Spelman College
Former names
Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary (1881–1884)
Spelman Baptist Seminary (1884–1924)
MottoOur Whole School for Christ
TypePrivate historically Black[1] women's liberal arts college
EstablishedApril 11, 1881; 143 years ago (1881-04-11)[2][3]
Academic affiliations
Endowment$459.5 million (2022)[4]
Budget$133.8 million (2023)[5]
PresidentHelene Gayle
Students2,420 (fall 2021)[6]

33°44′46″N 84°24′40″W / 33.746°N 84.411°W / 33.746; -84.411
Colors   Columbia blue, white[7]
NicknameJaguars (former)
Sporting affiliations

Spelman College is a private, historically Black, women's liberal arts college in Atlanta, Georgia. It is a founding member of the Atlanta University Center academic consortium.[2] Founded in 1881 as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary, Spelman awarded its first college degrees in 1901 and is the oldest private historically Black liberal arts institution for women.[2]



Harriet E. Giles and Sophia B. Packard founded Spelman College

The Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary was established on 11 April, 1881 in the basement of Friendship Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia, by two teachers from the Oread Institute of Worcester, Massachusetts: Harriet E. Giles and Sophia B. Packard.[2][9] Giles and Packard had met while Giles was a student, and Packard the preceptress, of the New Salem Academy in New Salem, Massachusetts, and fostered a lifelong friendship there.[10] The two of them traveled to Atlanta specifically to found a school for Black freedwomen, and found support from Frank Quarles, the pastor of Friendship Baptist Church.

Giles and Packard began the school with 11 African-American women and $100 given to them by the First Baptist Church in Medford, Massachusetts,[2] and a promise of further support from the Woman's American Baptist Home Mission Society (WABHMS), a group with which they were both affiliated in Boston.[10] Although their first students were mostly illiterate, they envisioned their school to be a liberal arts institution – the first circular of the college stated that they planned to offer "algebra, physiology, essays, Latin, rhetoric, geometry, political economy, mental philosophy (psychology), chemistry, botany, Constitution of the United States, astronomy, zoology, geology, moral philosophy, and evidences of Christianity".[10] Over time, they attracted more students; by the time the first term ended, they had enrolled 80 students in the seminary.[10] The WABHMS made a down payment on a nine-acre (36,000 m2) site in Atlanta relatively close to the church they began in, which originally had five buildings left from a Union Civil War encampment, to support classroom and residence hall needs.[11]

In 1882 the two women returned to Massachusetts to bid for more money and were introduced to wealthy Northern Baptist businessman John D. Rockefeller at a church conference in Ohio.[2] Rockefeller was impressed by Packard's vision. In April 1884, Rockefeller visited the school. By this time, the seminary had 600 students and 16 faculty members. It was surviving on generous donations by the Black community in Atlanta, the efforts of volunteer teachers, and gifts of supplies; many Atlanta Black churches, philanthropists, and Black community groups raised and donated money to settle the debt on the property that had been acquired.[10] Rockefeller was so impressed that he settled the debt on the property.[11] Rockefeller's wife, Laura Spelman Rockefeller;[2] her sister, Lucy Spelman; and their parents, Harvey Buel and Lucy Henry Spelman, were also supportive of the school. The Spelmans were longtime activists in the abolitionist movement. In 1884 the name of the school was changed to the Spelman Seminary in honor of Laura Spelman and her parents. Rockefeller also donated the funds for what is currently the oldest building on campus, Rockefeller Hall, which was constructed in 1886.

Packard was appointed as Spelman's first president in 1888, after the charter for the seminary was granted. Packard died in 1891, and Giles assumed the presidency until her death in 1909. A diploma granting institution in its early years, in 1901, Spelman awarded its first college degrees.[2]


Spelman College c. 1910

The years 1910 to 1953 saw great growth and transition for the seminary.[12] Upon Giles' death, Lucy Hale Tapley became president. Although the college was a stride in and of itself, at the time, neither the founders nor the current administration had interest in challenging the status quo of young women as primarily responsible for the family and the home.[10] Tapley declared: "Any course of study which fails to cultivate a taste and fitness for practical and efficient work in some part of the field of the world's needs is unpopular at Spelman and finds no place in our curriculum."[12] The nursing curriculum was strengthened; a teachers' dormitory and a home economics building were constructed, and Tapley Hall, the science building, was completed in 1925.[12] The Granddaughters' Club, a club for students whose mothers and aunts had attended Spelman was also created, and this club is still in existence today.

In September 1924, Spelman Baptist Seminary officially became Spelman College. Florence Matilda Read assumed the presidency in 1927. Shortly thereafter, Spelman entered into an "agreement of affiliation" with nearby Morehouse College and Atlanta University by chartering the Atlanta University Center in 1929.[13] Atlanta University was to provide graduate education for students, whereas Morehouse and Spelman were responsible for the undergraduate education. At a time during which Black students were often denied access to graduate studies at predominantly white southern research universities, access to Atlanta University allowed the undergraduate students at Morehouse and Spelman immediate access to graduate training.

In 1927, one of the most important buildings on campus, Sisters Chapel, was dedicated. The chapel was named for its primary benefactors, sisters Laura Spelman Rockefeller and Lucy Maria Spelman. The college had also begun to see an improvement in extracurricular investment in the arts, with the organization of the Spelman College Glee Club in 1925,[14] inauguration of the much-loved Atlanta tradition of the annual Spelman-Morehouse Christmas Carol Concert and smaller events such as the spring orchestra and chorus concert, the Atlanta University Summer Theater, and the University Players, a drama organization for AUC students. The school also began to see more of a focus on collegiate education, as it discontinued its elementary and high school divisions. In 1930 the Spelman Nursery School was created as a training center for mothers and a practice arena for students who planned careers in education and child development. Spelman celebrated its 50th anniversary in April 1931. This milestone was accompanied by the construction of a university library that was shared amongst the Atlanta University Center institutions, and the center continues to share a library to this day.

Spelman College sign outside campus gates

The school continued to expand, building and acquiring more property to accommodate the growing student body. In 1947, Spelman joined the list of "approved institutions" of the Association of American Universities.[15] In 1953, Florence Read retired, and Albert E. Manley became the first Black and first male president of the college. Under his presidency and the presidency of his successor, Donald Stewart, Spelman saw significant growth. The college established its study abroad program, the Merrill Foreign Travel-Study Program.[13] Stewart's administration tripled the college's endowment and oversaw the establishment of the Comprehensive Writing Program, an across-the-curriculum writing program that requires students to submit portfolios of their written work; the Ethel Waddell Githii College Honors Program; and the Women's Research and Resource Center.[13] In 1958, the college received accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.

Civil rights involvement

Going into the 1960s, the Spelman College students became involved in civil rights actions in Atlanta. In 1962, the first Spelman students were arrested for participating in sit-ins in the Atlanta community. Noted American historian Howard Zinn was a professor of history at Spelman during this era, and served as an adviser to the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee chapter at the college. Zinn mentored many of Spelman's students fighting for civil rights at the time, including Alice Walker and Marian Wright Edelman[16] Zinn was dismissed from the college in 1963 for supporting Spelman students in their efforts to fight segregation; at the time, Spelman was focused on turning out "refined young ladies." Edelman herself writes that Spelman had a reputation as "a tea-pouring, very strict school designed to turn Black girls into refined ladies and teachers."[17]


Stewart retired in 1986, and the following year, Johnnetta Betsch Cole became the first Black female president of Spelman College. During this time, the college became noted for its commitment to community service and its ties to the local community. Cole also led the college's most successful capital campaign; between 1986 and 1996, the college raised $113.8 million, including a $20 million gift from Bill Cosby and his wife, Camille Hanks Cosby, whose daughter graduated from Spelman.[13] In honor of this gift, the Cosby Academic Center was constructed.[18] In July 2015, the remainder of the funds were returned and an endowed professorship named for the Cosby couple discontinued as allegations of sexual assault by Bill Cosby grew more prominent.[19][20]

In 1997, Cole stepped down and Audrey Forbes Manley became Spelman's first alumna president. After her retirement, in 2002, Beverly Daniel Tatum, the college's president until 2015, took the post. The campus now comprises 26 buildings on 39 acres (160,000 m2) in Atlanta.[3]

In 2011, First Lady Michelle Obama served as the keynote commencement speaker.[21] The following year, Oprah Winfrey served as the keynote commencement speaker.[21]

In 2015, Spelman opened the Wellness Center at Reed Hall, a state-of-the-art recreation center. It is host to a multitude of services from an indoor track and cycling room to a teaching kitchen and a multitude of fitness and wellness programs.[22] Also in 2015, Mary Schmidt Campbell was named the tenth president of Spelman College.[23]

In 2017, Spelman's leadership voted to allow transgender women to enroll in the institution.[24]

In 2018, Spelman received $30 million from Spelman trustee Ronda Stryker for the construction of a new state-of-the-art building on campus.[25][26] Two years later, the college received another significant donation: $40 million from philanthropists Reed Hastings and his wife Patty Quillin to be used as scholarship funds for students enrolled at Spelman.[27] In July 2020, Spelman received a notably large undisclosed donation from philanthropist MacKenzie Scott.[28]

In April 2022, Helene Gayle was named the 11th president of Spelman College.[29]

In January 2024, Spelman received the largest single donation in its history and the largest ever to a HBCU with $100 million given by Spelman trustee Ronda Stryker and her husband, William Johnston. Spelman stated that $75 million of the $100 million donation will go towards endowed scholarships for future students, and the remaining $25 million will be used to "develop an academic focus on public policy and democracy, improve student housing and provide flexible funding to meet critical strategic needs."[30]


Since its inception Spelman has had 11 presidents:

Museum of Fine Art

Museum of Fine Art

The Spelman College Museum of Fine Art is the only museum in the United States that emphasizes art by and about women of the African Diaspora.[32] Some Black Women artists the museum has featured include Amy Sherald, Harmonia Rosales, Mickalene Thomas, Beverly Buchanan, Zanele Muholi, and Reneé Stout.[33] Each semester, the museum features a new exhibit.[34]

In 2016, the museum collaborated with Spelman's Department of Art and Art History to start a two-year curatorial studies program to increase diversity in the museum industry.[35]


Academic rankings
Liberal arts
U.S. News & World Report[36]39 of 185
Washington Monthly[37]89 of 199
WSJ/College Pulse[38]126 (tie) of 796

Spelman is ranked tied for 39th of 185 of among national liberal arts colleges and 1st among 79 historically Black colleges in the United States by U.S. News & World Report for 2023-24; additionally, it tied for 2nd of 196 in "Social Mobility", tied for 15th of 19 for "Most Innovative", 19th of 36 for "Best Undergraduate Teaching", and 60th of 93 for "Best Value" among liberal arts colleges.[39] Spelman leads the nation in enrolling the highest percentage of Gates Millennium Scholars.[40][41] Spelman ranked first among baccalaureate origin institutions of African-American women who earned science, engineering, and mathematics doctoral degrees.[42][43] Spelman ranked among the top 50 four-year colleges and universities for producing Fulbright and Gilman Scholars, and ranked the second-largest producer of African-American college graduates who attend medical school.[44][45][46]

Spelman is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). Spelman is a member of the Coalition of Women's Colleges, National Association of Schools of Music (NASM), National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, The College Fund/UNCF, National Association for College Admissions Counseling, and State of Georgia Professional Standards Commission (PSC).[3]

Spelman offers bachelor's degrees in over 30 academic majors. In addition, Spelman has strategic partnerships with over 30 accredited universities to help students complete degree programs not offered on campus in healthcare, law, and engineering.[47][48] Its most popular majors, by number out of 483 graduates in 2022, were:[49]

The Ethel Waddell Githii Honors Program is a selective academic community available to students who meet the requirements.[50]

Spelman houses several pre-professional and research programs designed to make students more competitive for admissions into graduate school programs.[51] Approximately two-thirds of Spelman graduates have earned postgraduate degrees.[52]

Spelman has domestic exchange and study abroad programs.[47] Approximately 70% of Spelman students have studied abroad before graduation.[53]

Spelman has the highest graduation rate among HBCUs, with a graduation rate of 76% after six years.[54] It also has a student:faculty ratio of 9:1.[55][56]

Honor societies

Registered academic honor societies include Phi Beta Kappa, Alpha Epsilon Delta, Alpha Lambda Delta, Alpha Sigma Lambda, Beta Kappa Chi, Golden Key International Honour Society, Kappa Delta Epsilon, Mortar Board Senior Honor Society, National Society of Collegiate Scholars, Pi Sigma Alpha, Psi Chi, Sigma Tau Delta, and the Upsilon Pi Epsilon.[57]


Spelman is a selective institution with an acceptance rate of 28% for the fall 2022 first-time, first-year class.[58]

Student body

Students are all women and predominantly African-American.[3] Approximately 30% come from Georgia, 69% from the rest of the United States, and 1% are international. 85% of Spelman students receive financial aid, the average financial package for a first year student adds up to $22,000.[59]

Student life

Spelman offers organized and informal activities. Spelman's over 80 student organizations include community service organizations, special interest groups, honors societies, Morehouse cheerleaders, choral groups, music ensembles, dance groups, drama/theater groups, marching band, intramural sports, and student government.[57]

Spelman's gated campus near Downtown Atlanta consists of over 25 buildings on 39 acres.

New student orientation

All new Spelman students are required to attend a six-day new student orientation (NSO) in August immediately before the fall semester begins. NSO includes events, workshops, and sessions designed to teach new Spelmanites about the mission, history, culture, traditions, and sisterhood of Spelman College; students are also given information on how to successfully matriculate to Spelman Women (graduates), such as registration, advisement, placement, and planning class schedules. NSO is led by student orientation leaders known as PALs (Peer Assistant Leaders) and Spelman alumnae. During NSO, new students are required to remain on campus at all times; any leave must be approved by PALs.[60][61]

White attire tradition

One of Spelman's oldest traditions are Spelmanites wearing "respectable and conservative" white attire to designated formal events on campus. The tradition began in the early 1900s when it was customary for women to wear white dresses when attending formal events. White attire is worn to the annual NSO induction ceremony, Founders Day Convocation, Alumnae March, and graduating seniors wear white attire underneath their graduation gowns for Class Day and Commencement.[62] In 2009, My Sister's Closet was established on campus by the Student Government Association for alumnae and current students to donate gently worn or brand new white attire for Spelman students in need at no cost.[63]

Student publications and media

Spelman College campus

Spelman offers a literary magazine (Aunt Chloe: A Journal of Candor),[64] a student newspaper, The BluePrint, and student government association newsletter (Jaguar Print).[57] The yearbook is called Reflections.

Religious organizations

Religious organizations currently registered on campus include: Baha'i Club, Al-Nissa, Alabaster Box, Atlanta Adventist Collegiate Society, Campus Crusade for Christ, Crossfire International Campus Ministry, Happiness In Praise for His Overflowing Presence, InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, Movements of Praise Dance Team, The Newman Organization, The Outlet and The Pre-Theology Society Minority.[57]

International student and social organizations

NAACP and Sister Steps are registered campus organizations.[57] Spelman also has chapters of Colleges Against Cancer, Circle K, Feminist Majority Leadership Alliance, Habitat for Humanity, National Council of Negro Women, National Society of Black Engineers, Operation Smile, United Way, and Young Democrats of America. Spelman is also the first HBCU to charter a chapter of Amnesty International on its campus.

Spelman's 2005 robotics team, the SpelBots, became the first all women, all black robotics team to compete in the RoboCup Four-Legged League Soccer competition. The team tied for first place in the 2009 RoboCup humanoid soccer championship in Osaka, Japan.[65][66]

Spelman has several sororities on campus including all four of the National Pan-Hellenic Council. About three percent of students are active in Spelman's Greek system.[67]

Residential life

Spelman College has 11 residence halls on campus with approximately 1,500 students occupying them.[68] Each one has unique features and identities. There are three first-year students only residence halls, an honors residence hall (mixed with first-year students and upperclasswomen), and seven upperclasswomen-only residence halls.[69] All first-year students and sophomores are required to live on campus and it is traditional for first-year students to engage in friendly residence hall competitions (i.e. stroll-offs, chant-offs, pranks, fundraising, etc.) throughout the school year.


Spelman athletic teams were the Jaguars. The college was a member of the Division III level of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), primarily competing in the Great South Athletic Conference (GSAC) from 2003–04 to 2012–13.

Spelmen competed in seven intercollegiate varsity sports: Women's sports included basketball, cross country, golf, soccer, softball, tennis and volleyball.

In 2013, Spelman College decided to drop varsity athletics and leave the NCAA. Using money originally budgeted to the sports programs, they created wellness programs available for all students.[70]

Notable alumnae and faculty

Main article: List of Spelman College people

Spelman's notable alumnae include the first African-American CEO of Sam's Club and Walgreens Rosalind Brewer, Pulitzer Prize winner Alice Walker, former Dean of Harvard College Evelynn M. Hammonds, activist and Children's Defense Fund founder Marian Wright Edelman, civil rights and criminal defense lawyer Dovey Johnson Roundtree, college organist Joyce Johnson, musician, activist and historian Bernice Johnson Reagon, politician Stacey Abrams, writer Pearl Cleage, TV personality Rolonda Watts, opera singer Mattiwilda Dobbs, and actresses Cassi Davis, LaTanya Richardson, Adrienne-Joi Johnson, Keshia Knight Pulliam, Tati Gabrielle , Assemblywoman of the 18th district of New York State [71] Taylor Darling, designor and curator Sara Penn,[72] Lisa D. Cook, member of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors,[73] and Pamela Gunter-Smith, the first African-American president of York College of Pennsylvania.[74]

See also


  1. ^ "List of HBCUs -- White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities". August 16, 2007. Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Spelman College". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Humanities Council and the University of Georgia Press. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d "Fact Book: Spelman College" (PDF). November 30, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2009.
  4. ^ As of June 30, 2022. U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2022 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY21 to FY22 (Report). National Association of College and University Business Officers and TIAA. February 19, 2023. Retrieved January 18, 2024.
  5. ^ "Financial statements" (PDF). www.spelman.edu. 2023. Retrieved January 18, 2024.
  6. ^ https://www.spelman.edu/docs/oirap/mini-fact-book-2018-2019.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  7. ^ Spelman College Visual Identity Standards (PDF). Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  8. ^ "Spelman eliminates athletics in favor of campus-wide wellness initiative". Inside Higher Ed. November 1, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
  9. ^ Wallace Putnam Reed, ed. (1889). History of Atlanta, Georgia: With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of Its Prominent Men and Pioneers. D. Mason & Company. pp. 367–370.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Lefever, Harry G. (2005). "The Early Origins of Spelman College". The JBHE Foundation (47 (Spring 2007)): 60–63. doi:10.2307/25073174. JSTOR 25073174.
  11. ^ a b "Sophia B. Packard". Encyclopædia Britannica. June 17, 2023.
  12. ^ a b c "College History". Spelman.edu. Spelman College. Archived from the original on September 25, 2008. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
  13. ^ a b c d Spencer, Taronda (February 1, 2004). "Spelman College". New Georgia Encyclopedia.
  14. ^ "Spelman College Glee Club". Spelman.edu. Spelman College. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
  15. ^ "History in Brief". Spelman.edu. Spelman College.
  16. ^ "Alice Walker says goodbye to her friend Howard Zinn". The Boston Globe. January 31, 2010. Archived from the original on March 24, 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2021.
  17. ^ Edelman, Marian Wright (2000). "Spelman College: A Safe Haven for a Young Black Woman". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (27 (Spring, 2000)): 118–123. doi:10.2307/2679028. JSTOR 2679028.
  18. ^ "Campus Map – Spelman College". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  19. ^ "Atlanta's Spelman College ends Bill Cosby professorship". BBC. July 25, 2015. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  20. ^ "Spelman Discontinues Cosby Professorship". Inside Higher Ed. July 27, 2015. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  21. ^ a b "Spelman left spellbound by Michelle Obama". Ajc.com. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  22. ^ "Spelman College Read Hall Wellness Center". www.carterusa.com.
  23. ^ "Dr. Mary Schmidt Campbell Named President-elect of Spelman College". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  24. ^ Stirgus, Eric. "Spelman College to admit transgender female students". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  25. ^ "Spelman College Receives $30 Million Gift From Trustee Ronda Stryker and Spouse, William Johnston, to Support New Center for Innovation & the Arts". www.Spelman.edu. December 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  26. ^ Harris, Adam (May 19, 2019). "What Happens When a Billionaire Swoops In to Solve the Student-Debt Crisis". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  27. ^ "Patty Quillin and Reed Hastings Fund 200 Full Scholarships at Spelman College With a $40 Million Gift". www.prnewswire.com (Press release).
  28. ^ "Magnanimous Gift From MacKenzie Scott Bolsters Spelman College's Strategic Outcomes". www.spelman.edu. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  29. ^ a b c "Spelman College Names Helene Gayle, MD, Globally Recognized Public Health Leader, its 11th President".
  30. ^ https://abcnews.go.com/US/spelman-college-receives-historic-100m-donation/story?id=106483631
  31. ^ "Spelman Names New Center for Innovation & the Arts in Honor of President Mary Schmidt Campbell, Ph.D."
  32. ^ "Spelman College Museum of Fine Art". Spelman College Museum of Fine Art.
  33. ^ "PAST EXHIBITIONS". Spelman College Museum of Fine Art. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  34. ^ "Spelman College; Spelman College Museum of Fine Art Launches its 2017 Season with a Solo Exhibition Featuring Acclaimed Artist Beverly Buchanan." Health & Medicine Week, Sep 29, 2017, pp. 5897. ProQuest 1944379135.
  35. ^ "Spelman's New Curatorial Studies Program Addresses Critical Museum Industry Diversity Gap". www.spelman.edu.
  36. ^ "Best Colleges 2024: National Liberal Arts Colleges". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 20, 2023.
  37. ^ "2023 Liberal Arts Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved September 25, 2023.
  38. ^ "2024 Best Colleges in the U.S." The Wall Street Journal/College Pulse. Retrieved January 27, 2024.
  39. ^ "Spelman College Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. 2020. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  40. ^ https://www.air.org/sites/default/files/downloads/report/GMS_Impact_Evaluation_Final_Report_FINAL_0.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  41. ^ "Spelman At a Glance | Spelman College". www.spelman.edu. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  42. ^ "Robust 2016 Funding Fuels Spelman's Rigorous Research, Programs, and Initiatives Focused on STEM". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  43. ^ "Mathematics – Spelman College". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  44. ^ "Rankings and Awards | Spelman College". www.spelman.edu. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  45. ^ "Undergraduate Institutions That Feed the Most Black Students to U.S. Medical Schools". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. July 23, 2018. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  46. ^ "Spelman College is a Top Producer of U.S. Fulbright Students".
  47. ^ a b "Strategic Partnerships | Spelman College". www.spelman.edu.
  48. ^ "College of Law Enters into 3+3 Admissions Agreements with Three Historically Black Colleges, Universities". April 16, 2019.
  49. ^ "Spelman College". nces.ed.gov. U.S. Dept of Education. Retrieved March 1, 2023.
  50. ^ "Admissions – SPELMAN COLLEGE". Sites.spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  51. ^ "Research Programs – Spelman College". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  52. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 19, 2017. Retrieved September 19, 2017.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  53. ^ "U.S. Supports Diversity through Spelman College Exchange". June 6, 2023.
  54. ^ "Spelman at a Glance". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  55. ^ "The Spelman Promise" (PDF). Spelman.edu. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  56. ^ "Spelman At a Glance: Spelman College". www.spelman.edu.
  57. ^ a b c d e "USNews.com:America's Best Colleges 2008:Spelman College:Extracurriculars". USNews.com. U.S. News & World Report, L.P. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
  58. ^ https://www.spelman.edu/docs/oirap/fall-2022-mini-fact-book_final.pdf?sfvrsn=b1107851_4
  59. ^ "Admissions Frequently Asked Questions | Spelman College". www.spelman.edu.
  60. ^ "New Student FAQs". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  61. ^ "Top 10 Events That'll Make You Love Spelman College". March 8, 2018.
  62. ^ "The White Attire Tradition – Spelman College". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  63. ^ "My Sisters Closet | Spelman College".
  64. ^ "Aunt Chloe: A Journal of Artful Candor". Aunt Chloe. Spelman College. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
  65. ^ "SpelBots Robotics Team | Spelman College". www.spelman.edu. Retrieved February 9, 2024.
  66. ^ "Girls, Robots And Japan: Spelbots Tie For First In Robocup 2009 | Science 2.0". www.science20.com. August 27, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2024.
  67. ^ "Spelman College Student Life". US News Best Colleges. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  68. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 9, 2017. Retrieved November 8, 2017.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  69. ^ "Residence Halls – Spelman College". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  70. ^ Luke Cyphers (April 16, 2013). "A different world: How one small college is quitting sports -- and might lead a revolution". SB Nation. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
  71. ^ "Taylor Darling - Assembly District 18 |Assembly Member Directory | New York State Assembly". Nyassembly.gov. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  72. ^ Kitto, Svetlana (2022). Sara Penn's Knobkerry: An Oral History Sourcebook. Long Island City, NY: SculptureCenter. ISBN 978-1-7377186-0-4.
  73. ^ "Economist Lisa Cook to become first Black woman on Fed board". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  74. ^ Vigna, Paul (July 3, 2022). "York College of Pa. president plans to retire in June 2023". pennlive. Retrieved May 17, 2023.

Further reading