Soyuz 7K-TM
Soyuz 19, a Soyuz 7K-TM spacecraft, during the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP).
Country of originSoviet Union
OperatorSoviet space program
ApplicationsCrewed spacecraft
7.48 m (24.5 ft)
2.72 m (8 ft 11 in)
9 m3 (320 cu ft)
RegimeLow Earth
Maiden launch3 April 1974
Kosmos 638
Last launch15 September 1976
Soyuz 22
Related spacecraft
Derived fromSoyuz 7K-T
DerivativesSoyuz 7K-S
Soyuz 7K-ST
Soyuz 7K-MF6

The 1975 Apollo–Soyuz Test Project version of the Soyuz spacecraft (Soyuz 7K-TM) served as a technological bridge to the third generation Soyuz-T (T - транспортный, Transportnyi meaning transport) spacecraft (1976–1986).

The Soyuz ASTP spacecraft was designed for use during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project as Soyuz 19. It featured design changes to increase compatibility with the American craft. The Soyuz ASTP featured new solar panels for increased mission length, an APAS-75 docking mechanism instead of the standard male mechanism, and modifications to the environmental control system to lower the cabin pressure to 0.68 atmospheres (69 kPa) prior to docking with Apollo. The ASTP Soyuz backup craft flew as the Soyuz 22 mission, replacing the docking port with a camera.


Main article: List of Soviet human spaceflight missions

There are only five spaceflights of the Soyuz 7K-TM spacecraft, mostly in support for the joint US-Soviet Apollo–Soyuz mission. Excess hardware that flew on its final flight (Soyuz 22) were sometimes referred to its own unique configuration called the Soyuz 7K-MF6[1][2]

Mission Crew Launch Landing Duration Notes
Kosmos 638 None 3 Apr 1974 13 Apr 1974 10 days First test flight of the APAS-75 docking system[3]
Kosmos 672 None 12 Aug 1974 18 Aug 1974 6 days Second test flight of the APAS-75 docking system[3]
Soyuz 16 Soviet Union Anatoly Filipchenko
Soviet Union Nikolai Rukavishnikov
2 Dec 1974 8 Dec 1974 6 days Third and final dress rehearsal of testing the APAS-75 docking system for the subsequent ASTP mission[4]
Soyuz 19 Soviet Union Alexei Leonov
Soviet Union Valery Kubasov
15 Jul 1975 21 Jul 1975 6 days Part of the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, the first international crewed spaceflight in history[5]
Soyuz 22 Soviet Union Valery Bykovsky
Soviet Union Vladimir Aksyonov
15 Sept 1976 23 Sept 1976 8 days Earth sciences and (possibly a) reconnaissance mission. Final crewed Soyuz spaceflight to not visit a space station[6]



  1. ^ Gunter D. Krebs. "Soyuz 22 (7K-MF6, 11F615A12)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 14 June 2024.
  2. ^ Mark Wade. "Soyuz 7K-MF6". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 14 June 2024.
  3. ^ a b Mark Wade. "Soyuz 7K-TM". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 14 June 2024.
  4. ^ "Spaceflight mission report: Soyuz 16". Retrieved 13 June 2024.
  5. ^ "Spaceflight mission report: Soyuz 19 EPAS". Retrieved 13 June 2024.
  6. ^ "Spaceflight mission report: Soyuz 22". Retrieved 13 June 2024.