||Standard Aircraft Corporation
||Charles Healy Day
||Sloan H series
The Standard J is a two-seat basic trainer two-bay biplane produced in the United States from 1916 to 1918, powered by a four-cylinder inline Hall-Scott A-7a engine. It was constructed from wood with wire bracing and fabric covering. The J-1 was built as a stopgap to supplement the Curtiss JN-4 in production.
Charles Healy Day had designed the preceding Sloan H series of aircraft, and continued the line under the Standard Aero Corporation (later Standard Aircraft Corporation). Four companies, Standard, Dayton-Wright, Fisher Body, and Wright-Martin, delivered 1,601 J-1s between June 1917 and June 1918. The Standard J-1 can be differentiated from the Curtiss JN series by its slightly swept-back wing planform, triangular king posts above the upper wings, and the front legs of the landing gear which were mounted behind the lower wing's leading edge, just about where the forward wing spar of the lower wing panel attaches to the fuselage.
Standard J-1 providing joyrides.
Although produced in large numbers, its four-cylinder Hall-Scott A-7a engine was unreliable and vibrated badly. While JN-4 production outnumbered J-1s by about two to one to June 1918, fatalities in JN-4s versus J-1s numbered about seven to one as a result of the limited use of the J-1s. Few later production J-1s left their delivery crates.
In June 1918, all Standard J-1s were grounded, although training remained intensive. Sufficient JN-4s were available to meet training needs, and at $2,000 per aircraft it was not cost-effective to convert them to use Curtiss OX-5 engines. Contracts for 2,600+ JS-1s were canceled, and those not used for ground instruction by the US Army were sold as surplus or scrapped. Curtiss, which produced its competitor (the Curtiss JN) bought surplus J-1s which they modified with different powerplants, for resale.
Many J-1s were flown by civilian flying schools, and for joy-riding and barnstorming operations, until they were worn out, or were forced into retirement by new air transport legislation in 1927 which banned passenger aircraft with wood structures due to a number of high-profile accidents.
- Sloan H series: trainers and reconnaissance aircraft from 1913
- Standard H series: production by Standard of Sloan H-series
- Standard J: first Standard-designed variant
- Standard J-1: trainer for U.S. Army
- Standard SJ-1: J-1 with additional pair of forward wheels to prevent noseovers
- Standard JR-1: advanced trainer for US Army
- Standard JR-1B: mail carrier for US Post Office, modification of JR-1
- Standard E-4: redesignated JR-1B mailcarrier
Nicholas-Beazley Standard photo from Aero Digest September 1926
Standard J-1 at the USAF Museum
, showing the wing sweepback
Standard J-1 (fabric covering removed) at the USAF Museum
Over a dozen J-1s are on display or being restored. Others projects are incomplete and awaiting restoration.
- 214 – J-1 on static display at the Yanks Air Museum in Chino, California.
- 581 – J-1 airworthy at the Owls Head Transportation Museum in Owls Head, Maine. It has a Hispano-Suiza V-8 engine installed.
- 1000 – J-1 airworthy with James F. Hammond of Yellow Springs, Ohio.
- 1141 – J-1 on static display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio. It is displayed without a right wing or fabric covering, has a Hall-Scott A-4A engine installed, and was donated by Robert Greiger in December 1962.
- 1582 – J-1 in storage at the Fantasy of Flight in Polk City, Florida. It is composite of two airframes.
- 1598 – J-1 on static display at the San Diego Aerospace Museum in San Diego, California.
- 1956 – J-1 airworthy at the EAA Aviation Museum in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. It has a Hispano-Suiza Model A engine installed.
- 2434 – J-1 on display at the Fargo Air Museum in Fargo, North Dakota. It is on loan from Bonanzaville, U.S.A. It has an OXX-6 engine installed.
- 2969 – J-1 airworthy with Walter C. Bowe of Sonoma, California. It is assembled from original components as a period kit.
- 41236 – J-1 on static display at the Glenn H. Curtiss Museum in Hammondsport, New York. It is on loan from the Henry Ford Museum.
- T-4595 – J-1 at the Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum in Creve Coeur, Missouri.
- T-4598 – J-1 airworthy with the Freeman Heritage Collection in Kingsbury, Texas.
- T-4732 – J-1 airworthy with C C Air Corp of Port Hueneme, California.
- J-1 on static display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio. It has an OXX-6 engine installed.
Data from The Standard Aero Corporation Model J Training Tractor
- Crew: 2
- Length: 26 ft 7 in (8.10 m)
- Upper wingspan: 43 ft 11 in (13.39 m)
- Lower wingspan: 32 ft (9.8 m)
- Height: 10 ft 10 in (3.30 m)
- Wing area: 429 sq ft (39.9 m2)
- Airfoil: R.A.F No 3
- Empty weight: 1,350 lb (612 kg)
- Gross weight: 1,950 lb (885 kg)
- Fuel capacity: 31 US gal (26 imp gal; 120 L)
- Powerplant: 1 × Hall-Scott A-7 water-cooled straight-4 engine, 100 hp (75 kW)
- Maximum speed: 68 mph (109 km/h, 59 kn)
- Stall speed: 37 mph (60 km/h, 32 kn)
- Range: 350 mi (560 km, 300 nmi)
- Time to altitude: 10 minutes to 2,600 ft (790 m)