A number of additional characters are used with the International Phonetic Alphabet by linguists documenting the languages of China and neighboring countries, especially linguists based in China.


Primary vowels

These letters are used by those who want symbols for five equally-spaced vowels in formant space.

Fricative vowels

These letters, sometimes mistakenly called "apical",[1][2] derive from Karlgren, from a turned ⟨ι⟩.

Alveolo-palatal consonants

These letters are featural derivatives of ⟨ɕ⟩ and ⟨ʑ⟩.


  1. ^ Lee, Wai-Sum; Zee, Eric (June 2003). "Standard Chinese (Beijing)". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 33 (1): 109–112. doi:10.1017/S0025100303001208.
  2. ^ Lee-Kim, Sang-Im (December 2014). "Revisiting Mandarin 'apical vowels': An articulatory and acoustic study". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 44 (3): 261–282. doi:10.1017/S0025100314000267. S2CID 16432272.