This article has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation and footnoting. (April 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Standard J
Standard J-1 USAF.jpg
Role Trainer
National origin United States
Manufacturer Standard Aircraft Corporation
Designer Charles Healy Day
First flight 1916
Number built 1,600+
Developed from Sloan H series

The Standard J is a two-seat basic trainer two-bay biplane produced in the United States from 1916 to 1918, powered by a four-cylinder inline Hall-Scott A-7a engine. It was constructed from wood with wire bracing and fabric covering. The J-1 was built as a stopgap to supplement the Curtiss JN-4 in production.

Development

Charles Healy Day had designed the preceding Sloan H series of aircraft, and continued the line under the Standard Aero Corporation (later Standard Aircraft Corporation). Four companies, Standard, Dayton-Wright, Fisher Body, and Wright-Martin, delivered 1,601 J-1s between June 1917 and June 1918. The Standard J-1 can be differentiated from the Curtiss JN series by its slightly swept-back wing planform, triangular king posts above the upper wings, and the front legs of the landing gear which were mounted behind the lower wing's leading edge, just about where the forward wing spar of the lower wing panel attaches to the fuselage.

Operational history

Standard J-1 providing joyrides.
Standard J-1 providing joyrides.

Although produced in large numbers, its four-cylinder Hall-Scott A-7a engine was unreliable and vibrated badly. While JN-4 production outnumbered J-1s by about two to one to June 1918, fatalities in JN-4s versus J-1s numbered about seven to one as a result of the limited use of the J-1s. Few later production J-1s left their delivery crates.

In June 1918, all Standard J-1s were grounded, although training remained intensive. Sufficient JN-4s were available to meet training needs, and at $2,000 per aircraft it was not cost-effective to convert them to use Curtiss OX-5 engines. Contracts for 2,600+ JS-1s were canceled, and those not used for ground instruction by the US Army were sold as surplus or scrapped. Curtiss, which produced its competitor (the Curtiss JN) bought surplus J-1s which they modified with different powerplants, for resale.

Many J-1s were flown by civilian flying schools, and for joy-riding and barnstorming operations, until they were worn out, or were forced into retirement by new air transport legislation in 1927 which banned passenger aircraft with wood structures due to a number of high-profile accidents.

Variants

Standard J, modified with an enclosed cabin by T. Claude Ryan, in flight over San Diego[1]
Standard J, modified with an enclosed cabin by T. Claude Ryan, in flight over San Diego[1]

War-surplus conversions

Nicholas-Beazley Standard photo from Aero Digest September 1926
Nicholas-Beazley Standard photo from Aero Digest September 1926

Operators

 United States

Surviving aircraft

Standard J-1 at the USAF Museum, showing the wing sweepback
Standard J-1 at the USAF Museum, showing the wing sweepback
Standard J-1 (fabric covering removed) at the USAF Museum
Standard J-1 (fabric covering removed) at the USAF Museum

Over a dozen J-1s are on display or being restored. Others projects are incomplete and awaiting restoration.

Specifications (SJ)

Standard J-1 with Hispano-Suiza engine
Standard J-1 with Hispano-Suiza engine

Data from The Standard Aero Corporation Model J Training Tractor[29]

General characteristics

Performance

See also

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b c Radecki, Alan (2012). "The First Airline in America". Vintage Air. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  2. ^ "Les Ailes : journal hebdomadaire de la locomotion aérienne / directeur, rédacteur en chef, Georges Houard". Gallica. 1926-02-18. Retrieved 2018-08-17.
  3. ^ The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft p.2835
  4. ^ Taylor 1989, p.774
  5. ^ "Standard J-1". Yanks Air Museum. Yanks Air Museum. 2017-02-06. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  6. ^ "Airframe Dossier — StandardH / J / SJ / JR / E-4, c/n 214, c/r N214J". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  7. ^ "1918 STANDARD J-1". Owls Head Transportation Museum. Owls Head Transportation Museum. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  8. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N22581]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  9. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N7063X]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  10. ^ "Standard J-1 (Fabric Removed)". National Museum of the US Air Force. 7 April 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  11. ^ "Airframe Dossier — Standard J-1, c/n 1141". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  12. ^ "1917 Standard J-1". Fantasy of Flight. Fantasy of Flight. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  13. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N2825D]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  14. ^ "Airframe Dossier — Standard J-1, c/n 1598, c/r NX2826D". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  15. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N2826D]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  16. ^ "EAA's Standard J-1 Makes First Post-Restorative Flight". EAA. EAA. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  17. ^ "Airframe Dossier — Standard H / J / SJ / JR / E-4, c/r N6948". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  18. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N6948]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  19. ^ "Aircraft N9477 Data". Airport-Data.com. Airport-Data.com. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  20. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N9477]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  21. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N5264]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  22. ^ "Aircraft". Glenn H. Curtiss Museum. Glenn H. Curtiss Museum. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  23. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N823H]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  24. ^ "Museum Hangar 4". Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  25. ^ "FAA Registry [N62505]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  26. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N598EF]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  27. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N4732W]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  28. ^ "Standard J-1". National Museum of the US Air Force. 7 April 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  29. ^ Aviation April 1, 1917, pp. 216–217.
Bibliography