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Swampy Cree (Nèhinaw)
Descended fromCree
BranchesWestern Swampy Cree, Eastern Swampy Cree
LanguageN dialect
Western Swampy Cree
LanguageN-dialect
Eastern Swampy Cree
Omaškêkowak
Languageeastern dialect of the Swampy Cree language, which kept the s/š distinction

The Swampy Cree people, also known by their autonyms Néhinaw, Maskiki Wi Iniwak, Mushkekowuk, Maškékowak or Maskekon[1] (and therefore also Muskegon and Muskegoes) or by exonyms including West Main Cree, Lowland Cree, and Homeguard Cree,[2] are a division of the Cree Nation occupying lands located in northern Manitoba, along the Saskatchewan River in northeastern Saskatchewan, along the shores of Hudson Bay and adjoining interior lands south and west as well as territories along the shores of Hudson and James Bay in Ontario. They are geographically and to some extant culturally split into two main groupings, and therefore speak two dialects of the Swampy Cree language, which is a "n-dialect":

First contact

In Manitoba, The Swampy Cree's first recorded contact with Europeans was in 1600[3] at the mouth of the Nelson and Hayes rivers in northern Manitoba by a Hudson's Bay Company party travelling about 100 mi (160 km) inland.[4]

First Nations

Historically, the Cree nations in the central part of the Cree continuum were classified by their relationship to Hudson Bay and James Bay: Lowland (Homeguard) Cree who were found along the coast, Lowland (Half-Homeguard) Cree who seasonally transitioned between the coast and the interior, and the Upland Cree in the deep interior who often were intermixed with the Ojibwe.[5] West of these Lowland and Upland Cree were the Woodland and Plains Cree. Linguistically, the Cree are divided by their general language features, where the Cree nations in the central part of the Cree continuum are classified as "th-Cree", "n-Cree" and "l-Cree", from west to east; Cree traditionally associated with the Woodland Cree make no distinction between "s" and "š", while the Lowland and Upland Cree do. Today, together with the "n-Cree" dialect-speaking Woodland Cree, those who live in the Lowlands and Uplands who speak the "n-Cree" dialect are called "Swampy Cree",[6] but culturally Moose Cree (the Cree speaking the "l-dialect")[7] and other peoples of the Upland including the Oji-Cree occasionally self-identify as being "Swampy Cree".[8]

West Swampy Cree
East Swampy Cree
Moose Cree

Ethnonyms

Reflecting either Swampy Cree (O)maškêko(wak) "Swampy(-ies)", or Odawa (O)mashkiigo(wag) "Swampy(-ies)"
Reflecting Swampy Cree (O)maškêko-ininiw(ak) "Swamp People"
Reflecting Ojibwe (O)mashkiigoo(g) "Swampy(-ies)"
Reflecting a translation
Other

Notes

  1. ^ Path of the Elders
  2. ^ Victor, Lytwyn (2002). Muskekowuck Athinuwick: Original People of the Great Swampy Land. Universoty of Manitoba. pp. xi.
  3. ^ politis (2016-08-16). "A brief history of Cree". Canadian Geographic. Retrieved 2020-12-18.
  4. ^ Hlady M., Walter. "Indian Migrations in Manitoba and the West". Manitoba Historical Society.
  5. ^ Lytwyn, pp. 42, 52–53
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Rhodes, Richard and Evelyn Todd, 1981, p. 53, p. Fig. 1
  7. ^ Honigmann, p. 218
  8. ^ Lytwyn, p.42
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Swampy Cree Tribal Council Incorporated
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Lovisek, 1999, "Western Woodland Cree" pp. 43–44.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Lovisek, 1999, "Moose Cree" pp. 41–42.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Mushkegowuk Council
  13. ^ Ellis, C. D., 1995, p. xiv

References

  • Ellis, Clarence Douglas. 1995. âtalôhkâna nêsta tipâcimôwina: Cree legends and narratives from the West Coast of James Bay. Text and translation. Edited and with a glossary by C. Douglas Ellis. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press. ISBN 0-88755-159-9
  • Honigmann, John J. 1981. “West Main Cree.” in June Helm, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 6. Subarctic, pp. 217–230. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16004-578-9
  • Lovisek, Joan A. 1999. "Aboriginals: Algonquians/Subarctic." Paul R. Magocsi, ed., Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples; 36–47. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario. ISBN 0-80202-938-8
  • Lytwyn, Victor P. 2002. Muskekowuck Athinuwick: Original People of the Great Swampy Land. ISBN 0-88755-651-5
  • Pritzker, Barry. 1998. "Cree" in Native Americans: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Peoples, Volume 1 pp. 709–715 ISBN 0-87436-836-7
  • Rhodes, Richard and Evelyn Todd. 1981. “Subarctic Algonquian languages.” in June Helm, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 6. Subarctic, pp. 52–66. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution.