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Somatic symptom disorder
SpecialtyPsychiatry, Psychology

A somatic symptom disorder, formerly known as a somatoform disorder,[1][2][3] is any mental disorder that manifests as physical symptoms that suggest illness or injury, but cannot be explained fully by a general medical condition or by the direct effect of a substance, and are not attributable to another mental disorder (e.g., panic disorder).[4] Somatic symptom disorders, as a group, are included in a number of diagnostic schemes of mental illness, including the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (Before DSM-5 this disorder was split into somatization disorder and undifferentiated somatoform disorder.)

In people who have been diagnosed with a somatic symptom disorder, medical test results are either normal or do not explain the person's symptoms, and history and physical examination do not indicate the presence of a known medical condition that could cause them, though the DSM-5 cautions that this alone is not sufficient for diagnosis.[1] The patient must also be excessively worried about their symptoms, and this worry must be judged to be out of proportion to the severity of the physical complaints themselves.[5] A diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder requires that the subject have recurring somatic complaints for at least six months.[6]

Symptoms are sometimes similar to those of other illnesses and may last for years. Usually, the symptoms begin appearing during adolescence, and patients are diagnosed before the age of 30 years.[7] Symptoms may occur across cultures and gender.[6] Other common symptoms include anxiety and depression.[6] However, since anxiety and depression are also very common in persons with confirmed medical illnesses,[8] it remains unproven whether such symptoms are a consequence of the physical impairment or a cause. Somatic symptom disorders are not the result of conscious malingering (fabricating or exaggerating symptoms for secondary motives) or factitious disorders (deliberately producing, feigning, or exaggerating symptoms).[9] Somatic symptom disorder is difficult to diagnose and treat. Some advocates of the diagnosis believe this is because proper diagnosis and treatment requires psychiatrists to work with neurologists on patients with this disorder.[6]

History

Somitisation disorder was first described by Paul Briquet in 1859 and was subsequently known as Briquet's syndrome. He described patients who had been sickly most of their lives and complained of multiple symptoms from different organ systems. Symptoms persist despite multiple consultations, hospitalisations and investigations.[10]

Definition

Somatic symptom disorders are a group of disorders, all of which fit the definition of physical symptoms similar to those observed in physical disease or injury for which there is no identifiable physical cause. As such, they are a diagnosis of exclusion. Somatic symptoms may be generalized in four major medical categories: neurological, cardiac, pain, and gastrointestinal somatic symptoms.[11]

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Somatic symptom disorders used to be recognized as Somatoform disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association. The following[12] were conditions under the term Somatoform Disorders:

In the newest version of DSM-5 (2013) somatic symptom disorders are recognized under the term somatic symptom and related disorders:

Included among these disorders are false pregnancy, psychogenic urinary retention, and mass psychogenic illness (so-called mass hysteria).

Somatization disorder as a mental disorder was recognized in the DSM-IV-TR classification system, but in the latest version DSM-5, it was combined with undifferentiated somatoform disorder to become somatic symptom disorder, a diagnosis which no longer requires a specific number of somatic symptoms.[14]

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

The ICD-10, the latest version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, classifies conversion disorder as a dissociative disorder. ICD-10 still includes somatization syndrome.[15]

Treatment

Psychotherapy, more specifically, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), is the most widely used form of treatment for somatic symptom disorder. In 2016, a randomized 12-week study suggested steady and significant improvement in health anxiety measures with cognitive behavioral therapy compared to the control group.[16][17]

CBT can help in some of the following ways:[18]

Moreover, brief psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy (PIT) for patients with multisomatoform disorder has shown its long-term efficacy for improving the physical quality of life in patients with multiple, difficult-to-treat, medically unexplained symptoms.[19]

Antidepressant medication has also been used to treat some of the symptoms of depression and anxiety that are common among people who have somatic symptom disorder.[18] Medications will not cure somatic symptom disorder, but can help the treatment process when combined with CBT.

Controversy

Somatic symptom disorder has been a controversial diagnosis, since it was historically based primarily on negative criteria; that is, the absence of a medical explanation for the presenting physical complaints. Consequently, any person suffering from a poorly understood illness can potentially fulfill the criteria for this psychiatric diagnosis, even if they exhibit no psychiatric symptoms in the conventional sense.[20][21]

Misdiagnosis

In the opinion of Allen Frances, chair of the DSM-IV task force, the DSM-5's somatic symptom disorder brings with it a risk of mislabeling a sizable proportion of the population as mentally ill. “Millions of people could be mislabeled, with the burden falling disproportionately on women, because they are more likely to be casually dismissed as ‘catastrophizers’ when presenting with physical symptoms.”[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b (2013) "Somatic Symptom Disorder Fact Sheet Archived 2013-11-02 at the Wayback Machine" dsm5.org. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
  2. ^ "DSM-5 redefines hypochondriasis Archived 2015-02-23 at the Wayback Machine" mayoclinic.org. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
  3. ^ "Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders" psychiatryonline.org. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
  4. ^ American Psychiatric Association. Task Force on DSM-IV (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 485. ISBN 978-0-89042-025-6.
  5. ^ Oyama O, Paltoo C, Greengold J (November 2007). "Somatoform disorders". American Family Physician. 76 (9): 1333–8. PMID 18019877.
  6. ^ a b c d Kroenke K; Spitzer RL; deGruy FV; et al. (1997). "Multisomatoform disorder. An alternative to undifferentiated somatoform disorder for the somatizing patient in primary care". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 54 (4): 352–8. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830160080011. PMID 9107152.
  7. ^ LaFrance WC (July 2009). "Somatoform disorders". Seminars in Neurology. 29 (3): 234–46. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1223875. PMID 19551600.
  8. ^ Cassem, Edwin H. (March 1995). "Depressive Disorders in the Medically Ill". Psychosomatics. 36 (2): S2–S10. doi:10.1016/S0033-3182(95)71698-X. PMID 7724710.
  9. ^ Skumin, V. A. (1991). Pogranichnye psikhicheskie rasstroĭstva pri khronicheskikh bolezniakh pishchevaritel'noĭ sistemy u deteĭ i podrostkov [Borderline mental disorders in chronic diseases of the digestive system in children and adolescents]. Zhurnal Nevropatologii I Psikhiatrii Imeni S.s. Korsakova (Moscow, Russia : 1952) (in Russian). Moscow: Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova. 91 (8): 81–814. OCLC 117464823. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  10. ^ "Briquet's Syndrome (somatization disorder, DSM-IV- TR #300.81)" (PDF).
  11. ^ Williams, Sara E.; Zahka, Nicole E. (2017). Treating Somatic Symptoms in Children and Adolescents (Guilford Child and Adolescent Practitioner Series). 370 Seventh Avenue, Suite 1200, New York, NY 10001: The Guilford Press. pp. 18–21. ISBN 9781462529520. LCCN 2016049135.CS1 maint: location (link)
  12. ^ American Psychiatric Association. Task Force on DSM-IV (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 485. ISBN 978-0-89042-025-6.
  13. ^ Hales, Robert E; Yudofsky, Stuart C (2004). Essentials of Clinical Psychiatry. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 444. ISBN 9781585620333. Somatoform disorder Not otherwise specified.
  14. ^ "Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5" (PDF). American Psychiatric Association. May 17, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 17, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
  15. ^ "ICD-10 Version:2015". Archived from the original on 2015-11-02. Retrieved 2015-05-23.
  16. ^ Hedman, Erik; Axelsson, Erland; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn (2016-11-01). "Exposure-based cognitive-behavioural therapy via the internet and as bibliotherapy for somatic symptom disorder and illness anxiety disorder: randomised controlled trial". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 209 (5): 407–413. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.116.181396. ISSN 1472-1465. PMID 27491531.
  17. ^ N, van Dessel; M, den Boeft; Jc, van der Wouden; M, Kleinstäuber; Ss, Leone; B, Terluin; Me, Numans; He, van der Horst; H, van Marwijk (2014-11-01). "Non-pharmacological Interventions for Somatoform Disorders and Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms (MUPS) in Adults". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (11): CD011142. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011142.pub2. PMID 25362239.
  18. ^ a b "Somatic symptom disorder Treatments and drugs - Mayo Clinic". Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 2017-04-19. Retrieved 2017-04-19.
  19. ^ Sattel H, Lahmann C, Gundel H, Guthrie E, Kruse J, Noll-Hussong M, Ohmann C, Ronel J, Sack M, Sauer N, Schneider G, Henningsen P. Brief psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy for patients with multisomatoform disorder: randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2012;200(1):60-7.
  20. ^ Morrison, J. (2014). DSM-5® made easy: The clinician's guide to diagnosis. New York: Guildford Press.
  21. ^ a b Frances A (2013). "The new somatic symptom disorder in DSM-5 risks mislabeling many people as mentally ill". BMJ. 346: f1580. doi:10.1136/bmj.f1580. PMID 23511949.
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