the War of Independence of Mexico. The telenovela was produced by Ernesto Alonso. Her second foray into the genre was with the telenovela ¿Quién? (1973), produced by Guillermo Diazayas and based on a cartoon by Yolanda Vargas Dulché.

Eventually, Pinal decided to produce her own telenovelas, her first hit being Mañana es primavera (1982), the last acting work of her daughter Viridiana, before dying. In 1985 he also produced and starred in Eclipse.

Her last works in television have been in special participations in various telenovelas and television series. The most relevant ones are Carita de ángel (2000), in which she went on to replace the actress Libertad Lamarque, who at the time of her death left her character unfinished in this childhood melodrama), Fuego en la sangre (2008), Soy tu dueña (2010) and Mi marido tiene familia (2017).

In addition to the aforementioned telenovelas that she starred, Pinal also produced the melodramas Cuando los hijos van (1983) and Tiempo de amar (1987).


Pinal dabbled in the world of politics as a result of her fourth marriage, with the politician Tulio Hernández Gómez, who was governor of the State of Tlaxcala. Between 1981 and 1987, Pinal was the First Lady of that state. Eventually she became a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party and was elected to federal deputy in 1991.[28] Later, she became a senator and member of the Asamblea de Representantes del Federal District. In these positions, Pinal had some achievements. Among the most outstanding are to achieve that the Cinematographic Law contemplate the right of interpreter, worked on the Law of Condominiums and the Law of Tourism, did tasks in favor of ecology, promoted the dissemination of theater books and fought for the Ministry of Finance to lower taxes on the theater.[29]

Since the fifties, Pinal actively participated in trade union movements of the actors of his country. She was part of the group "Rosa Mexicano" , founded by Dolores del Río. Between 1988 and 1995, Pinal became a leader of the National Association of Interpreters (A.N.D.I.) of Mexico.

Pinal had problems with justice in the year 2000 due to problems in her management as leader of the Association of Theater Producers (Protea) in the early 1990s. For this reason the actress lived some time in Miami, United States.[30] After eleven months, the actress was declared innocent and returned to her country.[31]

Between 2010 and 2014, Pinal also served as General Secretary of the Screen Actors Guild of México (ANDA) of Mexico.[32]

In an attempt to protect the mature actors, she became the founder of the Asociación Rafael Banquells, in charge of providing non-profit help to the interpreters. As president of the association, Pinal is in charge of the delivery of the Bravo Awards to the highlights in music, film, theater, radio, television, dubbing and commercial realization during the year. The awards are given annually since 1991.

Personal life

Pinal, c. 1955
Pinal, c. 1955

Pinal has been married four times. Her first marriage was with the actor and director Rafael Banquells, who was her first formal boyfriend. Pinal married Banquells in 1947. Pinal acknowledges that her marriage at such an early age was partly due to escape from her father's repression: "I changed my father for a softer one that stimulated me in my career." The couple divorced in 1952, a year after the birth of their daughter, Sylvia Pasquel, who later had an outstanding career as an actress.[33]

Her second marriage was with the businessman and film producer Gustavo Alatriste. Pinal has revealed on numerous occasions that Alatriste was the love of her life, a husband with whom she could have stayed forever. Pinal met Alatriste at a meeting at Ernesto Alonso's house when he was about to divorce the actress Ariadne Welter. It was thanks to Alatriste that Pinal was able to make her film projects with Luis Buñuel. The marriage ended in 1967 due to Alatriste's infidelities and business problems between the couple.[34] Of her relationship with Alatriste was born a daughter, also actress Viridiana Alatriste (born in 1963). Unfortunately, Viridiana died tragically in a car accident in Mexico City in 1982, only 19 years old.[35]

Her third marriage was with the popular singer and idol of Rock and roll Enrique Guzmán. Pinal and Guzmán met when he came as a guest on the Pinal's television show ¡Ahora Silvia!. Pinal and Guzmán were married in 1967 despite some resistance from Pinal being 11 years older than her husband. Their marriage lasted nine years. They worked together and procreated two children: the popular singer Alejandra Guzmán (born in 1968) and the musician and composer Luis Enrique Guzmán (born in 1970).[36]

Her last marriage was with the politician, and then governor of the state of Tlaxcala, Tulio Hernández Gómez. The couple married in 1982. It was through Hernández that Pinal entered the world of politics. Pinal and Hernandez divorced in 1995.

In addition to her marriages, at various times in her life, Pinal held various romances. In 1954, when filming Un extraño en la escalera, Pinal fell in love with her co-star, the actor Arturo de Córdova.[37] Others of her romances were with the Mexican businessman Emilio Azcárraga Milmo,[38] the Egyptian actor Omar Sharif[39] and with the American businessman Conrad Nicholson Hilton, Jr..[40]

With the passage of time, Pinal has become the head of one of the most famous artistic dynasties in Latin America. Her daughters Sylvia and Viridiana followed in her footsteps as an actress. The youngest of her daughters, Alejandra, is one of the most popular singers in Mexico. Alejandra's daughter Frida Sofia is also a model, currently living in Miami Fl. In addition, her granddaughter Stephanie Salas (daughter of Sylvia) has also forged a career as an actress and singer. Stephanie's daughters, Michelle Salas and Camila Valero, are both models and actresses.[41]

Awards and honors

Silvia Pinal statue located in Mexico City
Silvia Pinal statue located in Mexico City





Stage (producer)



  1. ^ Flores, Paulina (22 March 2019). "La historia de cuando Silvia Pinal huyó en la cajuela de un carro para no ir a la cárcel" (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  2. ^ "Silvia Pinal, una actriz de "mil 190 años" que parece de 90". El Universal (in Spanish). 14 September 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  3. ^ Silvia Pinal, pionneer of the Musical Theatre in Mexico
  4. ^ "FOTOS: Silvia Pinal cumple 89 años este 12 de septiembre. ¡Conoce la trayectoria de una grande del cine mexicano en esta imperdible galería!". TV Azteca. 12 September 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  5. ^ "¡Derrochaba sensualidad! Así de bella era Silvia Pinal en su juventud: FOTOS". El Heraldo de México. 12 September 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  6. ^ "Silvia Pinal celebra este 12 de septiembre su cumpleaños 89". 12 September 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  7. ^ TVyNovelas México: Silvia Pinal presents her autobiographic book
  8. ^ Pinal, Silvia (2015). "Esta soy yo". México City: Editorial Porrúa. pp. 24, 25. ISBN 978-607-09-2109-4.
  9. ^ Pinal (1996), p. 15
  10. ^ García Riera, Emilio (1996). El Cine de Silvia Pínl. Universidad de Guadalajara / Instituto Mexicano de Cinematografía. p. 20. ISBN 978-968-895-714-1.
  11. ^ Pinal (1996), p. 28
  12. ^ Pinal (1996), p. 31
  13. ^ García Riera (1996), p. 21
  14. ^ García Riera (1996), p. 21
  15. ^ García Riera (1996), p. 22
  16. ^ García Riera (1996), p. 65–66
  17. ^ Interview with Silvia Pinal: Viridiana
  18. ^ Pinal (2015), p. 170
  19. ^ The Film Critics of The New York Times (2004). "The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 May 2010.
  20. ^ Interview with Silvia Pinal: Simón del desierto
  21. ^ García Riera (1996), p. 108
  22. ^ Taller de Actores Profesionales (TAP): Silvia Pinal
  23. ^ Pinal (1996), p. 133
  24. ^ Univisió The Night Viridiana Alatriste dies
  25. ^ The Musical Theatre in Latin America: Silvia Pinal
  26. ^ Silvia Pinal returns with a new theatre
  27. ^ García Riera (1996), p. 28
  28. ^ García Riera (1996), p. 25
  29. ^ García Riera (1996), p. 21–22
  30. ^ Proceso: The Case of Silvia Pinal
  31. ^ La Jornada: Silvia Pinal returns to Mexico
  32. ^ Silvia Pinal is the new General Secretary of the ANDA
  33. ^ García Riera (1996), p. 21–22
  34. ^ García Riera (1996), p. 22
  35. ^ Univisió The Night Viridiana Alatriste dies
  36. ^ Quié Enrique Guzmán and Silvia Pinal
  37. ^ García Riera (1996), p. 22–23
  38. ^ People en Español: Silvia Pinal and Emilio Azcárraga Milmo
  39. ^ Pinal (2015), p. 366
  40. ^ Silvia Pinal prefers México than Hollywood
  41. ^ Univisió The Pinals: A controversial and powerful Mexican dynasty
  42. ^ Pinal (1996), p. 79
  43. ^ Pinal (1996), p. 265, 268
  44. ^ El Universal: Silvia Pinal have a Statue
  45. ^ Cró Silvia Pinal receives the Órden de Isabel la Católica
  46. ^ Ortega, Luis Alejandro (29 September 2015). "Silvia Pinal cuenta su vida en 'Esta soy yo'" [Silvia Pinal tells her life story in 'Esta soy yo']. Noticieros Televisa (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 7 October 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  47. ^ El Universal: Silvia Pinal is part of the AMPAS of Hollywood
  48. ^ Quién: Matt Casella and Silvia Pinal biographical serie