Southeast Asian Games
SEA Games logo.svg
The Southeast Asian Games Federation logo
AbbreviationSEA Games
First event1959 Southeast Asian Peninsular Games in Bangkok, Thailand
Occur every2 years (every odd year)
Next event2023 Southeast Asian Games in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
PurposeMulti sport event for nations on the Southeast Asian subcontinent
HeadquartersBangkok, Thailand
PresidentCharouck Arirachakaran
WebsiteSEAGFOffice.org

The Southeast Asian Games, also known as the SEA Games, is a biennial multi-sport event involving participants from the current 11 countries of Southeast Asia. The games are under the regulation of the Southeast Asian Games Federation with supervision by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA).

The Southeast Asian Games is one of the five subregional Games of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA). The others are the Central Asian Games, the East Asian Youth Games, the South Asian Games, and the West Asian Games.[1]

History

The Southeast Asian Games owes its origins to the South East Asian Peninsular Games or SEAP Games. On 22 May 1958, delegates from the countries in Southeast Asian Peninsula attending the Asian Games in Tokyo, Japan had a meeting and agreed to establish a sports organization. The SEAP Games was conceptualized by Luang Sukhum Nayapradit, then vice-president of the Thailand Olympic Committee. The proposed rationale was that a regional sports event will help promote co-operation, understanding, and relations among countries in the Southeast Asian region.

Six countries, Burma (now Myanmar), Kampuchea (now Cambodia), Laos, Malaya (now Malaysia), Thailand and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) were the founding members. These countries agreed to hold the Games biennially in June 1959 and the SEAP Games Federation Committee was formed thereafter.[2]

The first SEAP Games were held in Bangkok from 12–17 December 1959, with more than 527 athletes and officials from 6 countries; Burma (now Myanmar), Laos, Malaya, Singapore, South Vietnam and Thailand participated in 12 sports.

At the 8th SEAP Games in 1975, the SEAP Federation considered the inclusion of Brunei, Indonesia, and the Philippines. These countries were formally admitted in 1977, the same year when SEAP Federation changed their name to the Southeast Asian Games Federation (SEAGF), and the games were known as the Southeast Asian Games. Despite its location closer to the Pacific archipelago than the Asian continent and not being a member of ASEAN, East Timor was admitted at the 22nd Southeast Asian Games in 2003 HanoiHo Chi Minh City.

The 2009 Southeast Asian Games was the first time Laos has ever hosted a Southeast Asian Games (Laos had previously declined to host the 1965 Southeast Asian Peninsular Games citing financial difficulties). Running from 9–18 December, it has also commemorated the 50 years of the Southeast Asian Games, held in Vientiane, Laos. The South-East Asian Games were originally called the Southeast Asian Peninsular Games, and changed its name after the inclusion of Brunei, the Philippines and Indonesia in 1977. The first SEA Games were held in Bangkok in 1959, comprising more than 527 athletes and officials in 12 sports.

Symbol

The Southeast Asian Games symbol was introduced during the 1959 SEAP Games in Bangkok, depicting six rings that represent the six founding members and was used until the 1997 edition in Jakarta. The number of rings has increased to 10 during the 1999 edition in Brunei to reflect the inclusion of Singapore, which was admitted into the Southeast Asian Games Federation in 1961, and Brunei, Indonesia, and the Philippines, which joined the organization in 1977. The number of rings was again increased to 11 during the 2011 Games in Indonesia to reflect the federation's newest member, East Timor, which was admitted in 2003. The official logo is a combination of five fingers holding the 10-circle chain Southeast Asian Games Federation logo, shaping an image of a dove, which is a symbol of peace. There were almost 1,000 entries for the logo. The organisers also revealed “For a Stronger Southeast Asia” as the slogan for the competitions.

Participating NOCs

NOC Names Formal Names Debuted IOC code Other codes used
 Brunei Brunei Darussalam 1977 BRU BRN (ISO)
 Cambodia Kingdom of Cambodia 1961 CAM KHM (1972–1976, ISO)
 Indonesia Republic of Indonesia 1977 INA IHO (1952), IDN (FIFA, ISO)
 Laos Lao People's Democratic Republic 1959 LAO
 Malaysia Malaysia 1959 MAS MAL (1952 − 1988), MYS (ISO)
 Myanmar Republic of the Union of Myanmar 1959 MYA BIR (1948 – 1988), MMR (ISO)
 Philippines Republic of the Philippines 1977 PHI PHL (ISO)
 Singapore Republic of Singapore 1959 SGP SIN (1959 – 2016)
 Thailand Kingdom of Thailand 1959 THA
 Timor-Leste Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste 2003 TLS IOA (2000)
 Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1959[a] VIE VET (1964), VNM (1968–1976, ISO)
  1. ^  South Vietnam had competed in 1959-1973.  North Vietnam had never competed. Unified  Vietnam has competed since 1989.

Host nations and cities

Main article: List of Southeast Asian Games host cities

Since the Southeast Asian Games began in 1959, it has been held in 15 cities across all Southeast Asian countries except East Timor.

List of Southeast Asian Games
Games Year Host country Opened by Date Sports Events Nations Competitors Top-ranked team Ref
Southeast Asian Peninsular Games
1 1959 Thailand Bangkok, Thailand King Bhumibol Adulyadej 12–17 December 1959 12 N/A 6 518  Thailand (THA) [1]
2 1961 Myanmar Yangon, Burma President Win Maung 11–16 December 1961 13 N/A 7 623  Burma (BIR) [2]
1963 Awarded to Cambodia, cancelled due to domestic political situation
3 1965 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong Ismail Nasiruddin 14–21 December 1965 14 N/A 7 963  Thailand (THA) [3]
4 1967 Thailand Bangkok, Thailand King Bhumibol Adulyadej 9–16 December 1967 16 N/A 6 984  Thailand (THA) [4]
5 1969 Myanmar Yangon, Burma Prime Minister Ne Win 6–13 December 1969 15 N/A 6 920  Burma (BIR) [5]
6 1971 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong Abdul Halim 6–13 December 1971 15 N/A 7 957  Thailand (THA) [6]
7 1973 Singapore Singapore President Benjamin Sheares 1–8 September 1973 16 N/A 7 1632  Thailand (THA) [7]
8 1975 Thailand Bangkok, Thailand King Bhumibol Adulyadej 9–16 December 1975 18 N/A 4 1142  Thailand (THA) [8]
Southeast Asian Games
9 1977 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong Yahya Petra 19–26 November 1977 18 N/A 7 N/A  Indonesia (INA) [9]
10 1979 Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia President Suharto 21–30 September 1979 18 N/A 7 N/A  Indonesia (INA) [10]
11 1981 Philippines Manila, Philippines President Ferdinand Marcos 6–15 December 1981 18 N/A 7 ≈1800  Indonesia (INA) [11]
12 1983  Singapore President Devan Nair 28 May – 6 June 1983 18 N/A 8 N/A  Indonesia (INA) [12]
13 1985 Thailand Bangkok, Thailand King Bhumibol Adulyadej 8–17 December 1985 18 N/A 8 N/A  Thailand (THA) [13]
14 1987 Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia President Suharto 9–20 September 1987 26 N/A 8 N/A  Indonesia (INA) [14]
15 1989 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong Azlan Shah 20–31 August 1989 24 N/A 9 ≈2800  Indonesia (INA) [15]
16 1991 Philippines Manila, Philippines President Corazon Aquino 24 November – 3 December 1991 28 N/A 9 N/A  Indonesia (INA) [16]
17 1993  Singapore President Wee Kim Wee 12–20 June 1993 29 N/A 9 ≈3000  Indonesia (INA) [17]
18 1995 Thailand Chiang Mai, Thailand Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn 9–17 December 1995 28 N/A 10 3262  Thailand (THA) [18]
19 1997 Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia President Suharto 11–19 October 1997 36 490 10 5179  Indonesia (INA) [19]
20 1999 Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah 7–15 August 1999 21 233 10 2365  Thailand (THA) [20]
21 2001 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong Salahuddin 8–17 September 2001 32 391 10 4165  Malaysia (MAS) [21]
22 2003 Vietnam Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Prime Minister Phan Văn Khải 5–13 December 2003 32 442 11 ≈5000  Vietnam (VIE) [22]
23 2005 Philippines Manila, Philippines President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo 27 November – 5 December 2005 40 443 11 5336  Philippines (PHI) [23]
24 2007 Thailand Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn 6–15 December 2007 43 475 11 5282  Thailand (THA) [24]
25 2009 Laos Vientiane, Laos President Choummaly Sayasone 9–18 December 2009 29 372 11 3100  Thailand (THA) [25]
26 2011 Indonesia Jakarta and Palembang, Indonesia President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono 11–22 November 2011 44 545 11 5965  Indonesia (INA) [26]
27 2013 Myanmar Naypyidaw, Myanmar Vice President Nyan Tun 11–22 December 2013 37 460 11 4730  Thailand (THA) [27]
28 2015  Singapore President Tony Tan 5–16 June 2015 36 402 11 4370  Thailand (THA) [28]
29 2017 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong Muhammad V 19–30 August 2017 38 404 11 4709  Malaysia (MAS) [29]
30 2019 Philippines Philippines[3] President Rodrigo Duterte 30 November – 11 December 2019 56 530 11 5630  Philippines (PHI) [30]
31 2021 Vietnam Hanoi, Vietnam President Nguyễn Xuân Phúc 12–23 May 2022 40 526 11 5467  Vietnam (VIE)
32 2023 Cambodia Phnom Penh, Cambodia King Norodom Sihamoni (expected) 5—16 May 2023 Future event
33 2025 Thailand Bangkok, Thailand[4] King Vajiralongkorn (expected) TBD 2025 Future event
34 2027 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia[5] Yang di-Pertuan Agong Ibrahim Ismail (expected) TBD 2027 Future event
35 2029 Singapore Singapore[6] Future event

The 1963 Southeast Asian Peninsular Games were canceled. As the designated host, Cambodia was not able to host the event due to instability in the country, along with a disagreement with the International Amateur Athletic Federation. The 3rd SEAP Games then passed to Laos as hosts, but they begged off the 1965 event citing financial difficulties.[7]

Sports

Main article: Southeast Asian Games sports

According to the SEAGF Charter and Rules, a host nation must stage a minimum of 22 sports: the two compulsory sports from Category 1 (athletics and aquatics), in addition to a minimum of 14 sports from Category 2 (Olympics and Asian Games mandatory sports), and a maximum of 8 sports from Category 3 (shaded grey in the table below). Each sport shall not offer more than 5% of the total medal tally, except for athletics, aquatics and shooting (the shot was elevated for this category in 2013). For each sport and event to be included, a minimum of four countries must participate in it. Sports competed in the Olympic Games and Asian Games must be given priority.[2][8]

Sport Years
Archery 1977–1997, since 2001
Arnis 1991, 2005, 2019
Athletics All
Badminton All
Baseball 2005–2007, 2011, 2019
Basketball 1979–2003, 2007, since 2011
Billiards and snooker Since 1987
Bodybuilding 1987–1993, 1997, 2003–2007,
2013, since 2021
Bowling 1977–1979, 1983–2001,
2005–2007, 2011, since 2015
Boxing All
Canoeing 1985, 1995, 2001, 2005–2007,
2011–2015, since 2019
Chess 2003–2005, 2011–2013,
since 2019
Chinlone 2013 only
Contract bridge 2011 only
Cricket 2017 only
Cycling 1959–1979, since 1983
Dancesport 2005–2009, since 2019
Diving Since 1965
Duathlon Since 2019
Esports Since 2019
Equestrian 1983, 1995, 2001, 2005–2007,
2011–2017
Fencing 1974–1978, since 1986
Field hockey 1971–1979, 1983, 1987–1989,
1993–2001, 2007, 2013–2017
Figure skating 2017–2019
Fin swimming 2003, 2009–2011, since 2021
Floorball 2015, 2019
Football All
Futsal 2007, 2011–2013, 2017, since 2021
Golf 1985–1997, 2001, since 2005
Gymnastics 1979–1981, 1985–1997,
2001–2007, 2011, since 2015
Handball 2005–2007, since 2021
Beach handball Since 2019
Ice hockey 2017–2019
Indoor hockey 2017–2019
Ju-jitsu Since 2019
Judo 1967–1997, since 2001
Karate 1985–1991, 1995–1997,
2001–2013, 2017, since 2021
Kenpō 2011–2013
Kickboxing Since 2019
Kurash Since 2019
Lawn bowls 1999, 2001, 2005, 2007,
2017–2019
Modern pentathlon 2019
Muaythai 2005–2009, 2013, since 2019
Netball 2001, 2015–2019
Obstacle racing 2019
Paragliding 2011 only
Pencak silat 1987–1989, 1993–1997,
since 2001
Pétanque Since 2001
Polo 2007, 2017–2019
Roller sports 2011 only
Rowing 1989–1991, 1997, 2001–2007,
2011–2015, since 2019
Rugby union 1969, 1977–1979, 1995, 2007
Rugby sevens 2015–2019
Sailing 1961, 1967–1971, 1975–1977,
1983–1997, 2001, 2005–2007,
2011–2019
Sambo 2019
Sepak takraw 1967–1969, since 1973
Shooting All
Short track speed skating 2017–2019
Shuttle cock 2007–2009
Skateboarding 2019
Sport climbing 2011 only
Softball 1981–1983, 1989, 2003–2005,
2011, 2015, 2019
Soft tennis 2011, 2019
Squash 1991–2001, 2005–2007,
2015–2019
Swimming All
Surfing 2019
Synchronized swimming 2001, 2011, 2015–2017
Table tennis All
Taekwondo Since 1985
Tennis 1959–2011, since 2015
Traditional boat race 1993, 1997–1999,
2003–2007, 2011–2015
Triathlon 2005–2007, since 2015
Volleyball 1959–1997, since 2001
Vovinam 2011–2013, since 2021
Water polo 1965–2017
Water skiing 1987, 1997, 2011, 2015–2017
Wakeboarding Since 2019
Weightlifting 1959–1997, 2001–2013, since 2017
Wrestling 1987, 1997, 2003–2013, since 2019
Wushu 1991–1993, 1997, since 2001
Xiangqi Since 2021

All-time medal table

Corrected after balancing the data of the Olympic Council of Asia and other archived sites which had kept the previous Southeast Asian Games medal tables. Some information from the aforementioned sites are missing, incorrect and or not updated.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]

All-time Southeast Asian Games medal table
RankNOCGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Thailand (THA)1977203320806090
2 Indonesia (INA)1893179618615550
3 Malaysia (MAS)[2]1342131817754435
4 Vietnam (VIE)[3]113399211073232
5 Philippines (PHI)1122126015873969
6 Singapore (SGP)994104814363478
7 Myanmar (MYA)[4]57175910272357
8 Cambodia (CAM)[5]78128299505
9 Laos (LAO)71100352523
10 Brunei (BRU)1556164235
11 Timor-Leste (TLS)392840
Totals (11 NOCs)919994991171630414

List of multiple Southeast Asian Games medalists

Main article: List of multiple Southeast Asian Games medalists

Various individuals have won multiple medals at the Games, including the preceding Southeast Asian Peninsular Games.

As of 2019, Singaporean swimmer Joscelin Yeo has won the most Southeast Asian Games medals with 55 (40 gold, 12 silver, 3 bronze). She reached this milestone during the 2005 Games, overtaking the previous record of 39 gold medals set by another Singaporean swimmer Patricia Chan.

Criticism

The games are unique in that it has no official limits to the number of sports and events to be contested, and the range can be decided by the organizing host pending approval by the Southeast Asian Games Federation. Aside from mandatory sports, the host is free to drop or introduce other sports or events (See Southeast Asian Games sports).[16]

This leeway has resulted in hosts maximizing their medal hauls by dropping sports disadvantageous to themselves relative to their peers and the introduction of obscure sports, often at short notice, thus preventing most other nations from building credible opponents.[17][18] Examples of these include:

See also

References

  1. ^ Games page of the website of the Olympic Council of Asia; retrieved 2010-07-09.
  2. ^ a b "South East Asian Games Federation: Charter and Rules" (PDF). SEAGF. 30 May 2010. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  3. ^ The 2019 Southeast Asian Games is the first officially decentralized games. While games were held in various cities, mostly in the Clark, Metro Manila and the Subic Bay areas, there is no designated host city for this edition alternately known as "Philippines 2019".
  4. ^ "OCM: 31st SEA Games to be held from May 12–23 next year". Malay Mail. 12 December 2021. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  5. ^ "Malaysia to host 2027 SEA Games". The Star. Retrieved 12 May 2022.
  6. ^ "Singapore to host 2029 SEA Games". Retrieved 12 May 2022.
  7. ^ "History of the SEA Games". www.olympic.org.my. Archived from the original on 17 December 2004. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  8. ^ Ian De Cotta (5 June 2015). "A cool addition to the SEA Games". Today Online. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
  9. ^ "South East Asian Games Medal Count". Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  10. ^ SEAP Games Federation
  11. ^ Medal Tally 1959-1995
  12. ^ Medal Tally
  13. ^ History of the SEA Games
  14. ^ SEA Games previous medal table
  15. ^ SEA Games members
  16. ^ Pattharapong Rattanasevee (21 July 2017). "Southeast Asian Games yet to win gold for sporting spirit". South China Morning Post.
  17. ^ Sea Games morphing into a monster-cum-circus
  18. ^ Sea Games reduced to a carnival
  19. ^ Sports. "VietNamNet - SEA Games or a village festival | SEA Games or a village festival". English.vietnamnet.vn. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
  20. ^ HS Manjunath (10 December 2013). "Cambodia eye record medal haul". The Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  21. ^ "4 new sports we can now watch in 2017 SEA Games". Red Bull. Retrieved 29 August 2017.