|11th century BC–286 BC|
|Religion||Chinese folk religion, ancestor worship, Taoism|
|11th century BC|
• Conquered by Qi
Sòng (Chinese: 宋; Old Chinese: *[s]ˤuŋ-s) was a state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, with its capital at Shangqiu. The state was founded soon after King Wu of Zhou conquered the Shang dynasty to establish the Zhou dynasty in 1046 BC. It was conquered by the State of Qi in 286 BC, during the Warring States period. Confucius was a descendant of a Song nobleman who moved to the State of Lu.
After King Wu of Zhou overthrew the last ruler of Shang, marking the transition to the Zhou Dynasty, the victor was honor-bound by feudal etiquette to allow the defeated house (Shang) to continue offering sacrifices to their ancestors.
King Zhou of Shang, Di Xin was the younger brother of Zi Qi (a semi-legendary Chinese sage who is said to have ruled Gija Joseon in the 11th century BCE) and Zi Yan (子衍) (later rulers of Zhou's vassal state Song), father of Wu Geng.
As a result, for a time Shang became a vassal state of Zhou, with the Shang heir Wu Geng allowed to continue ancestor worship at Yin (殷). This practice was referred to as èrwáng-sānkè (二王三恪).
However, after King Wu's death, Wu Geng fomented a rebellion with an alliance of eastern states, and was killed by the Duke of Zhou. Another Shang royal family descendant, Weizi, was granted land at Shangqiu (商邱, "the hill of Shang"), where the capital of the new State of Song was built.
A sign of its descent from the Shang is that the Song in its early period followed the succession principle of agnatic seniority, rather than agnatic primogeniture like the Zhou.
In 701 BC, a political marriage between Lady Yong of Song (宋雍氏) and Duke Zhuang of Zheng (as well as the capture of Zhai Zhong (祭仲), a leading warrior) empowered Song to manipulate the administration of Zheng.
In 651 BC, Duke Huan of Song (宋桓公) died, leaving the district to be ruled by Duke Xiang, who reigned from 651 to 637 BC. He was considered a Hegemon by some, but was unable to maintain that role. He eventually fell to the troops of Chu.
In 355 BC, Dai Ticheng (戴剔成), a distant relative of the ruling royal line and once a minister of Duke Huan II, managed to usurp the throne. In 328 BC, Dai Yan, a younger brother of Ticheng, took the throne and declared himself to be King Kang of Song, with Ticheng murdered or exiled. The king was ambitious and had succeeded in beating troops from Chu, Wei and Qi and annexing Teng. However, the kingdom was finally annexed by Qi in 286 BC, with troops from Chu and Wei serving on behalf of Qi. Qin, which had been an ally of Song, refused to intervene for strategic and diplomatic reasons after being convinced by Su Dai from Wei. Su's predictions were proven correct and Qin benefited from the downfall of its former ally.
The philosopher Mozi references this state in the chapter "Obvious Existence of Ghosts", in which he mentions a number of Spring and Autumn Annals, including those of the Zhou, Yan, and Qi. The Spring and Autumn Annals of Song has not survived.
Unless otherwise indicated, the ruler is the son of his predecessor.
Main article: Family tree of Confucius in the main line of descent
Confucius was a descendant of the Dukes of Song, as are his descendants, the Dukes of Yansheng.
The title of Duke of Song and "Duke Who Continues and Honours the Yin" (殷紹嘉公) were bestowed upon Kong An (孔安 (東漢)) by the Eastern Han dynasty because he was part of the Shang dynasty's legacy. This branch of the Confucius family is a separate branch from the line that held the title of Marquis of Fengsheng village and later Duke Yansheng.
Song is represented by the star Eta Ophiuchi in the asterism Left Wall, Heavenly Market enclosure (see Chinese constellation).