Synthetic fibers or synthetic fibres (in British English; see spelling differences) are fibers made by humans through chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that are directly derived from living organisms, such as plants (like cotton) or fur from animals. They are the result of extensive research by scientists to replicate naturally occurring animal and plant fibers. In general, synthetic fibers are created by extruding fiber-forming materials through spinnerets, forming a fiber. These are called synthetic or artificial fibers. The word polymer comes from a Greek prefix "poly" which means "many" and suffix "mer" which means "single units". (Note: each single unit of a polymer is called a monomer).

Early experiments

Joseph Swan created the first synthetic fiber.
Joseph Swan created the first synthetic fiber.

The first fully synthetic fiber was glass.[1] Joseph Swan invented one of the first artificial fibers in the early 1880s;[2] today it would be called semisynthetic in precise usage. His fiber was drawn from a cellulose liquid, formed by chemically modifying the fiber contained in tree bark. The synthetic fiber produced through this process was chemically similar in its potential applications to the carbon filament Swan had developed for his incandescent light bulb, but Swan soon realized the potential of the fiber to revolutionize textile manufacturing. In 1885, he unveiled fabrics he had manufactured from his synthetic material at the International Inventions Exhibition in London.[3]

The next step was taken by Hilaire de Chardonnet, a French engineer and industrialist, who invented the first artificial silk, which he called "Chardonnet silk". In the late 1870s, Chardonnet was working with Louis Pasteur on a remedy to the epidemic that was destroying French silkworms. Failure to clean up a spill in the darkroom resulted in Chardonnet's discovery of nitrocellulose as a potential replacement for real silk. Realizing the value of such a discovery, Chardonnet began to develop his new product,[4] which he displayed at the Paris Exhibition of 1889.[5] Chardonnet's material was extremely flammable, and subsequently replaced with other, more stable materials.

Commercial products

Nylon was first synthesized by Wallace Carothers at DuPont.
Nylon was first synthesized by Wallace Carothers at DuPont.

The first successful process was developed in 1894 by English chemist Charles Frederick Cross, and his collaborators Edward John Bevan and Clayton Beadle. They named the fiber "viscose", because the reaction product of carbon disulfide and cellulose in basic conditions gave a highly viscous solution of xanthate.[6] The first commercial viscose rayon was produced by the UK company Courtaulds in 1905. The name "rayon" was adopted in 1924, with "viscose" being used for the viscous organic liquid used to make both rayon and cellophane. A similar product known as cellulose acetate was discovered in 1865. Rayon and acetate are both artificial fibers, but not truly synthetic, being made from wood.[7]

Nylon, the first synthetic fiber in the "fully synthetic" sense of that term,[citation needed] was developed by Wallace Carothers, an American researcher at the chemical firm DuPont in the 1930s. It soon made its debut in the United States as a replacement for silk, just in time for the introduction of rationing during World War II. Its novel use as a material for women's stockings overshadowed more practical uses, such as a replacement for the silk in parachutes and other military uses like ropes.

The first polyester fiber was patented in Britain in 1928 by the International General Electric company.[8] It was also produced by British chemists working at the Calico Printers' Association, John Rex Whinfield and James Tennant Dickson,[9][10] in 1941. They produced and patented one of the first polyester fibers which they named Terylene, also known as Dacron, equal to or surpassing nylon in toughness and resilience.[11] ICI and DuPont went on to produce their own versions of the fiber.

The world production of synthetic fibers was 55.2 million tonnes in 2014.[12]


Synthetic fibers account for about half of all fiber usage, with applications in every field of fiber and textile technology. Although many classes of fibers based on synthetic polymers have been evaluated as potentially valuable commercial products, four of them - nylon, polyester, acrylic and polyolefin - dominate the market. These four account for approximately 98 percent by volume of synthetic fiber production, with polyester alone accounting for around 60 percent.[13]


Synthetic fibers are more durable than most natural fibers and will readily pick-up different dyes. In addition, many synthetic fibers offer consumer-friendly functions such as stretching, waterproofing and stain resistance. Sunlight, moisture, and oils from human skin cause all fibers to break down and wear away. Natural fibers tend to be much more sensitive than synthetic blends. This is mainly because natural products are biodegradable. Natural fibers are susceptible to larval insect infestation; synthetic fibers are not a good food source for fabric-damaging insects.[citation needed]

Compared to natural fibers, many synthetic fibers are more water-resistant and stain-resistant. Some are even specially enhanced to withstand damage from water or stains.


A device for spinning Viscose Rayon dating from 1901
A device for spinning Viscose Rayon dating from 1901

Most of synthetic fibers' disadvantages are related to their low melting temperature:

Common synthetic fibers

Common synthetic fibers include:

Specialty synthetic fibers include:

[citation needed]

Other synthetic materials used in fibers include:

Modern fibers that are made from older artificial materials include:

See also


  1. ^ Loasby, G. (1951). "The Development of the Synthetic Fibres". Journal of the Textile Institute Proceedings. 42 (8): P411–P441. doi:10.1080/19447015108663852.
  2. ^ "Sir Joseph Wilson Swan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  3. ^ How It Works: Science and Technology. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. 2003. p. 851. ISBN 9780761473145.
  4. ^ Garrett, Alfred (1963). The Flash of Genius. Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc. pp. 48–49.
  5. ^ Editors, Time-Life (1991). Inventive Genius. New York: Time-Life Books. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8094-7699-2. ((cite book)): |last= has generic name (help)
  6. ^ Day, Lance; Ian McNeil (1998). Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology. Taylor & Francis. p. 113. ISBN 978-0415193993.
  7. ^ Woodings, Calvin R. "A Brief History of Regenerated Cellulosic fibers". WOODINGS CONSULTING LTD. Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  8. ^ Loasby, G. (1951). "The Development of the Synthetic Fibres". Journal of the Textile Institute Proceedings. 42 (8): P411–P441. doi:10.1080/19447015108663852.
  9. ^ World of Chemistry. Thomson Gale. 2005. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
  10. ^ Allen, P (1967). "Obituary". Chemistry in Britain.
  11. ^ Frank Greenaway, ‘Whinfield, John Rex (1901–1966)’, rev. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 20 June 2011
  12. ^ Man-Made Fibers Continue To Grow Archived 28 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Textile World
  13. ^ J E McIntyre, Professor Emeritus of Textile Industries, University of Leeds, UK (ed.). Synthetic fibers: Nylon, polyester, acrylic, polyolefin. Woodhead Publishing - Series in Textiles. Vol. 36. Cambridge. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  14. ^ Katsnelson, Alla (2015). "News Feature: Microplastics present pollution puzzle". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (18): 5547–5549. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.5547K. doi:10.1073/pnas.1504135112. PMC 4426466. PMID 25944930.

Further reading