The Stanton number, St, is a dimensionless number that measures the ratio of heat transferred into a fluid to the thermal capacity of fluid. The Stanton number is named after Thomas Stanton (engineer) (1865–1931).[1][2]: 476  It is used to characterize heat transfer in forced convection flows.

## Formula

${\displaystyle St={\frac {h}{Gc_{p))}={\frac {h}{\rho uc_{p))))$

where

It can also be represented in terms of the fluid's Nusselt, Reynolds, and Prandtl numbers:

${\displaystyle \mathrm {St} ={\frac {\mathrm {Nu} }{\mathrm {Re} \,\mathrm {Pr} ))}$

where

The Stanton number arises in the consideration of the geometric similarity of the momentum boundary layer and the thermal boundary layer, where it can be used to express a relationship between the shear force at the wall (due to viscous drag) and the total heat transfer at the wall (due to thermal diffusivity).

## Mass transfer

Using the heat-mass transfer analogy, a mass transfer St equivalent can be found using the Sherwood number and Schmidt number in place of the Nusselt number and Prandtl number, respectively.

${\displaystyle \mathrm {St} _{m}={\frac {\mathrm {Sh_{L)) }{\mathrm {Re_{L)) \,\mathrm {Sc} ))}$[4]

${\displaystyle \mathrm {St} _{m}={\frac {h_{m)){\rho u))}$[4]

where

• ${\displaystyle St_{m))$ is the mass Stanton number;
• ${\displaystyle Sh_{L))$ is the Sherwood number based on length;
• ${\displaystyle Re_{L))$ is the Reynolds number based on length;
• ${\displaystyle Sc}$ is the Schmidt number;
• ${\displaystyle h_{m))$ is defined based on a concentration difference (kg s−1 m−2);
• ${\displaystyle u}$ is the velocity of the fluid

## Boundary layer flow

The Stanton number is a useful measure of the rate of change of the thermal energy deficit (or excess) in the boundary layer due to heat transfer from a planar surface. If the enthalpy thickness is defined as:[5]

${\displaystyle \Delta _{2}=\int _{0}^{\infty }{\frac {\rho u}{\rho _{\infty }u_{\infty ))}{\frac {T-T_{\infty )){T_{s}-T_{\infty ))}dy}$

Then the Stanton number is equivalent to

${\displaystyle \mathrm {St} ={\frac {d\Delta _{2)){dx))}$

for boundary layer flow over a flat plate with a constant surface temperature and properties.[6]

### Correlations using Reynolds-Colburn analogy

Using the Reynolds-Colburn analogy for turbulent flow with a thermal log and viscous sub layer model, the following correlation for turbulent heat transfer for is applicable[7]

${\displaystyle \mathrm {St} ={\frac {C_{f}/2}{1+12.8\left(\mathrm {Pr} ^{0.68}-1\right){\sqrt {C_{f}/2))))}$

where

${\displaystyle C_{f}={\frac {0.455}{\left[\mathrm {ln} \left(0.06\mathrm {Re} _{x}\right)\right]^{2))))$

Strouhal number, an unrelated number that is also often denoted as ${\displaystyle \mathrm {St} }$.
4. ^ a b Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer. Bergman, T. L., Incropera, Frank P. (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 2011. ISBN 978-0-470-50197-9. OCLC 713621645.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)