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FunctionCarrier rocket
Country of originSoviet Union
Height50 metres (160 ft)
Diameter10.3 metres (34 ft)
Mass300,000 kilograms (660,000 lb)
Payload to LEO
Mass6,600 kilograms (14,600 lb)
Associated rockets
FamilyR-7 (Soyuz)
Launch history
Launch sitesPlesetsk Sites 41/1 & 43/4
Total launches8[1]
First flight27 December 1971
Last flight31 March 1976
People or cargo transportedZenit-4MT

The Soyuz-M (Russian: Союз, meaning "Union"), GRAU index 11A511M was a Soviet expendable carrier rocket designed by OKB-1 and manufactured by State Aviation Plant No. 1 in Samara, Russia. It was originally built to launch crewed Soyuz 7K-VI spacecraft for the Soviet armed forces. Following the cancellation of this programme, development of the rocket continued for the Soyuz 7K-S spacecraft. After this too was cancelled, Soyuz-M development was also abandoned, and the rockets that had been completed were used to launch reconnaissance satellites.

While the exact details of the Soyuz-M are not known, it is believed to be a two-stage rocket, derived from the Soyuz. It may have been similar to the later Soyuz-U.[2] Following the cancellation of the Soyuz 7K-S, eight were launched with Zenit-4MT spacecraft.[2] The first of these launches occurred on 27 December 1971, and the last on 31 March 1976. All launches occurred from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, six from pad 41/1 and two from pad 43/4.[1]


  1. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter. "Soyuz-M (11A511M)". Gunter's space page. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  2. ^ a b Wade, Mark. "Soyuz". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 2010-01-07. Retrieved 2009-04-16.