Tarpon Springs, Florida
Greek Orthodox Cathedral of St. Nicholas in the historic district (2007)
Greek Orthodox Cathedral of St. Nicholas in the historic district (2007)
Visit Greece Without Leaving Florida
Location in Pinellas County and the state of Florida
Location in Pinellas County and the state of Florida
Tarpon Springs, Florida is located in the United States
Tarpon Springs, Florida
Tarpon Springs, Florida
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 28°9′N 82°45′W / 28.150°N 82.750°W / 28.150; -82.750Coordinates: 28°9′N 82°45′W / 28.150°N 82.750°W / 28.150; -82.750
CountryUnited States
Incorporated (city)1887[1]
 • TypeCommission–Manager
 • MayorCosta Vatikiotis
 • Vice-MayorCraig Lunt
 • Total17.93 sq mi (46.44 km2)
 • Land9.26 sq mi (23.98 km2)
 • Water8.67 sq mi (22.46 km2)
23 ft (7 m)
 • Total25,117
 • Density2,712.42/sq mi (1,047.31/km2)
Time zoneUTC-5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
34688, 34689
Area code(s)727
FIPS code12-71150[3]
GNIS feature ID0292048[4]

Tarpon Springs is a city in Pinellas County, Florida, United States. The population was 23,484 at the 2010 census.[5] Tarpon Springs has the highest percentage of Greek Americans of any city in the US.[6] Downtown Tarpon Springs has long been a focal point and is undergoing beautification.[7]


The region, with a series of bayous feeding into the Gulf of Mexico, was first settled by white and black farmers and fishermen[8] around 1876. Some of the newly arrived visitors spotted tarpon jumping out of the waters and so named the location Tarpon Springs. The name is said to have originated with a remark of Mrs. Ormond Boyer, an early settler from South Carolina, and who, while standing on the shore of the Bayou and seeing fish leaping exclaimed, "See the tarpon spring!' However, for the most part, the fish seen splashing here were mullet rather than tarpon. In 1882, Hamilton Disston, who in the previous year had purchased the land where the city of Tarpon Springs now stands, ordered the creation of a town plan for the future city.[1] On February 12, 1887, Tarpon Springs became the first incorporated city in what is now Pinellas County.[1] Less than a year later on January 13, 1888, the Orange Belt Railway, the first railroad line to be built in what is now Pinellas County, arrived in the city.[9] During this time the area was developed as a wintering spot for wealthy northerners.

Sponge industry

1940s sponge diver; the technique is still used
1940s sponge diver; the technique is still used
Recent sponge harvest (2007)
Recent sponge harvest (2007)

In the 1880s, John K. Cheyney founded the first local sponge business. The industry continued to grow in the 1890s. Many people from Key West and the Bahamas settled in Tarpon Springs to hook sponges and then process them. A few Greek immigrants also arrived in this city during the 1890s to work in the sponge industry.

In 1905, John Cocoris introduced the technique of sponge diving to Tarpon Springs by recruiting divers and crew members from Greece. The first divers came from the Saronic Gulf islands of Aegina and Hydra, but they were soon outnumbered by those from the Dodecanese islands of Kalymnos, Symi and Halki. The sponge industry soon became one of the leading maritime industries in Florida and the most important business in Tarpon Springs, generating millions of dollars a year. The 1953 film Beneath the 12-Mile Reef, depicting the sponge industry, takes place and was filmed in Tarpon Springs.[10]

In 1947, a red tide algae bloom wiped out the sponge fields in the Gulf of Mexico, causing many of the sponge boats and divers to switch to shrimping for their livelihood, while others left the business. Eventually, the sponges recovered, allowing for a smaller but consistent sponge industry today. In the 1980s, the sponge business experienced a boom due to a sponge disease that killed the Mediterranean sponges. Today there is still a small active sponge industry. Visitors can often view sponge fishermen working at the Sponge Docks on Dodecanese Boulevard. In addition, visitors can enjoy shops, restaurants, and museum exhibits that detail Tarpon Springs' Greek heritage.

In 2007 and 2008, the City of Tarpon Springs established Sister City relationships with Kalymnos, Halki, Symi, Hydra, and Larnaca, Cyprus, honoring the close historical link with these Greek-speaking islands.

Historic sites

Old City Hall.
Old City Hall.
Tarpon Springs Depot, built in 1909, is one of the oldest surviving train station buildings in the Tampa Bay Area.
Tarpon Springs Depot, built in 1909, is one of the oldest surviving train station buildings in the Tampa Bay Area.

There are several districts or properties in Tarpon Springs that have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places:

Many sites related to the sponge industry within the Greektown District also have been recognized. They include but are not limited to two sponge packing houses:

And several boats:


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Tarpon Springs has a total area of 16.9 square miles (44 km2), of which 9.1 square miles (24 km2) is land and 7.7 square miles (20 km2) (45.83%) is water.


Tarpon Springs' climate borders on humid subtropical and tropical savanna, with warm temperatures year-round, although winter nights are cool. Annual precipitation is around 50 inches (1,300 mm). Winters are warm, with daytime highs of 69 °F (21 °C) to 72 °F (22 °C), and nightly lows of 50 °F (10 °C) to 54 °F (12 °C). Freezing temperatures (32 °F (0 °C) or lower) occur infrequently, while snowfall is extremely rare; there was accumulation in 1977 and 1989, while the years 1899, 1954, 1958, 1973, 2001, 2006, 2010, and 2014 either saw light snow mixed with rain, or flurries. The record low temperature of 19 °F (−7 °C) was observed on four different dates: December 1, 1962, December 13, 1962, December 14, 1962, and January 13, 1985. Summers are hot and very humid, causing frequent afternoon thunderstorms that can occasionally produce hail, and, even tornadoes or waterspouts off the Gulf of Mexico. Daytime temperatures usually range from 89 °F (32 °C) to 91 °F (33 °C), with temperatures over 100 °F (38 °C) very rare. The record high temperature of 102 °F (39 °C) was observed on July 10, 1997. Spring and fall are generally warm.

Climate data for Tarpon Springs, Florida (Tarpon Springs Sewage Plant), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1892–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 90
Average high °F (°C) 69.3
Daily mean °F (°C) 60.0
Average low °F (°C) 50.7
Record low °F (°C) 19
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.03
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.0 7.4 7.6 6.1 6.2 11.3 15.7 16.2 12.7 7.5 5.6 6.7 112.0
Source: NOAA[11][12]
Average sea temperature:[13]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
63.5 °F (17.5 °C) 64 °F (18 °C) 67.6 °F (19.8 °C) 73.8 °F (23.2 °C) 79.2 °F (26.2 °C) 84.2 °F (29.0 °C) 86 °F (30 °C) 86.5 °F (30.3 °C) 84.6 °F (29.2 °C) 79.7 °F (26.5 °C) 72 °F (22 °C) 66.9 °F (19.4 °C) 75.7 °F (24.3 °C)


Historical population
Census Pop.
U.S. Decennial Census[14]
American and Greek flags flying in Tarpon Springs.
American and Greek flags flying in Tarpon Springs.

As of the census[3] of 2000, there were 21,003 people, 9,067 households, and 5,947 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,297.1 per square mile (887.2/km2). There were 10,759 housing units at an average density of 1,176.7 per square mile (454.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 90.07% White, 6.15% African American, 0.29% Native American, 1.04% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.81% from other races, and 1.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.33% of the population. 11.8% of the total population reported their ancestry as Greek, which is included in the 90.07% White statistic. 8.87% reported speaking Greek at home, while 3.46% speak Spanish, and 1.09% French.[15]

There were 9,067 households, out of which 22.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.2% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.4% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.78.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 19.2% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 25.9% from 45 to 64, and 24.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $38,251, and the median income for a family was $46,316. Males had a median income of $36,356 versus $25,252 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,504. About 7.7% of families and 9.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.1% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.

The town's Rose Cemetery, where black residents are interred, is believed to contain burials which began in the late 1800s; the earliest legible marked burial is from 1904.[8] The cemetery contains the grave of Richard Quarls, a Confederate veteran of the American Civil War who fought alongside his slavemaster before moving to Tarpon Springs and choosing the new name "Christopher Columbus", and veterans of subsequent wars.[8]

Arts and culture

Epiphany celebration

A double-headed eagle portrayed in a stained glass window inside Tarpon Springs' St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Cathedral
A double-headed eagle portrayed in a stained glass window inside Tarpon Springs' St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Cathedral

Tarpon Springs is known for elaborate religious ceremonies hosted by the St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Cathedral, part of the Greek Orthodox Church, including the January 6 Epiphany, celebration that includes youths diving for a cross and the blessing of the waters and the boats. Since the first Greek immigrants depended on the sea and their boats for their livelihood, their attachment to a religious service centered on requesting divine protection for what used to be a highly risky job can be easily explained.

The celebration attracts Greek Americans from across the country, and the city's population is known to triple in size for that day. The Metropolitan of Atlanta usually presides over the blessings, sometimes joined by the Archbishop of America. The blessings conclude with the ceremonial throwing of a wooden cross into the city's Spring Bayou, and boys ages 16 to 18 dive in to retrieve it: whoever recovers the cross is said to be blessed for a full year.[16]


The Spongeorama museum
The Spongeorama museum

Dodecanese Avenue in the Greektown Historic District of Tarpon Springs is both part of the traditional Greek community and the City's primary tourist destination. The street winds its way from Pinellas Avenue west along the Anclote River. Numerous restaurants serve traditional Greek cuisine and fresh seafood.

The nearby beaches, part of the Pinellas County parks, are popular for water activities. Sandy barrier islands off shore shift position over time with the waves and storms. They are accessible by boat and are especially ideal for shell spotting and watching bottlenose dolphins at play. One permanent island, Anclote Key, is a State Park Preserve with a historic lighthouse, bird nesting colonies and pristine beaches.

The Tarpon Springs Heritage Museum in Craig Park offers a permanent exhibition about the history and culture of the Greek Community. The Cultural Center at 101 W. Pinellas Avenue has a changing roster of exhibits about local and regional traditional culture. The Safford House Museum on Parkin Court is a historical house museum that tells the fascinating story of one of the city's early families. The Depot Museum on Tarpon Avenue provides an overview of Tarpon Springs history. The Tarpon Springs Performing Arts Center is a 300-seat theater located inside of historic City hall, 324 Pine Street, and operates year-round bringing an array of nationally touring artists, musicians, dancers, etc. as well as a variety of community theatre plays featuring local actors and directors.



The Tarpon Springs Police Department has 48 sworn officers. Of those, 29 are assigned to the patrol division.[17]


The Tarpon Springs Public Library is the public library that services Tarpon Springs, Pinellas, and the greater Tampa Bay area. The library was founded in 1916 Julia Roswell Smith Inness who was the daughter of the owner of the Century Publishing Company.[18] The library is a member of the Pinellas Public Library Cooperative.[19]

Notable people

In popular culture

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Tarpon Springs Area Historical Society–History". tarponspringsareahistoricalsociety.org. Archived from the original on April 11, 2008. Retrieved 2016-07-08.
  2. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 2, 2021.
  3. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  5. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Tarpon Springs city, Florida". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
  6. ^ "Greek Ancestry Search - Greek Genealogy by City - ePodunk.com". www.epodunk.com. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  7. ^ Geier, Rebekah (April 16, 2010). "Illuminating change coming to Tarpon downtown". suncoastpinellas.tbo.com. Tampa Bay Online. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved 2016-07-08.
  8. ^ a b c Guzzo, Paul (2020-11-16). "This teacher is adding Black cemeteries to history lessons". Across America. The Philadelphia Tribune. Archived from the original on 2020-11-19.
  9. ^ Tap Lines – History of the Orange Belt Railway
  10. ^ Crowther, Bosley (December 17, 1953). "Beneath the 12 Mile Reef". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
  11. ^ "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
  12. ^ "Summary of Monthly Normals 1991-2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
  13. ^ Tarpon Springs water temp
  14. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". www.census.gov. Retrieved 2016-07-08.
  15. ^ "Data Center Results". www.mla.org. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  16. ^ Wang, Stephanie; Summers, Keyonna (January 6, 2013). "First-timer grabs the Epiphany cross in Tarpon Springs". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  17. ^ "Department Information". The City Of Tarpon Springs Police Department. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  18. ^ https://digital.stpetersburg.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4082&context=fac_publications[bare URL PDF]
  19. ^ Schnur, James (January 2013). "The Tarpon Springs Public Library : A Cultural Treasure for Nearly a Century". Usf St. Petersburg Campus Faculty Publications.