Tammuz
Month number10
Number of days29
Seasonsummer
Gregorian equivalentJune-July
For the deity, see Tammuz (deity).

Tammuz was the name of a month in the Babylonian calendar, named for one of the main Babylonian gods, Tammuz (Sumerian: Dumuzid, "son of life").[1] The name was adopted for use in many different calendars thereafter.

In (Hebrew: תמוז, Standard Tammuz Tiberian Tammûz) is the tenth month of the civil year and the fourth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. It is a summer month of 29 days.

Tammuz is also the name for the month of July in the Gregorian calendar in Arabic (تموز), Assyrian (ܬܡܘܙ) and Turkish ("Temmuz").[2]

Babylonian calendar

The festival for the deity Tammuz was held throughout the month of Tammuz in midsummer, and celebrated his death and resurrection.[3] The first day of the month of Tammuz was the day of the new moon of the summer solstice.[4] On the second day of the month, there was lamentation over the death of Tammuz, on the 9th, 16th and 17th days torchlit processions, and on the last three days, an image of Tammuz was buried.[3]

Hebrew calendar

Holidays in Tammuz

17 Tammuz - Seventeenth of Tammuz(Fast Day)

17 Tammuz is a fast day from 1 hour before sunrise to sundown in remembrance of Jerusalem's walls being breached. 17 Tammuz is the beginning of the Three Weeks, in which Jews follow similar customs as the ones followed during the Omer from the day following Passover until the culmination of the mourning for the death of the students of Rabbi Akiva (Akibah) the thirty-third day of the Omer - such as refraining from marriage, grooming festivals and fairs. The Three Weeks culminate with Tisha Be-Av (9th of Av).
Differences between Ashkenazic and Sefardic communities make the former overly more strict about the mourning followed during this weeks. For example, Ashkenazic communities refrain from wine and meat since the beginning of the month of Av, while Sefardic communities only do so since the beginning of the week in which the 9th of Av occurs and until the end of such date or in some occasions the end of the 10th of Av, which marks the date in which the Second Temple's destruction was accomplished as well as an important part of the mourning of the Jewish Nation for the destruction of the communities of Gush Katif and North Samaria in Israel.

Chabad-Lubavitch

Among the Chabad-Lubavitch, two major events are celebrated in the first half of the month of Tammuz.

3 Tammuz - Gimmel Tammuz - the yahrtzeit (anniversary of the death) of the seventh Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson.
12 Tammuz and 13 Tammuz - Festival of Redemption - commemorating the days on which the previous Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn was released from imprisonment in the Soviet Union for teaching Judaism.

Tammuz in Jewish history

3 Tammuz - Joshua stops the sun.
4 Tammuz - (1171) - Death of Rabbeinu Tam
4 Tammuz - (1286) - Maharam imprisoned
5 Tammuz - (429 BCE) - Ezekiel's vision of the "Chariot"

6 Tammuz - (1976) - Entebbe Rescue
9 Tammuz - (586 BCE) - Jerusalem Walls breached

15 Tammuz - (1743) - Death of Rabbi Chayim ben Attar (Ohr HaChayim)
17 Tammuz - (586 BCE) - Temple service disrupted

17 Tammuz - (70 CE) - Jerusalem Walls Breached

21 Tammuz - (1636) - Death of Baal Shem of Worms

22 Tammuz - (1792) - Death of Rabbi Shlomo of Karlin
23 Tammuz - (1570) - Death of Rabbi Moshe Cordovero
28 Tammuz - (1841) - Death of Yismach Moshe
29 Tammuz - (1105) - Death of Rashi

This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (August 2008)

In Arabic sources

Tammuz is the month of July in Arabic,[2] and references to the month of Tammuz, its history, and celebratory rites with which it is associated are discussed in Arabic literature from the 9th to 11th centuries AD.[5] In his translation of an earlier work, Ibn Wahshiyya (c. 9th-10th century AD), enumerates the months of the Babylonian year adding a remark that Tammuz lived in Babylonia before the coming of the Chaldeans and belonged to an ancient Mesopotamian tribe called Ganbân.[5] He adds that the Sabaeans in Harran and Babylonia still lamented the loss of Tammuz every July, but that the origin of the worship had been lost.[5] Al-Nadim in his 10th century work Kitab al-Fehrest drawing from a work on Syriac calendar feast days, describes a Tâ'ûz festival that took place in the middle of the month of Tammuz.[5] Women bewailed the death of Tammuz at the hands of his master who was said to have "ground his bones in a mill and scattered them to the wind."[5] Consequently, women would forgo the eating of ground foods during the festival time.[5] The same festival is mentioned in the 11th century by Ibn Athir as still taking place in the month of Tammuz on the banks of the Tigris river.[5]

The 2006 Lebanon War is known in Lebanon and much of the Arab world as حرب تموز Ḥarb Tammūz (the July War), following the Arab custom of naming the Arab-Israeli wars by months or years.

Other references

In the story of Xenogears, Tammuz is the name of a country, named after the Hebrew month. In the official Japanese version translation, however, it was transliterated Tamuzu. This was later further changed by the translation process to Thames for the English version.

References

  1. ^ Hastings, 2004, p. 676.
  2. ^ a b Cragg, 1991, p. 260.
  3. ^ a b Bromiley, 1995, p. 89.
  4. ^ Kitto, 1846, p. 825.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Fuller, 1864, pp. 200-201.

Bibliography

  • Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995), International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Q-Z (Reprint, revised ed.), Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 0802837840, 9780802837844 ((citation)): Check |isbn= value: invalid character (help)
  • Cragg, Kenneth (1991), The Arab Christian: A History in the Middle East, Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 0664221823, 9780664221829 ((citation)): Check |isbn= value: invalid character (help)
  • Fuller, John Mee (1864), Essay on the Authenticity of the Book of Daniel, Deighton, Bell and co.
  • Hastings, James (2004), A Dictionary of the Bible: Volume IV: (Part II: Shimrath -- Zuzim) (Illustrated ed.), The Minerva Group, Inc., ISBN 1410217299, 9781410217295 ((citation)): Check |isbn= value: invalid character (help)
  • John Kitto, ed. (1846), A Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature: Ibz-Zuz, vol. 2, Mark H. Newman