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Social–liberal coalition (German: Sozialliberale Koalition) in the politics of Germany refers to a governmental coalition formed by the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Free Democratic Party (FDP).

The term stems from social democracy of the SPD and the liberalism of the FDP. Because of the colours traditionally used to symbolise the two parties (red for SPD and yellow for FDP), such a coalition is also referred to as a "red–yellow" coalition (rot–gelbe Koalition).

Social–liberal coalitions are currently rare, as the SPD usually governs with the Alliance '90/The Greens and the FDP orients itself towards long-term co-operation with the Christian Democratic Union and Bavarian Christian Social Union. However, a social–liberal coalition ruled from 1991 to 2006 in the German State of Rhineland-Palatinate and would have continued to do so, had the SPD not won an absolute majority. Social–liberal coalitions have previously been in power in many other federal states of Germany as well.

From 1969 to 1982 social–liberal coalitions led by Federal Chancellors Willy Brandt and Helmut Schmidt governed the Federal Republic of Germany.

Social–liberal coalitions at the federal state level

After the term, the leader of the government is given.





Lower Saxony

North Rhine-Westphalia


See also