Sultan of Kelantan
سلطان كلنتن
State
Incumbent
Sultan Muhammad V
since 13 September 2010
Details
StyleHis Royal Highness
Heir presumptiveTengku Muhammad Fakhry Petra
First monarchRaja Sang Tawal (1267–1339)
Muhammad I (First modern Sultan of Kelantan)
Formation1267; 757 years ago (1267)
ResidenceIstana Negeri, Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu, Kelantan
Websitepejsultan.kelantan.gov.my

The Sultan of Kelantan (سلطان كلنتن) is the constitutional head of Kelantan state in Malaysia. The executive power of the state is vested in him as the monarch of the state. The current sultan, Muhammad V, is the 29th Sultan of Kelantan. He is the Head of Islam in the state and the source of all titles, honours and dignities of its people. He was the 15th Yang di-Pertuan Agong or the monarch and head of state of Malaysia from 13 December 2016 to his abdication on 6 January 2019, after his election on 14 October 2016 at the 243rd (special) Conference of Rulers.[1]

History

Kelantan was historically a powerful state with trade links with early Chinese, Indian and Siamese civilisations. After being a tributary of the Majapahit and Srivijaya Empires in the 13th and 14th centuries, it fell under the power of Siam and then Malacca in the 15th century. Following the Portuguese conquest of Malacca in 1511, Kelantan dissolved into several petty fiefdoms. These were conquered again by the Siamese and made subject to neighbouring Pattani.[citation needed]

In 1760, the raja at Kubang Labu, variously identified by accounts as either Long Muhammad or Long Pandak, succeeded in reuniting the disparate territories under a single ruler.[citation needed] Four years later, he was overthrown by Long Yunus, an aristocratic warlord of Pattani origin, who seized the throne and proclaimed himself Raja of Kelantan. Following the death of Raja Yunus in 1795, control of the state was passed to Terengganu. In 1800, Long Muhammad, son of Yunus, declared himself Sultan Muhammad I. He was eventually accepted by the Siamese as ruler of a separate tributary, in 1812.[citation needed]

In September 2010, Sultan Ismail Petra was constitutionally deposed by the State Succession Council in favour of his eldest son, Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra (now the current sultan). The elder sultan had failed to sufficiently recover from a debilitating stroke from the previous May.[citation needed] This was followed by several months of litigations made by lawyers acting on behalf of the former sultan.

Residences

Palace of the Sultan of Kelantan, 1912.

Succession

The Sultan Ismail Petra Arch in Kota Bharu

The succession order of Kelantan sultanate is determined by agnatic primogeniture. No female may become ruler, and female line descendants are generally excluded from succession. According to Laws of the Constitution of Kelantan (in Malay language: Undang-undang Tubuh Perlembagaan Negeri Kelantan), the Sultan of Kelantan must be Malay, royal in blood, descendant of the Kelantan sultanate, male and a Muslim. The crown prince is also subjected to the same rule. The constitution states that the Sultan must come from the line of Sultan Ismail Petra, only if there are no longer eligible descendant of him, then the Sultan should be chosen from the descendant of Sultan Yahya Petra and so on.

The order of the descendants, in descending order of degree of kinship : Sultan Ismail Petra, Sultan Yahya Petra, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Ismail, Sultan Muhammad IV.

Current order of succession

The current order of succession is as follow:

- previous Sultan - current Sultan

List of dynasties and rulers

Sultans and Rajas of the Malay Kingdom of Langkasuka Dynasty

Sultans and Rajas from Jembal Dynasty

Sultans and Rajas of Patani Dynasty

18th century

19th century

20th century

Sultan Muhammad IV ibni Sultan Muhammad III, c. 1909–1910
Sultan Yahya Petra ibni Sultan Ibrahim
Sultan Ismail Petra ibni Sultan Yahya Petra

21st century

List of modern Kelantan sultans (1899–present)

Name
Duration of reign Portrait
(Coronation, when available)
Birth
Date, location, parents
Birth Name Marriage Death Age House Ref.
20th century
Muhammad IV
Sultan Muhammad IV ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad III
10 February 1899

23 December 1920
21 years, 318 days 23 May 1870 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, British Malaya
Son of Sultan Muhammad III ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ahmad and Tengku Ampuan Sofia binti al-Marhum Tengku Putih
Sultanah Zainab binti Nik Muhammad Amin

1888

9 children

23 December 1920
Kota Bharu, Kelantan
50 years, 214 days Long Yunus [3]
Ismail
Sultan Ismail ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad IV
23 August 1920

20 June 1944
23 years, 303 days 20 August 1880
Kota Bharu, Kelantan, British Malaya
Son of Sultan Muhammad IV ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad III and Sultanah Zainab binti Nik Muhammad Amin
Tengku Petri binti Tengku Long
13 March 1910
2 children
20 June 1944
Istana Jahar, Kota Bharu, Kelantan
63 years, 305 days Long Yunus [4]
Ibrahim
Sultan Ibrahim ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad IV
21 June 1944

9 July 1960
16 years, 19 days 9 October 1897
Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Unfederated Malay States
Son of Sultan Muhammad IV ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad III and Sultanah Zainab binti Nik Muhammad Amin
Raja Perempuan Zainab binti Tengku Zainal Abidin
1914
27 children
9 July 1960
Istana Sri Cemerlang, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Federation of Malaya
62 years, 274 days Long Yunus [4]
Yahya Petra
Sultan Yahya Petra ibni Almarhum Sultan Ibrahim
10 July 1960

29 March 1979
18 years, 263 days 10 December 1917
Istana Balai Besar, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Unfederated Malay States, British Malaya
Son of Sultan Ibrahim Ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad IV and Che Puan Besar Embong Binti Daud
Tengku Yahya Petra ibni Tengku Ibrahim Tengku Zainab Binti Tengku Muhammad Petra
1939
5 children

Tengku Alexandria Binti Tengku Yusuf
1 child

29 March 1979
Istana Negara, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
61 years, 109 days Long Yunus [4]
Ismail Petra
Sultan Ismail Petra ibni Almarhum Sultan Yahya Petra
30 March 1979

Abdicated

13 September 2010

31 years, 168 days 11 November 1949
Istana Jahar, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaya
Son of Sultan Yahya Petra Ibni Almarhum Sultan Ibrahim and Tengku Zainab Binti Tengku Muhammad Petra
Tengku Ismail Petra ibni Tengku Yahya Petra Tengku Anis Binti Tengku Abdul Hamid

1968
4 children
Elia Suhana Binti Ahmad 2007–2010

28 September 2019
Raja Perempuan Zainab II Hospital, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
69 years, 321 days Long Yunus [4]
21st century
Muhammad V
Sultan Muhammad V
13 September 2010

Present

13 years, 302 days 6 October 1969
Istana Batu, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
Son of Sultan Ismail Petra ibni Almarhum Sultan Yahya Petra and Tengku Anis Binti Tengku Abdul Hamid
Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra ibni Tengku Ismail Petra Tengku Zubaidah Binti Tengku Norudin (née Kangsadal Pipitpakdee) 2004–2008

Sultanah Nur Diana Petra Abdullah (née Jana Jakoubková) 2010–present Rihana Oksana Gorbatenko 2018–2019

Alive 54 years, 278 days Long Yunus [4]

Timeline of Kelantan monarchs

Muhammad V of KelantanSultan Ismail Petra ibni Almarhum Sultan Yahya Petra SultanSultan Yahya Petra ibni Almarhum Sultan Ibrahim SultanSultan Ibrahim ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad IVSultan Ismail ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad IVSultan Muhammad IV Ibni Sultan Muhammad III Sultan Muhammad III ibni Sultan Ahmad Ibni al-Marhum Sultan AhmadSultan Ahmad ibni Long Senik Mulut MerahSultan Muhammad II ibni al-Marhum Tengku Temenggong Long Tan bin Raja Long YunusTengku Long Zainal Abidin ibni al-Marhum Raja Long YunusSultan Muhammad ITengku Muhammad ibni Sultan Mansur Riayat Shah I of TerengganuRaja Long Yunus bin Raja Long SulaimanRaja Long Muhammad bin Tuan SulungRaja Long Pandak bin Tuan Sulung Bin Dato' Pengkalan Tua Wan DaimRaja Long Sulaiman Bin Long BaharFirst Kelantanese Civil WarRaja Long Sulaiman Bin Long BaharRaja Long Bahar bin Dato' Pengkalan Tua Wan DaimSultan Omar Ibni Al-Marhum Raja Sakti ISultan Abdul Rahim ibni al-Marhum Sultan Samir ud-din BaharinRatu Sa'adong I binti Raja LoyorPuteri SaadongRaja Loyor bin Raja Sakti IRaja Sakti I ibni al-Marhum Sultan 'Abdu'l KadirSultan 'Abdu'l Kadir ibni al-Marhum Sultan Samir ud-dinSultan Samir ud-din ibni al-Marhum Nik Jamal ud-dinSultan Addil ud-din ibni al-Marhum Nik Jamal ud-dinSultan Muhammad ibni al-Marhum Sultan IbrahimSultan Addil ud-din ibni al-Marhum Nik Jamal ud-dinPaduka Sri Sultan Ibrahim ibni al-Marhum Sultan MansurRaja Umar bin Raja Ahmad of TerengganuSultan Ibrahim ibni al-Marhum Sultan MansurSultan Mansur Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ahmad ShahSultan Ahmad Shah ibni al-Marhum Raja MansurSultan Gombak ibni al-Marhum Sultan Mansur ShahSultan Mansur Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Iskandar ShahSultan Iskandar Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Baki ShahSultan Sadik Muhammad Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Baki ShahSultan Baki Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan MahmudSultan Mahmud ibnu 'Abdu'llahRaja Sang TawalSultans and Rajas of Patani DynastySultans and Rajas from Jembal DynastySultans and Rajas of the Malay Kingdom of Jambi Dynasty

See also

References

  1. ^ Nst
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Muhammad Ismail Ibrahim (17 March 2011). Kelantan's Castle: The Royal Palace. The Kelantan Times. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  3. ^ "Anne (r. 1702–1714)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e "George I (r. 1714–1727)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.